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Extreme heat

Yan Zhang, Jingjing Jiang, Min Li, Pengfei Gao, Ying Zhou, Guomei Zhang, Shaomin Shuang, Chuan Dong
Herein, a novel, high sensitive, and specific colorimetric sensor for cysteine (Cys) based on pectinase protected gold nanoparticles (P@AuNPs) has been demonstrated for the first time. The P@AuNPs were synthesized by "MW-assisted heat method" and were characterized by UV-vis, TEM, FT-IR and zeta potential techniques. Cys could cause the aggregation of P@AuNPs due to formation of the strong covalent Au-S bond and electrostatic binding. As the Cys concentration increased, the color of the solutions gradually changed from wine-red to blue as well as the large absorption band shifted from 523 to 650nm upon P@AuNPs aggregation...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Luis Figueroa-Yañez, Alejandro Pereira-Santana, Ana Arroyo-Herrera, Ulises Rodriguez-Corona, Felipe Sanchez-Teyer, Jorge Espadas-Alcocer, Francisco Espadas-Gil, Felipe Barredo-Pool, Enrique Castaño, Luis Carlos Rodriguez-Zapata
Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10), and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2) domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily...
2016: PloS One
Émélie Laverdière, Hélène Payette, Pierrette Gaudreau, José A Morais, Bryna Shatenstein, Mélissa Généreux
OBJECTIVES: Extreme heat is known to increase heat-related health outcomes (HRHO). Incidence and predictors of HRHO were examined among older adults living in Quebec (Canada). METHOD: This prospective five-year study used data from the first follow-up of community-dwelling older adults from the NuAge cohort (2005-2006), located in three health regions of Southern Quebec. Medical, social and environmental factors, identified in Health Canada guidelines (2011), were used to develop the Older Adult Health Vulnerability Index (OAHVI)...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Haidong Tian, Yinfeng Zhang, Jingzhi Han, Zhuang Xu, Xiaodong Zhang, Shunquan Liu, Changsheng Wang, Yingchang Yang, Li Han, Jinbo Yang
Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets are prepared through electron beam exposure with a greatly reduced annealing time of 0.1 s. This is by far the most effective approach due to the effect of an extremely high heating rate featuring a rapid thermal process. The impact that the rapid thermal process has on crystallization is expounded by the introduction of the Landau model and Langevin dynamical simulations. The change of crystallization sequence from the α-Fe phase preceding the Nd2Fe14B phase under conventional annealing conditions, to synergetic crystallization under electron beam conditions is investigated...
October 19, 2016: Nanoscale
D L Hoover, A K Knapp, M D Smith
Extreme heat waves and drought are predicted to increase in frequency and magnitude with climate change. These extreme events often co-occur, making it difficult to separate their direct and indirect effects on important ecophysiological and carbon cycling processes such as photosynthesis. Here, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of experimental heat waves and drought on photosynthesis in Andropogon gerardii, a dominant C4 grass in a native mesic grassland. We experimentally imposed a two-week heat wave at four intensity levels under two contrasting soil moisture regimes: a well-watered control and an extreme drought...
October 18, 2016: Oecologia
Michael A Mole, Shaun Rodrigues DÁraujo, Rudi J van Aarde, Duncan Mitchell, Andrea Fuller
Most of southern Africa's elephants inhabit environments where environmental temperatures exceed body temperature, but we do not know how elephants respond to such environments. We evaluated the relationships between apparent thermoregulatory behaviour and environmental, skin and core temperatures for tame savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) that were free-ranging in the hot parts of the day, in their natural environment. Environmental temperature dictated elephant behaviour within a day, with potential consequences for fine-scale habitat selection, space use and foraging...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Shenli Zhang, Maria Perez-Page, Kelly Guan, Erick Yu, Joseph W Tringe, Ricardo H R Castro, Roland Faller, Pieter Stroeve
Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were applied together for the first time to reveal the porous structure transformation mechanisms of mesoporous silica MCM-41 subjected to temperatures up to 2885 K. Silica was experimentally characterized to inform the models and enable prediction of changes in gas adsorption/separation properties. MD simulations suggest that the pore closure process is activated by a collective diffusion of matrix atoms into the porous region, accompanied by bond reformation at the surface...
October 17, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
A Spallone, M Çelniku
A 49 years-old man came to our attention with severe flaccid paraparesis occurring 10 days before, almost immediately after he had immerged his legs in boiling water for treating his severe left lombo-crural pain. This was known to be due to a right L3-L4 herniated disk diagnosed by MRI. At the examination he showed severe motor paresis and absent reflexes of his lower limbs, whilst crural pain was very mild and sensation and urinary function were unaffected. The results of his neurological examination led us to suspect an acute motor axon degeneration related to the heating shock...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Lisa I Boitz, Helmut K Mayer
Time temperature integrators (TTIs) are useful tools in estimating the heat load applied on differently processed dairy products. The objective of this study was to analyze and assess three TTIs - lactulose, furosine, and acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) - in 70 high heated dairy products at retail in Austria and Germany comprising whipping cream, coffee cream/milk, and condensed milk products. While β-Lg was not appropriate to evaluate the heat load of these products, furosine and especially lactulose increased with rising intensity of heat treatment, and are appropriate to distinguish between several heating categories analyzed...
2016: Dairy Science & Technology
Dominik Florian Stangler, Andreas Hamann, Hans-Peter Kahle, Heinrich Spiecker
A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period...
