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Hydraulic fracturing health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031695/mitigating-climate-change-at-the-carbon-water-nexus-a-call-to-action-for-the-environmental-engineering-community
#1
Andres F Clarens, Catherine A Peters
Environmental engineers have played a critical role in improving human and ecosystem health over the past several decades. These contributions have focused on providing clean water and air as well as managing waste streams and remediating polluted sites. As environmental problems have become more global in scale and more deeply entrenched in sociotechnical systems, the discipline of environmental engineering must grow to be ready to respond to the challenges of the coming decades. Here we make the case that environmental engineers should play a leadership role in the development of climate change mitigation technologies at the carbon-water nexus (CWN)...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Engineering Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030372/does-increased-traffic-flow-around-unconventional-resource-development-activities-represent-the-major-respiratory-hazard-to-neighboring-communities-knowns-and-unknowns
#2
Michael A McCawley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to demonstrate that the focus on air emissions causing respiratory effects and associated with gas development may be misplaced by attributing those exposures mainly to well pad activities. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent publications on the health effects of hydraulic fracturing operations seem to parallel findings from studies of diesel particulate exposure near roadways and the health effects associated with those exposures...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921191/a-review-of-the-public-health-impacts-of-unconventional-natural-gas-development
#3
REVIEW
P J Saunders, D McCoy, R Goldstein, A T Saunders, A Munroe
The public health impact of hydraulic fracturing remains a high profile and controversial issue. While there has been a recent surge of published papers, it remains an under-researched area despite being possibly the most substantive change in energy production since the advent of the fossil fuel economy. We review the evidence of effects in five public health domains with a particular focus on the UK: exposure, health, socio-economic, climate change and seismicity. While the latter would seem not to be of significance for the UK, we conclude that serious gaps in our understanding of the other potential impacts persist together with some concerning signals in the literature and legitimate uncertainties derived from first principles...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913018/potential-impact-of-flowback-water-from-hydraulic-fracturing-on-agricultural-soil-quality-metal-metalloid-bioaccessibility-microtox-bioassay-and-enzyme-activities
#4
Season S Chen, Yuqing Sun, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865434/potential-water-resource-impacts-of-hydraulic-fracturing-from-unconventional-oil-production-in-the-bakken-shale
#5
REVIEW
Namita Shrestha, Govinda Chilkoor, Joseph Wilder, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, James J Stone
Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783932/unconventional-oil-and-gas-development-and-risk-of-childhood-leukemia-assessing-the-evidence
#6
Elise G Elliott, Pauline Trinh, Xiaomei Ma, Brian P Leaderer, Mary H Ward, Nicole C Deziel
The widespread distribution of unconventional oil and gas (UO&G) wells and other facilities in the United States potentially exposes millions of people to air and water pollutants, including known or suspected carcinogens. Childhood leukemia is a particular concern because of the disease severity, vulnerable population, and short disease latency. A comprehensive review of carcinogens and leukemogens associated with UO&G development is not available and could inform future exposure monitoring studies and human health assessments...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666475/a-decision-analysis-framework-for-estimating-the-potential-hazards-for-drinking-water-resources-of-chemicals-used-in-hydraulic-fracturing-fluids
#7
Erin E Yost, John Stanek, Lyle D Burgoon
Despite growing concerns over the potential for hydraulic fracturing to impact drinking water resources, there are limited data available to identify chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids that may pose public health concerns. In an effort to explore these potential hazards, a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework was employed to analyze and rank selected subsets of these chemicals by integrating data on toxicity, frequency of use, and physicochemical properties that describe transport in water...
September 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624785/inspiring-collaboration-the-legacy-of-theo-colborn-s-transdisciplinary-research-on-fracking
#8
Sara Wylie, Kim Schultz, Deborah Thomas, Chris Kassotis, Susan Nagel
This article describes Dr Theo Colborn's legacy of inspiring complementary and synergistic environmental health research and advocacy. Colborn, a founder of endocrine disruption research, also stimulated study of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). In 2014, the United States led the world in oil and gas production, with fifteen million Americans living within one mile of an oil or gas well. Colborn pioneered efforts to understand and control the impacts of this sea change in energy production. In 2005, her research organization The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX) developed a database of chemicals used in natural gas extraction and their health effects...
