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Ming-Jie Kuang, Chao Han, Jian-Xiong Ma, Fei Li, Jie Zhao, Lin Fu, Xin-Long Ma
PURPOSE: Autologous platelet gel, developed from fresh autologous blood, is a breakthrough in the promotion and acceleration of soft tissue and bone repair. The application of autologous platelet gel has been reported to improve haemostasis and promote function recovery. We screened the randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials of high quality to investigate whether autologous platelet gel makes a better performance for postoperative bleeding and functional recovery in patients after total knee arthroplasty...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Mark E Westman, Richard Malik, Evelyn Hall, Matthew Harris, Margaret J Hosie, Jacqueline M Norris
OBJECTIVES: Recently, two point-of-care (PoC) feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody test kits (Witness and Anigen Rapid) were reported as being able to differentiate FIV-vaccinated from FIV-infected cats at a single time point, irrespective of the gap between testing and last vaccination (0-7 years). The aim of the current study was to investigate systematically anti-FIV antibody production over time in response to the recommended primary FIV vaccination series. METHODS: First, residual plasma from the original study was tested using a laboratory-based ELISA to determine whether negative results with PoC testing were due to reduced as opposed to absent antibodies to gp40...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Caterina Magnani, Diana Giannarelli, Giuseppe Casale
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of breakthrough pain (BTP) provoked by 6 common procedures in patients with advanced disease. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter, national study was performed in 23 palliative care units in Italy. Patients were recruited if they were undergoing one of the following procedures as part of normal care: turning, personal hygiene care, transfer from bed to chair, bladder catheterization, pressure ulcer care, and subcutaneous drug administration...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
Mengjie Lu, Beili Wu
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest membrane protein family. These receptors sense a variety of signaling molecules, activate multiple intracellular signal pathways, and act as the targets of over 40% of marketed drugs. Recent progress on GPCR structural studies provides invaluable insights into the structure-function relationship of the GPCR superfamily, deepening our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of GPCR signal transduction. Here, we review recent breakthroughs on GPCR structure determination and the structural features of GPCRs, and take the structures of chemokine receptor CCR5 and purinergic receptors P2Y1 R and P2Y12 R as examples to discuss the importance of GPCR structures on functional studies and drug discovery...
October 20, 2016: IUBMB Life
Folkert de Groot, Stefano Capri, Jean-Claude Castanier, David Cunningham, Bruno Flamion, Mathias Flume, Harald Herholz, Lars-Åke Levin, Oriol Solà-Morales, Christoph J Rupprecht, Natalie Shalet, Andrew Walker, Olivier Wong
With finite resources, healthcare payers must make difficult choices regarding spending and the ethical distribution of funds. Here, we describe some of the ethical issues surrounding inequity in healthcare in nine major European countries, using cancer care as an example. To identify relevant studies, we conducted a systematic literature search. The results of the literature review suggest that although prevention, access to early diagnosis, and radiotherapy are key factors associated with good outcomes in oncology, public and political attention often focusses on the availability of pharmacological treatments...
October 21, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Margherita Bassu, Peter Holik, Sam Schmitz, Siegfried Steltenkamp, Thomas P Burg
Nanofluidic devices exhibit unique, tunable transport properties that may lead to breakthroughs in molecular separations and sensing. However, the throughput of these devices is orders of magnitude too small for the processing of macroscopic samples. Here we overcome this problem by combining two technological innovations. First, nanofluidic channels are made as vertical slits connecting the two sides of a silicon nitride membrane. Arbitrary arrays of such nanoslits down to 15 nm wide with <6 Å uniformity were made by merging the idea of templating with chemical mechanical polishing to create a scalable, nanolithography-free wafer level process...
October 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Zhe Yang, Chao Shan, Weiming Zhang, Zhao Jiang, Xiaohong Guan, Bingcai Pan
Enhanced removal of As(V) and Se(VI) by zero valent iron (ZVI) has been recently revealed by using H2O2 as the corrosion accelerator, however, the detailed performance of such enhanced removal in ZVI column as well as the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the temporospatial evolution of As(V) and Se(VI) along a self-designed ZVI/H2O2 column in down-flow mode was systematically investigated. The variations of concerned aqueous parameters (pH, ORP, H2O2, Fe(2+), As, and Se) were monitored at different positions along the column throughout the experiments...
October 12, 2016: Water Research
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maria R Hartono, Ariel Kushmaro, Robert S Marks, Xiaodong Chen
In this study, composite calcium-alginate/carbon nanotubes/TiO2 beads were prepared and tested for their potential in the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions. The removal traits were inspected using a fixed-bed sorption column. By varying parameters such as bed height (15-20 cm), flow rate (2.0-6.0 mL.min(-1)) and inlet BPA concentration (10-30 mg.L(-1)) we assessed the removal capacity of these composites. The highest sorption capacity of 5.46 mg.g(-1) was achieved at 10 mg.L(-1) BPA concentration, 2...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Meizhen Yin, Baozhong Lü, Shusen You, Pengyu Li, Chen Li, Klaus Müllen
Supramolecular self-assembly has attracted increasing attention as a breakthrough methodology in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this study, a perylene dianhydride derivative (TP-PDA) self-assembles into well-defined nanospheres through a nucleation-growth process. The mechanisms of this process are explored by spectral ananlysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both in-situ DLS and in-situ SEM reveal that the sizes of aggregated nanospheres increase with time until the formation of equilibrium H-aggregates...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Frank Tacke, Daniela C Kroy
Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections affect about 240 million patients worldwide that are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a small, partially double stranded DNA virus with four overlapping genes and a unique life cycle, which involves the generation of an RNA template for replication via reverse transcription. Mutations occur frequently during chronic infection, and particular selection pressures select distinct mutants. Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues like lamivudine (LMV), entecavir (ETV), telbivudine (LdT), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir (TDF) are used to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Shouzheng Wang, Junling Li
In recent years, squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) didn't progress much in chemotherapy or target therapy. However, immunotherapy has made breakthroughs in treating squamous NSCLC. Immunotherapy includes two main broad classes of immune checkpoint inhibitors and therapeutic vaccines. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and anti programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) antibodies, have been tested in the phase II/III clinical trials and have demonstrated promising outcomes...
