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Jaechul Lee, Chong Yang Chuah, Jaheon Kim, Youngsuk Kim, Nakeun Ko, Younggyu Seo, Kimoon Kim, Taehyun Bae, Eunsung Lee
Separation of acetylene from carbon dioxide and ethylene is challenging in view of their similar sizes and physical properties. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in general present themselves to be strong candidates for these separations owing to the presence of functional pore surfaces that can selectively capture a specific target molecule. Here, we report a novel 3D microporous cationic framework named JCM-1, which possesses imidazolium functional groups on the pore surfaces and pyrazolate as a metal binding group which is well known to form strong metal to ligand bond...
April 24, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Anthony M Muliwa, Taile Y Leswifi, Arjun Maity, Aoyi Ochieng, Maurice S Onyango
In the present study, a new composite adsorbent, chitosan/bentonite/manganese oxide (CBMnO) beads, cross-linked with tetraethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) was applied in a fixed-bed column for the removal of Mn (II) from water. The adsorbent was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), N2 adsorption-desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques, and moreover the point of zero charge (pHpzc ) was determined. The extend of Mn (II) breakthrough behaviour was investigated by varying bed mass, flow rate and influent concentration, and by using real environmental water samples...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Julie Gaburro, Asim Bhatti, Jenni Harper, Isabelle Jeanne, Megan Dearnley, Diane Green, Saeid Nahavandi, Prasad N Paradkar, Jean-Bernard Duchemin
Understanding Zika virus infection dynamics is essential, as its recent emergence revealed possible devastating neuropathologies in humans, thus causing a major threat to public health worldwide. Recent research allowed breakthrough in our understanding of the virus and host pathogenesis; however, little is known on its impact on its main vector, Aedes aegypti. Here we show how Zika virus targets Aedes aegypti's neurons and induces changes in its behavior. Results are compared to dengue virus, another flavivirus, which triggers a different pattern of behavioral changes...
April 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Ching-Feng Su
A 66-year-old female patient was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by neuropathic pain induced by a metastatic tumor that compromised root and spinal canal. Although her pain was relieved following medical treatment, breakthrough pain occurring 1-2 times a day was still distressing. Neuropathic pain in her right lower limb caused discomfort and irritability and decreased her quality of life. We had limited options to adjust her prescription drug regime, due to the side effect of these drugs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Martin A Dangelmayr, Paul W Reimus, Raymond H Johnson, James T Clay, James J Stone
This research assesses the ability of a GC SCM to simulate uranium transport under variable geochemical conditions typically encountered at uranium in-situ recovery (ISR) sites. Sediment was taken from a monitoring well at the SRH site at depths 192 and 193 m below ground and characterized by XRD, XRF, TOC, and BET. Duplicate column studies on the different sediment depths, were flushed with synthesized restoration waters at two different alkalinities (160 mg/l CaCO3 and 360 mg/l CaCO3 ) to study the effect of alkalinity on uranium mobility...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Tae-Young Yoon, Mary Munson
A fundamental hallmark of eukaryotic cells is their compartmentalization into functionally distinct organelles, including those of the secretory and endocytic pathways. Transport of cargo between these compartments and to/from the cell surface is mediated by membrane-bound vesicles and tubules. Delivery of cargo is facilitated by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated membrane fusion of vesicles with their target compartments. Vesicles contain a variety of cargos, including lipids, membrane proteins, signaling molecules, biosynthetic and hydrolytic enzymes, and the trafficking machinery itself...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Thomas J Hwang, Jessica M Franklin, Christopher T Chen, Julie C Lauffenburger, Bishal Gyawali, Aaron S Kesselheim, Jonathan J Darrow
Purpose The breakthrough therapy program was established in 2012 to expedite the development and review of new medicines. We evaluated the times to approval, efficacy, and safety of breakthrough-designated versus non-breakthrough-designated cancer drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods We studied all new cancer drugs approved by the FDA between January 2012 and December 2017. Regulatory and therapeutic characteristics (time to FDA approval, pivotal trial efficacy end point, novelty of mechanism of action) were compared between breakthrough-designated and non-breakthrough-designated cancer drugs...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Shoshanna May, Sema Mandal, Philip Keel, Becky Haywood, Siew Lin Ngui, Mary Ramsay, Richard S Tedder, Samreen Ijaz
