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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101730/concepts-for-studying-urban-environmental-justice
#1
REVIEW
Jason Corburn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper offers research frameworks for understanding and acting to address urban environmental justice. Urban neighborhoods tend to concentrate and colocate vulnerable people and toxic environments. Cities are also where the poor and people of color tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards, such as air pollution, lead in paint and water, and polluting industries. RECENT FINDINGS: Researchers and government agencies are increasingly recognizing the need to document cumulative exposures that the urban poor and people of color experience in addition to environmental hazards...
January 18, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099893/lead-binding-capacity-of-calcium-pectates-with-different-molecular-weight
#2
Maksim Khotimchenko, Ksenia Makarova, Elena Khozhaenko, Valeri Kovalev
Nowadays, heavy metal contamination of environment is considered as a serious threat to public health because of toxicity of these pollutants and the lack of effective materials with metal-binding properties. Some biopolymers such as pectins were proposed for removal of metal ions from industrial water disposals. Chemical structure of pectins is quite variable and substantially affects their metal binding properties. In this work, relationship between molecular weight and Pb(II)-binding capacity of calcium pectates was investigated in a batch sorption system...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098412/a-hierarchical-modeling-approach-to-estimate-regional-acute-health-effects-of-particulate-matter-sources
#3
Jenna R Krall, Amber J Hackstadt, Roger D Peng
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease hospitalizations and other clinical parameters. Determining which sources of PM, such as traffic or industry, are most associated with adverse health outcomes could help guide future recommendations aimed at reducing harmful pollution exposure for susceptible individuals. Information obtained from multisite studies, which is generally more precise than information from a single location, is critical to understanding how PM impacts health and to informing local strategies for reducing individual-level PM exposure...
January 18, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095831/a-follow-up-study-of-airway-symptoms-and-lung-function-among-residents-and-workers-5-5%C3%A2-years-after-an-oil-tank-explosion
#4
Jens-Tore Granslo, Magne Bråtveit, Bjørg Eli Hollund, Stein Håkon Låstad Lygre, Cecilie Svanes, Bente Elisabeth Moen
BACKGROUND: Assess if people who lived or worked in an area polluted after an oil tank explosion had persistent respiratory health impairment as compared to a non-exposed population 5.5 years after the event. METHODS: A follow-up study 5.5 years after the explosion, 330 persons aged 18-67 years, compared lung function, lung function decline and airway symptoms among exposed persons (residents <6 km from the accident site or working in the industrial harbour at the time of the explosion) with a non-exposed group (residence >20 km away)...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091989/hazardous-metal-pollution-in-a-protected-coastal-area-from-northern-patagonia-argentina
#5
C H Marinho, E Giarratano, J L Esteves, M A Narvarte, M N Gil
The San Antonio Bay is a protected natural coastal area of Argentina that has been exposed to mining wastes over the last three decades. Iron and trace metals of potential concern to biota and human health (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn) were investigated in the sediments from the bay and in the soils of the Pile (mining wastes). Concentrations of Cd (45 mg kg(-1)), Pb (42,853 mg kg(-1)), Cu (24,505 mg kg(-1)), and Zn (28,686 mg kg(-1)) in the soils Pile exceeded guidelines for agricultural, residential, and industrial land uses...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088547/traffic-related-trace-elements-in-soils-along-six-highway-segments-on-the-tibetan-plateau-influence-factors-and-spatial-variation
#6
Guanxing Wang, Chen Zeng, Fan Zhang, Yili Zhang, Christopher A Scott, Xuedong Yan
The accumulation of traffic-related trace elements in soil as the result of anthropogenic activities raises serious concerns about environmental pollution and public health. Traffic is the main source of trace elements in roadside soil on the Tibetan Plateau, an area otherwise devoid of industrial emissions. Indeed, the rapid development of tourism and transportation in this region means it is becoming increasingly important to identify the accumulation levels, influence distance, spatial distribution, and other relevant factors influencing trace elements...
January 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069428/high-concentrations-of-lead-and-barium-in-hair-of-the-rural-population-caused-by-water-pollution-in-the-thar-jath-oilfields-in-south-sudan
#7
Fritz Pragst, Klaus Stieglitz, Hella Runge, Klaus-Dietrich Runow, David Quig, Robert Osborne, Christian Runge, John Ariki
In the oil fields of Thar Jath, South Sudan, increasing salinity of drinking water was observed together with human incompatibilities and rise in livestock mortalities. Hair analysis was used to characterize the toxic exposure of the population. Hair samples of volunteers from four communities with different distance from the center of the oil field (Koch 23km, n=24; Leer 50km, n=26; Nyal 110km, n=21; and Rumbek 220km, n=25) were analyzed for altogether 39 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry...
