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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333743/climate-change-and-mental-health
#1
Janna Trombley, Stephanie Chalupka, Laura Anderko
: Climate change is an enormous challenge for our communities, our country, and our world. Recently much attention has been paid to the physical impacts of climate change, including extreme heat events, droughts, extreme storms, and rising sea levels. However, much less attention has been paid to the psychological impacts. This article examines the likely psychological impacts of climate change, including anxiety, stress, and depression; increases in violence and aggression; and loss of community identity. Nurses can play a vital role in local and regional climate strategies by preparing their patients, health care facilities, and communities to effectively address the anticipated mental health impacts of climate change...
April 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330954/physiological-and-biochemical-changes-associated-with-acute-experimental-dehydration-in-the-desert-adapted-mouse-peromyscus-eremicus
#2
Lauren Kordonowy, Kaelina D Lombardo, Hannah L Green, Molly D Dawson, Evice A Bolton, Sarah LaCourse, Matthew D MacManes
Characterizing traits critical for adaptation to a given environment is an important first step in understanding how phenotypes evolve. How animals adapt to the extreme heat and aridity commonplace to deserts is an exceptionally interesting example of these processes, and has been the focus of study for decades. In contrast to those studies, where experiments are conducted on either wild animals or captive animals held in non-desert conditions, the study described here leverages a unique environmental chamber that replicates desert conditions for captive Peromyscus eremicus (cactus mouse)...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327609/impact-of-temperature-on-mortality-in-hubei-china-a-multi-county-time-series-analysis
#3
Yunquan Zhang, Chuanhua Yu, Junzhe Bao, Xudong Li
We examined the impact of extreme temperatures on mortality in 12 counties across Hubei Province, central China, during 2009-2012. Quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression combined with distributed lag non-linear model was first applied to estimate county-specific relationship between temperature and mortality. A multivariable meta-analysis was then used to pool the estimates of county-specific mortality effects of extreme cold temperature (1st percentile) and hot temperature (99th percentile). An inverse J-shaped relationship was observed between temperature and mortality at the provincial level...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323867/understanding-and-coping-with-extremism-in-an-online-collaborative-environment-a-data-driven-modeling
#4
Csilla Rudas, Olivér Surányi, Taha Yasseri, János Török
The Internet has provided us with great opportunities for large scale collaborative public good projects. Wikipedia is a predominant example of such projects where conflicts emerge and get resolved through bottom-up mechanisms leading to the emergence of the largest encyclopedia in human history. Disaccord arises whenever editors with different opinions try to produce an article reflecting a consensual view. The debates are mainly heated by editors with extreme views. Using a model of common value production, we show that the consensus can only be reached if groups with extreme views can actively take part in the discussion and if their views are also represented in the common outcome, at least temporarily...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322324/high-temperature-near-field-nanothermomechanical-rectification
#5
Mahmoud Elzouka, Sidy Ndao
Limited performance and reliability of electronic devices at extreme temperatures, intensive electromagnetic fields, and radiation found in space exploration missions (i.e., Venus &Jupiter planetary exploration, and heliophysics missions) and earth-based applications requires the development of alternative computing technologies. In the pursuit of alternative technologies, research efforts have looked into developing thermal memory and logic devices that use heat instead of electricity to perform computations...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321590/extreme-climatic-conditions-and-health-service-utilisation-across-rural-and-metropolitan-new-south-wales
#6
Edward Jegasothy, Rhydwyn McGuire, John Nairn, Robert Fawcett, Benjamin Scalley
Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319202/evolving-notch-polyq-tracts-reveal-possible-solenoid-interference-elements
#7
Albert J Erives
Polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts in regulatory proteins are extremely polymorphic. As functional elements under selection for length, triplet repeats are prone to DNA replication slippage and indel mutations. Many polyQ tracts are also embedded within intrinsically disordered domains, which are less constrained, fast evolving, and difficult to characterize. To identify structural principles underlying polyQ tracts in disordered regulatory domains, here I analyze deep evolution of metazoan Notch polyQ tracts, which can generate alleles causing developmental and neurogenic defects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315731/evaluation-of-the-drug-loading-capacity-of-different-lipid-nanoparticle-dispersions-by-passive-drug-loading
#8