Background: It is believed that between 2 and 5% of infants born to HBV-infected mothers at a high risk of perinatal transmission will become persistently infected in spite of immunisation starting at birth. We investigated factors associated with breakthrough infections. Methods: Sixty nine samples from HBV-infected infants born between 2003 and 2015 were tested for HBV serological and molecular markers. Sequencing and epitope phenotyping were used to investigate alterations in HBsAg sequence and antigenicity in infants and in mothers known to have transmitted and not to have transmitted virus to their infants...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
May Salem Al-Nbaheen
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder appeared due to the presence of trisomy in chromosome 21 in the G-group of the acrocentric region. DS is also known as non-Mendelian inheritance, due to the lack of Mendel's laws. The disorder in children is identified through clinical symptoms and chromosomal analysis and till now there are no biochemical and molecular analyses. Presently, whole exome sequencing (WES) has largely contributed in identifying the new disease-causing genes and represented a significant breakthrough in the field of human genetics and this technique uses high throughput sequencing technologies to determine the arrangement of DNA base pairs specifying the protein coding regions of an individual's genome...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Alexander Rae-Grant, Gregory S Day, Ruth Ann Marrie, Alejandro Rabinstein, Bruce A C Cree, Gary S Gronseth, Michael Haboubi, June Halper, Jonathan P Hosey, David E Jones, Robert Lisak, Daniel Pelletier, Sonja Potrebic, Cynthia Sitcov, Rick Sommers, Julie Stachowiak, Thomas S D Getchius, Shannon A Merillat, Tamara Pringsheim
OBJECTIVE: To develop recommendations for disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel developed DMT recommendations, integrating findings from a systematic review; followed an Institute of Medicine-compliant process to ensure transparency and patient engagement; and developed modified Delphi consensus-based recommendations concerning starting, switching, and stopping DMTs pertinent to people with relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, primary progressive MS, and clinically isolated syndromes of demyelination...
April 24, 2018: Neurology
John R Corboy, Brian G Weinshenker, Dean M Wingerchuk
The American Academy of Neurology has published a comprehensive review and guidelines for the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) for the first time since 2002. These guidelines represent the work of MS experts, patients, and guideline experts and are based on their review of randomized controlled trials and observational evidence that addresses a set of prespecified questions related to starting, switching, and potentially discontinuing DMTs. Many of the recommendations address decision-making regarding the use of DMTs and incorporate the perspective of patients...
April 23, 2018: Neurology
Timothy M Pabst, Johnny Thai, Alan K Hunter
We describe a comprehensive evaluation of 12 Protein A stationary phases for capture of biotherapeutics. We first examine the morphological properties of the stationary phases using a variety of orthogonal techniques including electron microscopy, particle sizing, pressure-flow behavior, and isocratic pulse response. A panel of nine proteins spanning a wide range of structures and biochemical properties was then used to assess equilibrium uptake, mass transport, dynamic binding capacity, and elution pH. Process performance and product quality were also examined under realistic bioprocess conditions using clarified mammalian cell culture broth...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Juanita Mathews, Michael Levin
Breakthroughs in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering require predictive, rational control over anatomical structure and function. Recent successes in manipulating cellular and molecular hardware have not been matched by progress in understanding the patterning software implemented during embryogenesis and regeneration. A fundamental capability gap is driving desired changes in growth and form to address birth defects and traumatic injury. Here we review new tools, results, and conceptual advances in an exciting emerging field: endogenous non-neural bioelectric signaling, which enables cellular collectives to make global decisions and implement large-scale pattern homeostasis...