December 23, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068474/chemoselective-hydrodehalogenation-of-organic-halides-utilizing-two-dimensional-anionic-electrons-of-inorganic-electride-ca2n-%C3%A2-e
#8
Ye Ji Kim, Sun Min Kim, Chunghyeon Yu, Youngmin You, Eun Jin Cho, Jung Woon Yang, Sung Wng Kim
Halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) are important man-made chemicals widely used in chemical industry, biology and pharmacology; however, the persistence and inertness of organic halides cause human health problems and considerable environmental pollution. Thus, the elimination of halogen atoms from organic halides has been considered a central task in synthetic chemistry. In dehalogenation reactions, the inorganic bases remove halogen atoms, forming leaving groups and carbanions. Though the stable formation of free carbanion is the most decisive factor in determining the pathway and efficiency of reactions, the importance of carbanion stability in dehalogenation has long been overlooked...
January 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067285/residential-exposure-to-chlorinated-hydrocarbons-from-groundwater-contamination-and-the-impairment-of-renal-function-an-ecological-study
#9
Hui-Ming Chen, Ming-Tsang Wu
Groundwater pollution from the petrochemical industry causes serious deterioration of soil and groundwater quality and impacts on human health worldwide. However, few studies have examined the effect of residential exposure to petrochemical chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater on renal function impairment in humans. We conducted an ecological study to investigate the two. A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plant was located in one of the six villages, the study area, in Kaohsiung city of southwestern Taiwan...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063711/fine-particulates-over-south-asia-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pm2-5-source-apportionment-through-receptor-model
#10
Nandita Singh, Vishnu Murari, Manish Kumar, S C Barman, Tirthankar Banerjee
Fine particulates (PM2.5) constitute dominant proportion of airborne particulates and have been often associated with human health disorders, changes in regional climate, hydrological cycle and more recently to food security. Intrinsic properties of particulates are direct function of sources. This initiates the necessity of conducting a comprehensive review on PM2.5 sources over South Asia which in turn may be valuable to develop strategies for emission control. Particulate source apportionment (SA) through receptor models is one of the existing tool to quantify contribution of particulate sources...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052646/ameliorative-potentials-of-quercetin-against-lead-induced-hematological-and-testicular-alterations-in-albino-rats
#11
Mohammed A. Al-Omair, Azza Sedky, Awatef Ali, Hany Elsawy
Lead is one of the oldest environmental and occupational toxins. Health hazards from increased lead exposure as a result of industrial and environmental pollution are recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of quercetin as a model of an antioxidant drug against the toxic effects of lead acetate on the blood and the testis of rats. The lead concentrations were determined in blood and the testis. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were assessed in serum...
28, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040262/environmental-impact-of-estrogens-on-human-animal-and-plant-life-a-critical-review
#12
REVIEW
Muhammad Adeel, Xiaoming Song, Yuanyuan Wang, Dennis Francis, Yuesuo Yang
BACKGROUND: Since the inception of global industrialization, steroidal estrogens have become an emerging and serious concern. Worldwide, steroid estrogens including estrone, estradiol and estriol, pose serious threats to soil, plants, water resources and humans. Indeed, estrogens have gained notable attention in recent years, due to their rapidly increasing concentrations in soil and water all over the world. Concern has been expressed regarding the entry of estrogens into the human food chain which in turn relates to how plants take up and metabolism estrogens...