Karin M Rosenblatt, Heike Bunjes
When using lipid nanoparticles as drug carrier system it is important to know how much drug can be loaded to the nanoparticles. The mainly used drug loading procedure is an empirical approach dissolving the drug in the liquid lipid during preparation of the nanoparticles. This approach does not necessarily lead to the truly loadable amount, as the lipid can, e.g. be overloaded, in particular when it is processed in the heat. In this work, a different procedure, passive drug loading, was evaluated to determine the drug loading capacity of various lipid nanoparticles (supercooled trimyristin emulsion droplets, solid trimyristin nanoparticles, tristearin nanoparticles in the α-modification and cholesteryl myristate nanoparticles in the supercooled smectic as well as in the crystalline state)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314926/american-football-and-fatal-exertional-heat-stroke-a-case-study-of-korey-stringer
#9
Andrew Grundstein, John A Knox, Jennifer Vanos, Earl R Cooper, Douglas J Casa
On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314795/unique-physiological-and-transcriptional-shifts-under-combinations-of-salinity-drought-and-heat
#10
Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Eduardo Blumwald, Zvi Peleg
Climate change-driven stresses such as extreme temperatures, water deficit, and ion imbalance are projected to exacerbate and jeopardize global food security. Under field conditions, these stresses usually occur simultaneously and cause damages that exceed single stresses. Here, we investigated the transcriptional patterns and morpho-physiological acclimations, of Brachypodium dystachion, to single salinity, drought and heat stresses as well as their double and triple stress combinations. Hierarchical clustering analysis of morpho-physiological acclimations showed that several traits exhibited a gradually aggravating effect as plants were exposed to combined stresses...
March 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301356/local-heating-test-for-detection-of-microcirculation-abnormalities-in-patients-with-diabetes-related-foot-complications
#11
Aleksey Parshakov, Nadezhda Zubareva, Sergey Podtaev, Peter Frick
OBJECTIVE: In this study, authors used a wavelet analysis of skin temperature (WAST) to assess the mechanisms of microvascular tone regulation during the local heating test in patients with diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). PARTICIPANTS: The participants included control subjects and 36 hospitalized patients with DFS between 52 and 79 years old (68 ± 8 years old). They were distributed among 5 groups: 15 control subjects, 8 patients with DFS who did not develop ulcerative or necrotic disorders, 10 patients who developed the neuroischemic form of DFS complicated by foot ulceration, 12 patients with DFS complicated by toe necrosis, and 6 patients with DFS and foot gangrene...
April 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300113/global-warming-and-recurrent-mass-bleaching-of-corals
#12
Terry P Hughes, James T Kerry, Mariana Álvarez-Noriega, Jorge G Álvarez-Romero, Kristen D Anderson, Andrew H Baird, Russell C Babcock, Maria Beger, David R Bellwood, Ray Berkelmans, Tom C Bridge, Ian R Butler, Maria Byrne, Neal E Cantin, Steeve Comeau, Sean R Connolly, Graeme S Cumming, Steven J Dalton, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido, C Mark Eakin, Will F Figueira, James P Gilmour, Hugo B Harrison, Scott F Heron, Andrew S Hoey, Jean-Paul A Hobbs, Mia O Hoogenboom, Emma V Kennedy, Chao-Yang Kuo, Janice M Lough, Ryan J Lowe, Gang Liu, Malcolm T McCulloch, Hamish A Malcolm, Michael J McWilliam, John M Pandolfi, Rachel J Pears, Morgan S Pratchett, Verena Schoepf, Tristan Simpson, William J Skirving, Brigitte Sommer, Gergely Torda, David R Wachenfeld, Bette L Willis, Shaun K Wilson
During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290523/a-phylogenetically-distinctive-and-extremely-heat-stable-light-driven-proton-pump-from-the-eubacterium-rubrobacter-xylanophilus-dsm-9941-t
#13
Kanae Kanehara, Susumu Yoshizawa, Takashi Tsukamoto, Yuki Sudo
Rhodopsins are proteins that contain seven transmembrane domains with a chromophore retinal and that function as photoreceptors for light-energy conversion and light-signal transduction in a wide variety of organisms. Here we characterized a phylogenetically distinctive new rhodopsin from the thermophilic eubacterium Rubrobacter xylanophilus DSM 9941(T) that was isolated from thermally polluted water. Although R. xylanophilus rhodopsin (RxR) is from Actinobacteria, it is located between eukaryotic and archaeal rhodopsins in the phylogenetic tree...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287714/hot-carrier-based-near-field-thermophotovoltaic-energy-conversion
#14
Raphael St-Gelais, Gaurang Ravindra Bhatt, Linxiao Zhu, Shanhui Fan, Michal Lipson
Near-field thermophotovoltaics (NFTPV) is a promising approach for direct conversion of heat to electrical power. This technology relies on the drastic enhancement of radiative heat transfer (compared to conventional blackbody radiation) that occurs when objects at different temperatures are brought to deep sub-wavelength distances (typically < 100 nm) from each other. Achieving such radiative heat transfer between a hot object and a photovoltaic (PV) cell could allow direct conversion of heat to electricity with a greater efficiency than using current solid-state technologies (e...