September 13, 2016: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568524/systematic-review-of-the-association-between-oil-and-natural-gas-extraction-processes-and-human-reproduction
#9
REVIEW
Victoria D Balise, Chun-Xia Meng, Jennifer N Cornelius-Green, Christopher D Kassotis, Rana Kennedy, Susan C Nagel
This systematic review identified 45 original published research articles related to oil and gas extraction activities and human reproductive endpoints. Reproductive outcomes were categorized as [1] birth outcomes associated with maternal exposure, [2] semen quality, fertility, and birth outcomes associated with adult paternal exposure, [3] reproductive cancers, and [4] disruption of human sex steroid hormone receptors. The results indicate there is moderate evidence for an increased risk of preterm birth, miscarriage, birth defects, decreased semen quality, and prostate cancer...
September 15, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560547/adverse-reproductive-and-developmental-health-outcomes-following-prenatal-exposure-to-a-hydraulic-fracturing-chemical-mixture-in-female-c57bl-6-mice
#10
Christopher D Kassotis, John J Bromfield, Kara C Klemp, Chun-Xia Meng, Andrew Wolfe, R Thomas Zoeller, Victoria D Balise, Chiamaka J Isiguzo, Donald E Tillitt, Susan C Nagel
Unconventional oil and gas operations using hydraulic fracturing can contaminate surface and groundwater with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We have previously shown that 23 of 24 commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors in a human endometrial cancer cell reporter gene assay and that mixtures can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on these receptors. In the current study, pregnant female C57Bl/6 dams were exposed to a mixture of 23 commonly used unconventional oil and gas chemicals at approximately 3, 30, 300, and 3000 μg/kg·d, flutamide at 50 mg/kg·d, or a 0...
September 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453140/a-risk-assessment-tool-applied-to-the-study-of-shale-gas-resources
#11
Miguel Veiguela, Antonio Hurtado, Sonsoles Eguilior, Fernando Recreo, Nieves Roqueñi, Jorge Loredo
The implementation of a risk assessment tool with the capacity to evaluate the risks for health, safety and the environment (HSE) from extraction of non-conventional fossil fuel resources by the hydraulic fracturing (fracking) technique can be a useful tool to boost development and progress of the technology and winning public trust and acceptance of this. At the early project stages, the lack of data related the selection of non-conventional gas deposits makes it difficult the use of existing approaches to risk assessment of fluids injected into geologic formations...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428612/association-between-unconventional-natural-gas-development-in-the-marcellus-shale-and-asthma-exacerbations
#12
Sara G Rasmussen, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Meredith McCormack, Joan A Casey, Karen Bandeen-Roche, Dione G Mercer, Brian S Schwartz
IMPORTANCE: Asthma is common and can be exacerbated by air pollution and stress. Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has community and environmental impacts. In Pennsylvania, UNGD began in 2005, and by 2012, 6253 wells had been drilled. There are no prior studies of UNGD and objective respiratory outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between UNGD and asthma exacerbations. DESIGN: A nested case-control study comparing patients with asthma with and without exacerbations from 2005 through 2012 treated at the Geisinger Clinic, which provides primary care services to over 400 000 patients in Pennsylvania...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312253/air-monitoring-of-volatile-organic-compounds-at-relevant-receptors-during-hydraulic-fracturing-operations-in-washington-county-pennsylvania
#13
Joshua R Maskrey, Allison L Insley, Erin S Hynds, Julie M Panko
A 3-month air monitoring study was conducted in Washington County, Pennsylvania, at the request of local community members regarding the potential risks resulting from air emissions of pollutants related to hydraulic fracturing operations. Continuous air monitoring for total volatile organic compounds was performed at two sampling sites, including a school and a residence, located within 900 m of a hydraulic fracturing well pad that had been drilled prior to the study. Intermittent 24-hour air samples for 62 individual volatile organic compounds were also collected...
