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Radon gas lung cancer

Gavin Gillmore, David Wertheim, Simon Crust
Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) are used extensively for monitoring alpha particle radiation, neutron flux and cosmic ray radiation. Radon gas inhalation is regarded as being a significant contributory factor to lung cancer deaths in the UK each year. Gas concentrations are often monitored using CR39 based SSNTDs as the natural decay of radon results in alpha particles which form tracks in these detectors. Such tracks are normally etched for about 4h to enable microscopic analysis. This study examined the effect of etching time on the appearance of alpha tracks in SSNTDs by collecting 2D and 3D image datasets using laser confocal microscope imaging techniques...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Maryam Yarahmadi, Abbas Shahsavani, Mohammad Hassan Mahmoudian, Narges Shamsedini, Noushin Rastkari, Majid Kermani
INTRODUCTION: Radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer after smoking. Thus, the determination of indoor radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces is an important public health concern. The purpose of this research was to measure the concentration of radon gas in residential homes and public places in the city of Shiraz and its relationship with the type and age of the buildings as well as the type of materials used to construct the building (brick, block). We also determined the radon dosages that occupants of the building would receive...
June 2016: Electronic Physician
A R Denman, R G M Crockett, C J Groves-Kirkby, P S Phillips
Radon gas is naturally occurring, and can concentrate in the built environment. It is radioactive and high concentration levels within buildings, including homes, have been shown to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. As a result, several methods have been developed to measure radon. The long-term average radon level determines the risk to occupants, but there is always pressure to complete measurements more quickly, particularly when buying and selling the home. For many years, the three-month exposure using etched-track detectors has been the de facto standard, but a decade ago, Phillips et al...
June 14, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
R Smyth, S Long, E Wiseman, D Sharpe, D Breen, A O'Regan
BACKGROUND: Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas and a level 1 carcinogen. It acts synergistically with cigarette smoke to cause lung cancer. In Ireland, radon is estimated to be associated with 13 % of all lung cancers. Rapid access lung cancer clinics (RALC's) were established in the UK and Ireland to improve lung cancer management outcomes. There has been no attempt to date to provide advice on household radon exposure assessments in this setting. AIMS: We performed a prospective feasibility study of radon assessment in our RALC to test the hypothesis that patients would avail of this service and that it would provide an opportunity for secondary prevention in at risk persons...
March 30, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Allison A Bain, Anne L Abbott, Laura L Miller
BACKGROUND: Radon gas has recently become more prominent in discussions of lung cancer prevention nationally and in Iowa. A review in 2013 of cancer plans in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program found that 42% of cancer plans, including Iowa's, had terminology on radon. Plans included awareness activities, home testing, remediation, policy, and policy evaluation. COMMUNITY CONTEXT: Iowa has the highest average radon concentrations in the United States; 70% of homes have radon concentrations above the Environmental Protection Agency's action levels...
April 14, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Ji Young Yoon, Jung-Dong Lee, So Won Joo, Dae Ryong Kang
Lung cancer has high mortality and incidence rates. The leading causes of lung cancer are smoking and radon exposure. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) has categorized radon as a carcinogenic substance causing lung cancer. Radon is a natural, radioactive substance; it is an inert gas that mainly exists in soil or rock. The gas decays into radioactive particles called radon progeny that can enter the human body through breathing. Upon entering the body, these radioactive elements release α-rays that affect lung tissue, causing lung cancer upon long-term exposure thereto...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Jung Ran Choi, Seong Yong Park, O Kyu Noh, Young Wha Koh, Dae Ryong Kang
Although the incidence and mortality for most cancers such as lung and colon are decreasing in several countries, they are increasing in several developed countries because of an unhealthy western lifestyles including smoking, physical inactivity and consumption of calorie-dense food. The incidences for lung and colon cancers in a few of these countries have already exceeded those in the United States and other western countries. Among them, lung cancer is the main cause of cancer death in worldwide. The cumulative survival rate at five years differs between 13 and 21 % in several countries...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Seungsoo Sheen, Keu Sung Lee, Wou Young Chung, Saeil Nam, Dae Ryong Kang
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Smoking is definitely the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Radon ((222)Rn) is a natural gas produced from radium ((226)Ra) in the decay series of uranium ((238)U). Radon exposure is the second most common cause of lung cancer and the first risk factor for lung cancer in never-smokers. Case-control studies have provided epidemiological evidence of the causative relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer. Twenty-four case-control study papers were found by our search strategy from the PubMed database...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Si-Heon Kim, Won Ju Hwang, Jeong-Sook Cho, Dae Ryong Kang
Exposure to radon gas is the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking. A large number of studies have reported that exposure to indoor radon, even at low concentrations, is associated with lung cancer in the general population. This paper reviewed studies from several countries to assess the attributable risk (AR) of lung cancer death due to indoor radon exposure and the effect of radon mitigation thereon. Worldwide, 3-20 % of all lung cancer deaths are likely caused by indoor radon exposure. These values tend to be higher in countries reporting high radon concentrations, which can depend on the estimation method...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Austin L Mitchell, W Michael Griffin, Elizabeth A Casman
The amount of radon in natural gas varies with its source. Little has been published about the radon from shale gas to date, making estimates of its impact on radon-induced lung cancer speculative. We measured radon in natural gas pipelines carrying gas from the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Radon concentrations ranged from 1,520 to 2,750 Bq/m(3) (41-74 pCi/L), and the throughput-weighted average was 1,983 Bq/m(3) (54 pCi/L). Potential radon exposure due to the use of Marcellus Shale gas for cooking and space heating using vent-free heaters or gas ranges in northeastern U...
