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David Brendel
A patient's rights to informed consent and self-determination in psychiatric treatment are well enshrined, but the same rights have not yet been meaningfully extended to patients with regard to psychiatric diagnosis. Andrew Clark's essay entitled "Psychiatric Diagnoses and Informed Consent" in The Journal of Clinical Ethics empowers both psychiatrists and patients to rethink who "owns" the process of clinical assessment and of bestowing diagnostic labels that may have far-reaching consequences...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Yuji Teraoka, Takuro Uchida, Michio Imamura, Nobuhiko Hiraga, Mitsutaka Osawa, Hiromi Kan, Yuhei Saito, Masataka Tsuge, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, C Nelson Hayes, Grace Naswa Makokha, Hiroshi Aikata, Daiki Miki, Hidenori Ochi, Yuji Ishida, Chise Tateno, Kazuaki Chayama
Combined daclatasvir (DCV)/asunaprevir (ASV) plus beclabuvir (BCV) treatment shows a high virological response for genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C patients. However, its efficacy for patients for whom previous direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy failed is not known. We analysed the efficacy of DCV/ASV/BCV treatment for HCV-infected mice and chronic hepatitis patients. Human hepatocyte chimaeric mice were injected with serum samples obtained from either a DAA-naïve patient or a DCV/ASV treatment failure and were then treated with DCV/ASV alone or in combination with BCV for 4 weeks...
June 19, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Sara Dawood, Tushar Kanti Sen, Chi Phan
A practical continuous adsorption study in a packed-bed column was conducted by using two separate layers of kaolin and pine cone based biochar packed bed adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye from its aqueous solution. A series of column experiments were performed to determine the breakthrough curves (BTCs) by varying bed height (3-7 cm), inlet flow rate (13- 17 ml/min) and initial dye concentration (50 -150 mg/L). The Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and Dose response (DR) dynamic models were applied to column experimental data under various operational conditions to predict the column breakthrough curves (BTC) using both nonlinear regression and linear regression and to determine various characteristic parameters such as percentage removal of dye, breakthrough time, used bed length, mass transfer zone (MTZ) and dye adsorption density q(total) that are useful for process design...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
Wu-Chang Peng, Yao-Ching Chen, Ju-Liang He, Sin-Liang Ou, Ray-Hua Horng, Dong-Sing Wuu
To acquire device-quality TiOx films usually needs high-temperature growth or additional post-thermal treatment. However, both processes make it very difficult to form the p-type TiOx even under oxygen-poor growth condition. With the aid of high energy generated by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), a highly stable p-type TiOx film with good quality can be achieved. In this research, by varying the oxygen flow rate, p-type γ-TiO and n-type TiO2 films were both prepared by HIPIMS. Furthermore, p- and n-type thin film transistors employing γ-TiO and TiO2 as channel layers possess the field-effect carrier mobilities of 0...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria E Falzone, Mattia Malvezzi, Byoung-Cheol Lee, Alessio Accardi
The TMEM16 family of membrane proteins is composed of both Ca2+ -gated Cl- channels and Ca2+ -dependent phospholipid scramblases. The functional diversity of TMEM16s underlies their involvement in numerous signal transduction pathways that connect changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels to cellular signaling networks. Indeed, defects in the function of several TMEM16s cause a variety of genetic disorders, highlighting their fundamental pathophysiological importance. Here, we review how our mechanistic understanding of TMEM16 function has been shaped by recent functional and structural work...
June 18, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
V Baliuliene, A Macas, K Rimaitis
BACKGROUND: The study aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different low concentrations of two local anesthetics for labor analgesia using patient-controlled epidural analgesia. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial recruiting healthy nulliparous women was conducted from 2014 to 2016. Epidural analgesia was provided using local anesthetic and fentanyl. Patients were allocated to six groups, according to the concentration of bupivacaine or levobupivacaine (0...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Stephanus T Malherbe, Léanie Kleynhans, Gerhard Walzl
The development of an improved vaccine to stimulate an effective response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and disease will be a major breakthrough in the fight against TB. A lack of tools to adequately track the progression or resolution of events in TB pathogenesis that occur at bacterial loads below the threshold for culture in human samples seriously hampers vaccine development and evaluation. In this review we discuss recent studies that use new imaging applications, modalities and analysis techniques to provide insight into the dynamic processes of MTB infection and disease that are challenging to monitor...
June 15, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Per Hartvig Honoré, Anna Basnet, Pernille Kristensen, Lene Munkholm Andersen, Signe Neustrup, Pia Møllgaard, Laila Eljaja, Ole J Bjerrum
Introduction The pathophysiologic and neurochemical characteristics of neuropathic pain must be considered in the search for new treatment targets. Breakthroughs in the understanding of the structural and biochemical changes in neuropathy have opened up possibilities to explore new treatment paradigms. However, long term sequels from the damage are still difficult to treat. Aim of the study To examine the validity of pharmacological treatments in humans and animals for neuropathic pain. Method An overview from the literature and own experiences of pharmacological treatments employed to interfere in pain behavior in different animal models was performed...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Irina Pleines, Deya Cherpokova, Markus Bender
Megakaryocytes differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. The transition of megakaryocytes to platelets is a complex process. Thereby, megakaryocytes extend proplatelets into sinusoidal blood vessels, where the proplatelets undergo fission to release platelets. Defects in platelet production can lead to a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) with increased bleeding risk. Rho GTPases comprise a family of small signaling G proteins that have been shown to be master regulators of the cytoskeleton controlling many aspects of intracellular processes...