July 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175896/recent-trends-in-water-use-and-production-for-california-oil-production
#14
Kate Tiedeman, Sonia Yeh, Bridget R Scanlon, Jacob Teter, Gouri Shankar Mishra
Recent droughts and concerns about water use for petroleum extraction renew the need to inventory water use for oil production. We quantified water volumes used and produced by conventional oil production and hydraulic fracturing (HF) in California. Despite a 25% decrease in conventional oil production from 1999 to 2012, total water use increased by 30% though much of that increase was derived from reuse of produced water. Produced water volumes increased by 50%, with increasing amounts disposed in unlined evaporation ponds or released to surface water...
July 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172125/estimating-the-potential-toxicity-of-chemicals-associated-with-hydraulic-fracturing-operations-using-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-modeling
#15
Erin E Yost, John Stanek, Robert S DeWoskin, Lyle D Burgoon
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified 1173 chemicals associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids, flowback, or produced water, of which 1026 (87%) lack chronic oral toxicity values for human health assessments. To facilitate the ranking and prioritization of chemicals that lack toxicity values, it may be useful to employ toxicity estimates from quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Here we describe an approach for applying the results of a QSAR model from the TOPKAT program suite, which provides estimates of the rat chronic oral lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL)...
July 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27171137/spills-of-hydraulic-fracturing-chemicals-on-agricultural-topsoil-biodegradation-sorption-and-co-contaminant-interactions
#16
Molly C McLaughlin, Thomas Borch, Jens Blotevogel
Hydraulic fracturing frequently occurs on agricultural land. Yet the extent of sorption, transformation, and interactions among the numerous organic frac fluid and oil and gas wastewater constituents upon environmental release is hardly known. Thus, this study aims to advance our current understanding of processes that control the environmental fate and toxicity of commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals. Poly(ethylene glycol) surfactants were completely biodegraded in agricultural topsoil within 42-71 days, but their transformation was impeded in the presence of the biocide glutaraldehyde and was completely inhibited by salt at concentrations typical for oil and gas wastewater...
June 7, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073166/endocrine-disrupting-activities-of-surface-water-associated-with-a-west-virginia-oil-and-gas-industry-wastewater-disposal-site
#17
Christopher D Kassotis, Luke R Iwanowicz, Denise M Akob, Isabelle M Cozzarelli, Adam C Mumford, William H Orem, Susan C Nagel
Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility...
July 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050380/overview-of-chronic-oral-toxicity-values-for-chemicals-present-in-hydraulic-fracturing-fluids-flowback-and-produced-waters
#18
Erin E Yost, John Stanek, Robert S DeWoskin, Lyle D Burgoon
Concerns have been raised about potential public health effects that may arise if hydraulic fracturing-related chemicals were to impact drinking water resources. This study presents an overview of the chronic oral toxicity values-specifically, chronic oral reference values (RfVs) for noncancer effects, and oral slope factors (OSFs) for cancer-that are available for a list of 1173 chemicals that the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified as being associated with hydraulic fracturing, including 1076 chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and 134 chemicals detected in flowback or produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells...
May 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003622/the-development-and-testing-of-a-prototype-mini-baghouse-to-control-the-release-of-respirable-crystalline-silica-from-sand-movers
#19
Barbara M Alexander, Eric J Esswein, Michael G Gressel, Jerry L Kratzer, H Amy Feng, Bradley King, Arthur L Miller, Emanuele Cauda
Inhalation of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) is a significant risk to worker health during well completions operations (which include hydraulic fracturing) at conventional and unconventional oil and gas extraction sites. RCS is generated by pneumatic transfer of quartz-containing sand during hydraulic fracturing operations. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers identified concentrations of RCS at hydraulic fracturing sites that exceed 10 times the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) and up to 50 times the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26943595/hydraulic-fracturing-for-natural-gas-impact-on-health-and-environment
#20
David O Carpenter
Shale deposits exist in many parts of the world and contain relatively large amounts of natural gas and oil. Recent technological developments in the process of horizontal hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracturing or fracking) have suddenly made it economically feasible to extract natural gas from shale. While natural gas is a much cleaner burning fuel than coal, there are a number of significant threats to human health from the extraction process as currently practiced. There are immediate threats to health resulting from air pollution from volatile organic compounds, which contain carcinogens such as benzene and ethyl-benzene, and which have adverse neurologic and respiratory effects...
March 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
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