December 28, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038758/nanosponge-cyclodextrin-polyurethanes-and-their-modification-with-nanomaterials-for-the-removal-of-pollutants-from-waste-water-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Anny Leudjo Taka, Kriveshini Pillay, Xavier Yangkou Mbianda
Water is a worldwide vital resource for sustaining life and due to the pollution of water by different classes of pollutants (inorganic, organic and pathogens), many ongoing studies in water purification remain a critical issue to governments, scientists and industries. The challenge is to develop a water purification technology which will be effective at removing these contaminants simultaneously and reducing their concentrations to ultra low levels from waste water. This review article serves to give an overview on cyclodextrin nanosponge adsorbents which have already been used for water treatment...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035614/health-safety-and-environmental-unit-performance-assessment-model-under-uncertainty-case-study-steel-industry
#14
Azin Shamaii, Manouchehr Omidvari, Farhad Hosseinzadeh Lotfi
Performance assessment is a critical objective of management systems. As a result of the non-deterministic and qualitative nature of performance indicators, assessments are likely to be influenced by evaluators' personal judgments. Furthermore, in developing countries, performance assessments by the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) department are based solely on the number of accidents. A questionnaire is used to conduct the study in one of the largest steel production companies in Iran. With respect to health, safety, and environment, the results revealed that control of disease, fire hazards, and air pollution are of paramount importance, with coefficients of 0...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029481/industrial-metal-pollution-in-water-and-probabilistic-assessment-of-human-health-risk
#15
Narottam Saha, M Safiur Rahman, Mohammad Boshir Ahmed, John L Zhou, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo
Concentration of eight heavy metals in surface and groundwater around Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ) industrial area were investigated, and the health risk posed to local children and adult residents via ingestion and dermal contact was evaluated using deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Metal concentrations (except Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) in Bangshi River water were above the drinking water quality guidelines, while in groundwater were less than the recommended limits. Concentration of metals in surface water decreased as a function of distance...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029452/seasonal-and-spatial-differences-in-source-contributions-to-pm2-5-in-wuhan-china
#16
Ying Xiong, Jiabin Zhou, James J Schauer, Wenyang Yu, Yan Hu
Fine particle (PM2.5) samples were collected in 2011 and 2012 simultaneously at three sites in Wuhan in an industrial area (ID), downtown Wuhan (DT), and the Wuhan botanical gardens (BG). The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was highest in the industrial area at 180μgm(-3) and lowest in the botanical gardens, with an average of 93μgm(-3). The average downtown PM2.5 concentration was 113μgm(-3). All sites had concentrations well above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and the Chinese air quality standard...
October 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017360/estimation-of-daily-pm10-concentrations-in-italy-2006-2012-using-finely-resolved-satellite-data-land-use-variables-and-meteorology
#17
Massimo Stafoggia, Joel Schwartz, Chiara Badaloni, Tom Bellander, Ester Alessandrini, Giorgio Cattani, Francesca De' Donato, Alessandra Gaeta, Gianluca Leone, Alexei Lyapustin, Meytar Sorek-Hamer, Kees de Hoogh, Qian Di, Francesco Forastiere, Itai Kloog
Health effects of air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM), have been widely investigated. However, most of the studies rely on few monitors located in urban areas for short-term assessments, or land use/dispersion modelling for long-term evaluations, again mostly in cities. Recently, the availability of finely resolved satellite data provides an opportunity to estimate daily concentrations of air pollutants over wide spatio-temporal domains. Italy lacks a robust and validated high resolution spatio-temporally resolved model of particulate matter...
December 22, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012369/contamination-and-health-risks-of-heavy-metals-in-street-dust-from-a-coal-mining-city-in-eastern-china
#18
Zhenwu Tang, Miao Chai, Jiali Cheng, Jing Jin, Yufei Yang, Zhiqiang Nie, Qifei Huang, Yanhua Li
We collected street dust from Huainan, a typical coal-mining city in China, to investigate the contamination features and health risks of heavy metals. Concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, As, and Sb were generally low to moderate, while pollution levels of Cd and Hg were moderate to high. Concentrations of Cd and Hg were associated with considerable health risks at 64.3% and 58.6% of sites, respectively. In particular, about a fifth of samples had associated high risks as a result of Hg contamination levels. Relative to other urban areas, the street dust from the mining area had no more severe metal pollution, which might be partly attributed to the deposition of coal dust onto street dusts...
December 21, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002856/-the-changing-value-of-mother-s-milk-feeding-premature-and-sick-newborns-since-the-late-19th-century
#19
A Sunder-Plaßmann
In the 1960s/early 70s there was a widespread conviction in West Germany that mother's milk was no longer essential even for premature infants given the availability of improved industrial milk products. But today the superiority of human milk is again undisputed, and progress in neonatology has created a growing target group of extremely premature infants who show clear benefits from being fed with human milk, particularly regarding improved outcomes. Currently there is a revival of donor milk banks (FMB)...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999231/adverse-reproductive-outcomes-associated-with-exposure-to-a-municipal-solid-waste-incinerator
#20
Michele Santoro, Fabrizio Minichilli, Nunzia Linzalone, Alessio Coi, Maria Teresa Maurello, Domenico Sallese, Fabrizio Bianchi
INTRODUCTION: The association between reproductive health outcomes and exposure to municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is inconclusive. This study investigates the association between exposure to a MSWI and various reproductive outcomes (preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and sex ratio), taking into account other sources of pollution (industrial plants, highway, major roads with high traffic flows) and maternal factors, including the socioeconomic status...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
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