October 13, 2016: Tree Physiology
Margarida Rocheta, João L Coito, Miguel J N Ramos, Luísa Carvalho, Jörg D Becker, Pablo Carbonell-Bejerano, Sara Amâncio
BACKGROUND: Predicted climate changes announce an increase of extreme environmental conditions including drought and excessive heat and light in classical viticultural regions. Thus, understanding how grapevine responds to these conditions and how different genotypes can adapt, is crucial for informed decisions on accurate viticultural actions. Global transcriptome analyses are useful for this purpose as the response to these abiotic stresses involves the interplay of complex and diverse cascades of physiological, cellular and molecular events...
October 12, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Yipeng Ren, Heting Pan, Ying Yang, Baoping Pan, Wenjun Bu
Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is an important member of the heat shock protein superfamily and is involved in protecting organisms against various stressors. In the present study, we used RACE to clone a full-length Cyclina sinensis HSP70 cDNA termed CsHSP70. The full length of the CsHSP70 cDNA was 2308 bp, with a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 42 bp, a 3' UTR of 268 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1998 bp encoding a polypeptide of 655 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 72.75 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 5...
October 7, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Chong Hu, Sheng Lin, Wanbo Li, Han Sun, Yangfan Chen, Chiu-Wing Chan, Chung-Hang Leung, Dik-Lung Ma, Hongkai Wu, Kangning Ren
An ultra-fast, extremely cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method was developed for fabricating flexible microfluidic chips with plastic membranes. With this method, we could fabricate plastic microfluidic chips rapidly (within 12 seconds per piece) at an extremely low cost (less than $0.02 per piece). We used a heated perfluoropolymer perfluoroalkoxy (often called Teflon PFA) solid stamp to press a pile of two pieces of plastic membranes, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coated with an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Jean-Pierre Schaller, Daniela Keller, Laurent Poget, Pascal Pratte, Etienne Kaelin, Damian McHugh, Gianluca Cudazzo, Daniel Smart, Anthony R Tricker, Lydia Gautier, Michel Yerly, Roger Reis Pires, Soazig Le Bouhellec, David Ghosh, Iris Hofer, Eva Garcia, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Serge Maeder
The chemical composition, in vitro genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity of the mainstream aerosol from the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) were compared with those of the mainstream smoke from the 3R4F reference cigarette. In contrast to the 3R4F, the tobacco plug in the THS2.2 is not burnt. The low operating temperature of THS2.2 caused distinct shifts in the aerosol composition compared with 3R4F. This resulted in a reduction of more than 90% for the majority of the analyzed harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs), while the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol remained similar...
October 6, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Abdel-Aziz El Mel, Nicolas Stephant, Romain Gautier
In this communication, we report on the growth, direct writing and nanopatterning of polymer/silver nanoblocks under low energy electron beam irradiation using a scanning electron microscope. The nanoblocks are produced by placing a droplet of an ethylene glycol solution containing silver nitrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone diluted in ethanol directly on a hot substrate heated up to 150 °C. Upon complete evaporation of the droplet, nanospheres, nano- and micro-triangles and nanoblocks made of silver-containing polymers, form over the substrate surface...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Rafael José Marques Peixoto, Karla Rodrigues Miranda, Leandro Araujo Lobo, Alessandra Granato, Pedro de Carvalho Maalouf, Hugo Emiliano de Jesus, Caio T C C Rachid, Saulo Roni Moraes, Henrique Fragoso Dos Santos, Raquel Silva Peixoto, Alexandre Soares Rosado, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto Domingues
The Antarctic soil microbial community has a crucial role in the growth and stabilization of higher organisms, such as vascular plants. Analysis of the soil microbiota composition in that extreme environmental condition is crucial to understand the ecological importance and biotechnological potential. We evaluated the efficiency of isolation and abundance of strict anaerobes in the vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica rhizosphere collected in the Antarctic's Admiralty Bay and associated biodiversity to metabolic perspective and enzymatic activity...
October 5, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Raul Harari Arjona, Jessika Piñeiros, Marcelo Ayabaca, Florencia Harari Freire
Climate change is a global concern but little is known about its potential health effects in workers from non-industrialized countries. Ecuadorian workers from the coast (hot environments) and Andean region (elevated UV radiation) might be at particular risk of such effects. In the Andean region, measurements of UV index show maximum levels exceeding 11, a level considered being extreme according to the WHO. Also, an increased incidence of skin cancer was reported the last decennium, this being the second most common cancer type in men and women...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Michela Bonafede, Alessandro Marinaccio, Federica Asta, Patrizia Schifano, Paola Michelozzi, Simona Vecchi
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between extreme temperature and population health has been well documented. Our objective was to assess the evidence supporting an association between extreme temperature and work related injuries. METHODS: We carried out a systematic search with no date limits using PubMed, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, EMBASE, Web of Science and the internet sites of key organizations on environmental and occupational health and safety...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Lucien W Gassie, James D Englehardt, Jian Wang, Nichole Brinkman, Jay Garland, Piero Gardinali, Tianjiao Guo
Net-zero water (NZW) systems, or water management systems achieving high recycling rates and low residuals generation so as to avoid water import and export, can also conserve energy used to heat and convey water, while economically restoring local eco-hydrology. However, design and operating experience are extremely limited. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the second phase of operation of an advanced oxidation-based NZW pilot system designed, constructed, and operated for a period of two years, serving an occupied four-person apartment...
November 15, 2016: Water Research
Zeyong Gao, Fujun Niu, Yibo Wang, Jing Luo, Zhanju Lin
The formation of thermokarst lakes can degrade alpine meadow ecosystems through changes in soil water and heat properties, which might have an effect on the regional surface water and groundwater processes. In this study, a typical thermokarst lake was selected in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), and the ecological index (SL) was used to divide the affected areas into extremely affected, severely affected, medium-affected, lightly affected, and non-affected areas, and soil hydrological properties, including saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water-holding capacity, were investigated...
September 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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