October 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Natalie Offord, Zoe Wyrko, Tom Downes, Adrian Hopper, Paul Harriman, Adam L Gordon
The number of people aged over 60 years worldwide is projected to rise from 605 million in 2000 to almost 2 billion by 2050, while those over 80 years will quadruple to 395 million. Two-thirds of UK acute hospital admissions are over 65, the highest consultation rate in general practice is in those aged 85-89 and the average age of elective surgical patients is increasing. Adjusting medical systems to meet the demographic imperative has been recognised by the World Health Organisation to be the next global healthcare priority and is a key feature of discussions on policy, health services structures, workforce reconfiguration and frontline care delivery...
2016: Acute Medicine
Paolo Angeli, Dimitri Bezinover, Gianni Biancofiore, Anja Bienholz, James Findlay, Catherine Paugam Burtz, Koen Reyntjens, Tetsuro Sakai, Fuat H Saner, Dana Tomescu, Gebhard Wagener, Emmanuel Weiss
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high perioperative mortality. A series of AKI research breakthroughs are worth mentioning. First, in 2003, serum and urine biomarkers specific to AKI were identified. These biomarkers have contributed to early detection, prevention, and treatment of AKI. In 2004, AKI severity was defined with the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria, which was developed by the International Consensus Conference Workgroup of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Willem M Lijfering, Joseph S Biedermann, Marieke J H A Kruip, Frank W G Leebeek, Frits R Rosendaal, Suzanne C Cannegieter
Statins may be causally associated with a decreased risk of venous thrombosis. If so, this could be a substantive breakthrough since statins do not increase the risk of bleeding and could therefore be used as a safer antithrombotic drug. However, scepticism exists on the observed reduction of venous thrombosis by statins, as it may have been confounded by healthy user effects or other biases. Areas covered: The main focus of this review will be the biases that may have arisen in clinical studies that investigated the relationship between statin use and risk of venous thrombosis...
October 19, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Scott N Furlan, Benjamin Watkins, Victor Tkachev, Sarah Cooley, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Kayla Betz, Melanie Brown, Daniel J Hunt, John B Schell, Katie Zeleski, Alison Yu, Cindy Giver, Edmund Waller, Jeffrey S Miller, Bruce R Blazar, Leslie S Kean
One of the central challenges of transplantation is the development of alloreactivity despite the use of multi-agent immunoprophylaxis. Effective control of this immune-suppression-resistant T cell activation represents one of the key unmet needs in the fields of both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). To address this unmet need, we have used a highly-translational non-human primate model to interrogate the transcriptional signature of T cells during Breakthrough Acute GVHD that occurs in the setting of clinically-relevant immune suppression and compared this to the Hyperacute GVHD, that develops in unprophylaxed or sub-optimally prophylaxed transplant recipients...
October 6, 2016: Blood
T Hertz, M G Logan, M Rolland, C A Magaret, C Rademeyer, A Fiore-Gartland, P T Edlefsen, A DeCamp, H Ahmed, N Ngandu, B B Larsen, N Frahm, J Marais, R Thebus, D Geraghty, J Hural, L Corey, J Kublin, G Gray, M J McElrath, J I Mullins, P B Gilbert, C Williamson
INTRODUCTION: The Merck Adenovirus-5 Gag/Pol/Nef HIV-1 subtype-B vaccine evaluated in predominately subtype B epidemic regions (Step Study), while not preventing infection, exerted vaccine-induced immune pressure on HIV-1 breakthrough infections. Here we investigated if the same vaccine exerted immune pressure when tested in the Phambili Phase 2b study in a subtype C epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sieve analysis, which compares breakthrough viruses from placebo and vaccine arms, was performed on 277 near full-length genomes generated from 23 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients...
October 15, 2016: Vaccine
Joseph D Unsay, Katia Cosentino, Katharina Sporbeck, Ana J García-Sáez
Bcl-2 proteins are key regulators of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) permeabilization that mediates apoptosis. During apoptosis, Bid is cleaved (cBid) and translocates to the MOM, where it activates Bax. Bax then oligomerizes and induces MOM permeabilization. However, little is known about how these proteins affect membrane organization aside from pore formation. In previous studies, we have shown that both cBid and Bax are able to remodel membranes and stabilize curvature. Here, we dissected the independent effects of Bax and cBid on supported lipid structures mimicking the mitochondrial composition by means of atomic force spectroscopy...
October 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Marcelo Epsztein Kanczuk, Nicholas Martin Barrett, Cristian Arzola, Kristi Downey, Xiang Y Ye, Jose C A Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Most studies that have compared programmed intermittent epidural bolus (PIEB) with continuous epidural infusion regimens have included patient-controlled epidural analgesia and/or manual bolus as rescue analgesia for breakthrough pain. Consequently, the optimal time interval between PIEB is yet to be determined. We designed a study to establish the optimal time interval between PIEB of 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.0625% with fentanyl 2 μg/mL to produce effective analgesia in 90% of women during first stage of labor without breakthrough pain...
October 11, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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