April 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Vsevolod A Bolotov, Konstantin A Kovalenko, Denis G Samsonenko, Xue Han, Xinran Zhang, Gemma L Smith, Laura McCormick, Simon J Teat, Sihai Yang, Matthew J Lennox, Alice Henley, Elena Besley, Vladimir P Fedin, Danil N Dybtsev, Martin Schröder
The complex [Zn2 (tdc)2 dabco] (H2 tdc = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid; dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclooctane) shows a remarkable increase in carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake and CO2 /dinitrogen (N2 ) selectivity compared to the nonthiophene analogue [Zn2 (bdc)2 dabco] (H2 bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid; terephthalic acid). CO2 adsorption at 1 bar for [Zn2 (tdc)2 dabco] is 67.4 cm3 ·g-1 (13.2 wt %) at 298 K and 153 cm3 ·g-1 (30.0 wt %) at 273 K. For [Zn2 (bdc)2 dabco], the equivalent values are 46 cm3 ·g-1 (9...
April 23, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Yu Han, Jingdian Zou, Zhen Li, Wenqiang Wang, Yang Jie, Jinming Ma, Bin Tang, Qi Zhang, Xia Cao, Shengming Xu, Zhong Lin Wang
In recent years, research in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been focused on improving their performance in various ways, such as density, capacity and life time, but little attention has been paid to the energy consumption costed in the manufacturing process. Herein, we report an energy-efficient preparation method of anode materials for LIBs based on a self-powered electrospinning system without an external power source, which consists of a rotatory triboelectric nanogenerator (r-TENG), a power management circuit and an electrospinning unit...
April 23, 2018: ACS Nano
Sonia Khier, Laura Lohan
Circulating cell-free DNA is considered as one of the major breakthroughs in the field of innovative diagnosis, used as a liquid biopsy. The kinetic parameters of a biomarker are mandatory to assess its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. Obtaining precise mathematical values for the kinetic parameters (e.g., half-life) is then crucial because it could be used for therapeutic monitoring as a prognostic factor. However, little is known about the intrinsic properties of circulating cell-free DNA, more especially, its kinetic properties within the organism...
April 2018: Future Science OA
Lan Thi Hanh Phi, Ita Novita Sari, Ying-Gui Yang, Sang-Hyun Lee, Nayoung Jun, Kwang Seock Kim, Yun Kyung Lee, Hyog Young Kwon
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), are suggested to be responsible for drug resistance and cancer relapse due in part to their ability to self-renew themselves and differentiate into heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics and mechanisms by which CSCs display resistance to therapeutic agents. In this review, we highlight the key features and mechanisms that regulate CSC function in drug resistance as well as recent breakthroughs of therapeutic approaches for targeting CSCs...
2018: Stem Cells International
Katsutomo Sasaki
Transcription factors play important roles not only in the development of floral organs but also in the formation of floral characteristics in various plant species. Therefore, transcription factors are reasonable targets for modifying these floral traits and generating new flower cultivars. However, it has been difficult to control the functions of transcription factors because most plant genes, including those encoding transcription factors, exhibit redundancy. In particular, it has been difficult to understand the functions of these redundant genes by genetic analysis...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Masahiro Katsui, Hiroshi Asanuma, Keishiro Fukumoto, Ryuichi Mizuno, Mototsugu Oya
We report a female patient diagnosed with retrocaval ureter (RCU) after ureteral reimplantation for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). She was diagnosed as right grade IV VUR with breakthrough urinary tract infections, and underwent ureteral reimplantation with Cohen cross-trigonal technique. Thereafter, she developed severe right hydronephrosis associated with RCU, which was presumably due to caudal traction of right ureter at ureteral reimplantation. Sheunderwent uretero-ureterostomy anterior to the inferior vena cava, and recovered well...
April 22, 2018: Urology Journal
Giuseppina Marra, Francesca Taroni, Alfredo Berrettini, Emanuele Montanari, Gianantonio Manzoni, Giovanni Montini
Nephrolithiasis is a rare disease in children. For many years children with kidney stones have been managed like "small adults", but there are significant differences between the pediatric and the adult age in clinical presentation, etiology and treatment. Management of this condition in children has some peculiarities with respect to the adult, as it is often the sign of an underlying metabolic abnormality. Some of these metabolic alterations can lead to serious consequences, such as chronic renal failure, if not adequately diagnosed and treated...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
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