June 18, 2018: Platelets
Thema Nicholson, Mitchell Maltenfort, Charles Getz, Mark Lazarus, Gerald Williams, Surena Namdari
Background: Our institution's traditional pain management strategy after shoulder arthroplasty has involved the utilization of postoperative patient-controlled narcotic analgesia. More recently, we have implemented a protocol (TLC) that utilizes a multimodal approach. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this change has improved pain control and decreased narcotic utilization. Methods: Patients undergoing primary total shoulder or reverse arthroplasty were retrospectively studied...
May 2018: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Ryuichi Hirano, Yuichi Sakamoto, Junichi Kitazawa, Shoji Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Kayaba
Background: Candidemia is associated with high mortality, and its prognostic factors need to be examined in more detail in order to improve its management. A case of breakthrough (BT) candidemia is defined as the development of candidemia during antifungal therapy. The microbiological characteristics of and appropriate clinical practices for BT candidemia remain unclear. Objectives: The primary objective of the present study was to identify the prognostic factors of candidemia, while the secondary objective was to elucidate the microbiological characteristics of patients with BT candidemia...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Douglas O'Reagan, Lee Fleming
The "FinFET" design for transistors, developed at the University of California, Berkeley, in the 1990s, represented a major leap forward in the semiconductor industry. Understanding its origins and importance requires deep knowledge of local factors, such as the relationships among the lab's principal investigators, students, staff, and the institution. It also requires understanding this lab within the broader network of relationships that comprise the semiconductor industry-a much more difficult task using traditional historical methods, due to the paucity of sources on industrial research...
2018: Technology and Culture
Vibor Laketa
A comprehensive understanding of host-pathogen interactions requires quantitative assessment of molecular events across a wide range of spatiotemporal scales and organizational complexities. Due to recent technical developments, this is currently only achievable with microscopy. This article is providing a general perspective on the importance of microscopy in infectious disease research, with a focus on new imaging modalities that promise to have a major impact in biomedical research in the years to come. Every major technological breakthrough in light microscopy depends on, and is supported by, advancements in computing and information technologies...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Paul A Lapchak, Paul D Boitano, Geoffrey de Couto, Eduardo Marbán
Acute ischemic stroke is devastating to patients and their families because of few viable therapeutic options to promote recovery after reperfusion windows close. Recent breakthroughs in biotechnology have resulted in a reproducible patented process for the purification of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from human cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs). Because CDC-EVs have many features potentially beneficial to treat acute ischemic stroke, CDC-EVs were evaluated in an established small-clot rabbit embolic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Natalia Goykhman, Ishai Dror, Brian Berkowitz
This study reports the transport characteristics of the organometallic anticancer compound oxaliplatin and its derivatives in natural soil-water environments. Although pharmaceuticals and their derivatives have for many years been detected in water resources, and linked to toxicological impacts on ecological systems, their transport in soil and groundwater is not fully understood. Specifically, studies that describe transport of organometallic pharmaceuticals in porous media are rare, and the transport characteristics of platinum complexes have received little attention...
June 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Xiaoquan Ding, Xingwang Liu, Jun Chen, Shiyi Chen
Objective : To review the basical research progress of porous tantalum in bone tissue engineering. Methods: The related basical research in fabrication, cytobiology, and surface modification of porous tantalum was reviewed and analyzed. Results: The outstanding physiochemical properties of porous tantalum granted its excellent performance in biocompatibility and osteointegration, as well as promoting cartilage and tendon tissue restoration...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Matthew Li, Jun Lu, Zhongwei Chen, Khalil Amine
Over the past 30 years, significant commercial and academic progress has been made on Li-based battery technologies. From the early Li-metal anode iterations to the current commercial Li-ion batteries (LIBs), the story of the Li-based battery is full of breakthroughs and back tracing steps. This review will discuss the main roles of material science in the development of LIBs. As LIB research progresses and the materials of interest change, different emphases on the different subdisciplines of material science are placed...
June 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Melissa B Gilkey, Mo Zhou, Annie-Laurie McRee, Melanie L Kornides, John F P Bridges
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination could prevent most HPV-associated cancers, but few U.S. adolescents are vaccinated according to guidelines. To inform efforts to counsel parents more effectively, we sought to quantify their views on the best and worst reasons for guideline-consistent HPV vaccination. We hypothesized that parents' views would differ according to their vaccination confidence. Methods: We developed a best-worst scaling experiment to evaluate 11 reasons healthcare providers commonly give for HPV vaccination...
June 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Maxime M Mahe
The utilization of human pluripotent stem cells holds great promise in elucidating principles of developmental biology and applications in personalized and regenerative medicine. Breakthroughs from the last decade have allowed the scientific community to better understand and successfully manipulate human pluripotent stem cells using distinct differentiation strategies into a variety of target tissues. This manipulation relies solely on our understanding of developmental processes occurring in model organisms...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Chelsea Guymer, John Pm Wood, Glyn Chidlow, Robert J Casson
Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is currently the only evidence-based treatment strategy for glaucoma. However, IOP control in some individuals is challenging. Despite optimal treatment, a significant proportion of individuals will progress, with loss of visual field, loss of driving vision, and impaired quality of life. A new modality that could augment current treatment and reduce the rate of neurodegeneration to preserve vision throughout life would be a major breakthrough. A vast number of studies have reported effective neuroprotection in animal models of glaucoma; however, translation to the clinic remains a major hurdle...
June 13, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
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