March 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287523/use-of-sacrificial-nanoparticles-to-remove-the-effects-of-shot-noise-in-contact-holes-fabricated-by-e-beam-lithography
#15
Shankar B Rananavare, Moshood K Morakinyo
Nano-patterns fabricated with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or electron-beam (E-beam) lithography exhibit unexpected variations in size. This variation has been attributed to statistical fluctuations in the number of photons/electrons arriving at a given nano-region arising from shot-noise (SN). The SN varies inversely to the square root of a number of photons/electrons. For a fixed dosage, the SN is larger in EUV and E-beam lithographies than for traditional (193 nm) optical lithography. Bottom-up and top-down patterning approaches are combined to minimize the effects of shot noise in nano-hole patterning...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279723/physiologic-cryoamputation-in-managing-critically-ill-patients-with-septic-advanced-acute-limb-ischemia
#16
Samuel L Chen, Isabella J Kuo, Nii-Kabu Kabutey, Roy M Fujitani
OBJECTIVES: Certain critically ill patients with advanced acute limb ischemia with a non-viable extremity may be unsuitable for transport to the operating room to undergo definitive amputation. In these unstable patients, rapid regional cryotherapy allows for prompt infectious source control and correction of hemodynamic and metabolic abnormalities, thereby lessening the risk associated with definitive surgical amputation. We describe our refined technique for lower extremity physiologic cryoamputation and review our institutional experience...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275727/extreme-warmth-and-heat-stressed-plankton-in-the-tropics-during-the-paleocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#17
Joost Frieling, Holger Gebhardt, Matthew Huber, Olabisi A Adekeye, Samuel O Akande, Gert-Jan Reichart, Jack J Middelburg, Stefan Schouten, Appy Sluijs
Global ocean temperatures rapidly warmed by ~5°C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 million years ago). Extratropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) met or exceeded modern subtropical values. With these warm extratropical temperatures, climate models predict tropical SSTs >35°C-near upper physiological temperature limits for many organisms. However, few data are available to test these projected extreme tropical temperatures or their potential lethality. We identify the PETM in a shallow marine sedimentary section deposited in Nigeria...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267319/designing-self-healing-superhydrophobic-surfaces-with-exceptional-mechanical-durability
#18
Kevin Golovin, Mathew Boban, Joseph M Mabry, Anish Tuteja
The past decade saw a drastic increase in the understanding and applications of superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs). Water beads up and effortlessly rolls off a SHS due to its combination of low surface energy and texture. Whether being used for drag reduction, stain repellency, self-cleaning, fog harvesting, or heat transfer applications (to name a few), the durability of a SHS is critically important. Although a handful of purportedly durable SHSs have been reported, there are still no criteria available for systematically designing a durable SHS...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266567/global-and-regional-changes-in-exposure-to-extreme-heat-and-the-relative-contributions-of-climate-and-population-change
#19
Zhao Liu, Bruce Anderson, Kai Yan, Weihua Dong, Hua Liao, Peijun Shi
The frequency and intensity of extreme heat wave events have increased in the past several decades and are likely to continue to increase in the future under the influence of human-induced climate change. Exposure refers to people, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses. Exposure to extreme heat and changes therein are not just determined by climate changes but also population changes. Here we analyze output for three scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions and socio-economic growth to estimate future exposure change taking account of both climate and population factors...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262843/pricing-the-urban-cooling-benefits-of-solar-panel-deployment-in-sydney-australia
#20
S Ma, M Goldstein, A J Pitman, N Haghdadi, I MacGill
Cities import energy, which in combination with their typically high solar absorption and low moisture availability generates the urban heat island effect (UHI). The UHI, combined with human-induced warming, makes our densely populated cities particularly vulnerable to climate change. We examine the utility of solar photovoltaic (PV) system deployment on urban rooftops to reduce the UHI, and we price one potential value of this impact. The installation of PV systems over Sydney, Australia reduces summer maximum temperatures by up to 1 °C because the need to import energy is offset by local generation...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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