February 16, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Shuguang Leng, Cynthia L Thomas, Amanda M Snider, Maria A Picchi, Wenshu Chen, Derall G Willis, Teara G Carr, Jacek Krzeminski, Dhimant Desai, Amin Shantu, Yong Lin, Marty R Jacobson, Steven A Belinsky
BACKGROUND: High radon exposure is a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma, a major lung cancer histology observed in former uranium miners. Radon exposure can cause oxidative stress, leading to pulmonary inflammation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pro-carcinogenic inflammatory cytokine that plays a pivotal role in lung cancer development. OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL6 promoter are associated with lung cancer in former uranium miners with high occupational exposure to radon gas...
April 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Hassan Lemjabbar-Alaoui, Omer Ui Hassan, Yi-Wei Yang, Petra Buchanan
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. About 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking and the use of tobacco products. However, other factors such as radon gas, asbestos, air pollution exposures, and chronic infections can contribute to lung carcinogenesis. In addition, multiple inherited and acquired mechanisms of susceptibility to lung cancer have been proposed. Lung cancer is divided into two broad histologic classes, which grow and spread differently: small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs)...
December 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Natalia Sumption, Dudley T Goodhead, Rhona M Anderson
Human exposure to high-linear energy transfer α-particles includes environmental (e.g. radon gas and its decay progeny), medical (e.g. radiopharmaceuticals) and occupational (nuclear industry) sources. The associated health risks of α-particle exposure for lung cancer are well documented however the risk estimates for leukaemia remain uncertain. To further our understanding of α-particle effects in target cells for leukaemogenesis and also to seek general markers of individual exposure to α-particles, this study assessed the transmission of chromosomal damage initially-induced in human haemopoietic stem and progenitor cells after exposure to high-LET α-particles...
2015: PloS One
Kyle P Messier, Ted Campbell, Philip J Bradley, Marc L Serre
Radon ((222)Rn) is a naturally occurring chemically inert, colorless, and odorless radioactive gas produced from the decay of uranium ((238)U), which is ubiquitous in rocks and soils worldwide. Exposure to (222)Rn is likely the second leading cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking via inhalation; however, exposure through untreated groundwater is also a contributing factor to both inhalation and ingestion routes. A land use regression (LUR) model for groundwater (222)Rn with anisotropic geological and (238)U based explanatory variables is developed, which helps elucidate the factors contributing to elevated (222)Rn across North Carolina...
August 18, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Joana Madureira, Inês Paciência, João Rufo, André Moreira, Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes, Alcides Pereira
Radon is a radioactive gas, abundant in granitic areas, such as in the city of Porto at the north-east of Portugal. This gas is a recognized carcinogenic agent, being appointed by the World Health Organization as the leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The aim of this preliminary survey was to determine indoor radon concentrations in public primary schools, to analyse the main factors influencing their indoor concentration levels and to estimate the effective dose in students and teachers in primary schools...
April 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Lauren Bergman, Jaeyoung Lee, Baki Sadi, Jing Chen
Exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes has been shown to result in an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The two largest contributors to indoor radon are radon in soil gas, formed from the rocks and soil surrounding the home, and building materials such as aggregate. This study measured the surface radon exhalation rates for 35 aggregate samples collected from producers across Canada. The radon exhalation rates ranged from 2.3 to 479.9 Bq m(-2) d(-1), with a mean of 80.7±112 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Using a simple, conservative analysis, the aggregate contribution to radon concentrations in an unfinished basement was determined...
June 2015: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
B Juste, J Ortiz, G Verdú, S Martorell
(222)Rn is a naturally occurring gas created from the decay of (226)Ra. The long-term health risk of breathing radon is lung cancer. One particular place where indoor radon concentrations can exceed national guidelines is in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) where treatment processes may contribute to ambient airborne concentrations. The aim of this paper was to study the radon concentration decrease after the application of corrective measures in a Spanish WWTP. According to first measures, air radon concentration exceeded International Commission Radiologica1 Protection (ICRP) normative (recommends intervention between 400 and 1000 Bq m(-3))...
June 2015: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Joan A Casey, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Sara G Rasmussen, Jennifer K Irving, Jonathan Pollak, Paul A Locke, Brian S Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Most indoor exposure occurs by diffusion of soil gas. Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. Pennsylvania has high indoor radon concentrations; buildings are often tested during real estate transactions, with results reported to the Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated predictors of indoor radon concentrations. METHODS: Using first-floor and basement indoor radon results reported to the PADEP between 1987 and 2013, we evaluated associations of radon concentrations (natural log transformed) with geology, water source, building characteristics, season, weather, community socioeconomic status, community type, and unconventional natural gas development measures based on drilled and producing wells...
November 2015: Environmental Health Perspectives
Michael C Branion-Calles, Trisalyn A Nelson, Sarah B Henderson
Radon is a carcinogenic radioactive gas produced by the decay of uranium. Accumulation of radon in residential structures contributes to lung cancer mortality. The goal of this research is to predict residential radon vulnerability classes for the province of British Columbia (BC) at aggregated spatial units. Spatially referenced indoor radon concentration data were partitioned into low, medium, and high classes of radon vulnerability. Radon vulnerability classes were then linked to environmental and housing data derived from existing geospatial datasets...
March 25, 2015: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Riccardo Borgoni, Davide De Francesco, Daniela De Bartolo, Nikos Tzavidis
Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and only second to smoking as major leading cause of lung cancer. The main concern is in indoor environments where the gas tends to accumulate and can reach high concentrations. The primary contributor of this gas into the building is from the soil although architectonic characteristics, such as building materials, can largely affect concentration values. Understanding the factors affecting the concentration in dwellings and workplaces is important both in prevention, when the construction of a new building is being planned, and in mitigation when the amount of Radon detected inside a building is too high...
December 2014: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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