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Extreme heat

Barbara Demmig-Adams, Jared J Stewart, Christopher R Baker, William W Adams
We review the role of a family of transcription factors and their regulons in maintaining high photosynthetic performance across a range of challenging environments with a focus on extreme temperatures and water availability. Specifically, these transcription factors include CBFs (C-repeat binding factors) and DREBs (dehydration-responsive element-binding), with CBF/DREB1 primarily orchestrating cold adaptation and other DREBs serving in heat, drought, and salinity adaptation. The central role of these modulators in plant performance under challenging environments is based on (i) interweaving of these regulators with other key signaling networks (plant hormones and redox signals) as well as (ii) their function in integrating responses across the whole plant, from light-harvesting and sugar-production in the leaf to foliar sugar export and water import and on to the plant's sugar-consuming sinks (growth, storage, and reproduction)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aiguo Zhou, Shaolin Xie, Zhenlu Wang, Yanfeng Chen, Yue Zhang, Lanfen Fan, Fang Zeng, Jixing Zou
The great albino northern snakehead, Channa argus, is one of the most important economical fish in China. In the present study, cDNA encoding heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) was cloned and characterized. The cDNA was 2462 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 575-amino-acids polypeptide of 61.10 kDa (theoretical isoelectric point [pI]: 5.66). BLAST analysis showed that AcaHSP60 was highly similar with other HSP60s, and three conserved amino acid blocks and characteristic motifs or domains defined as HSP60 protein family signatures...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Simon Michael Papalexiou, Amir AghaKouchak, Kevin E Trenberth, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou
Trends in short-lived high-temperature extremes record a different dimension of change than the extensively studied annual and seasonal mean daily temperatures. They also have important socioeconomic, environmental, and human health implications. Here, we present analysis of the highest temperature of the year for approximately 9000 stations globally, focusing on quantifying spatially explicit exceedance probabilities during the recent 50- and 30-year periods. A global increase of 0.19°C per decade during the past 50 years (through 2015) accelerated to 0...
January 2018: Earth's Future
Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Marcela Martínez-Busi, Martín Galvalisi, Manuel Minteguiaga, José Pedro Prieto, María Cecilia Scorza
Adulteration is a common practice in the illicit drugs market, but the psychoactive and toxic effects provided by adulterants are clinically underestimated. Coca-paste (CP) is a smokable form of cocaine which has an extremely high abuse liability. CP seized samples are sold adulterated; however, qualitative and quantitative data of CP adulteration in forensic literature is still scarce. Besides, it is unknown if adulterants remain stable when CP is heated. This study was designed to report the chemical content of an extensive series of CP seized samples and to demonstrate the stability (i...
March 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
J Parente, M G Pereira, M Amraoui, E M Fischer
Heat waves (HW) can have devastating social, economic and environmental impacts. Together with long-term drought, they are the main factors contributing to wildfires. Surprisingly, the quantitative and objective analysis leading to the identification and characterization of HW in current and future climate conditions as well as its influence on the occurrence of extreme wildfires (EW) has never been performed for Portugal and are the main objectives of this study. For this reason, we assess HW in recent past and future climate based on a consistent high resolution meteorological database and have compared their occurrence with long and reliable, precise and detailed information about Portuguese fire events...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Saskia Den Boon, Constanza Vallenas, Mauricio Ferri, Susan L Norris
Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD) health facility transmission can result in infection and death of health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports countries in preparing for and responding to public health emergencies, which often require developing new guidance in short timelines with scarce evidence. The objective of this study was to understand frontline physicians' and nurses' perspectives about personal protective equipment (PPE) use during the 2014-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa and to incorporate these findings into the development process of a WHO rapid advice guideline...
2018: F1000Research
Vishnu Vardhan Garla, Sohail Abdul Salim, Licy L Yanes-Cardozo
A 27-year-old male patient who presented to the emergency room with complaints of sweating, palpitations, heat intolerance, insomnia and weight loss for the last 3 months. His medical history was significant for hypertension. On examination, he was tachycardic, hypertensive, had tremors of the upper extremities and a smooth goitre with a thyroid bruit. Laboratory assessment revealed a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, high free thyroxine and positive thyroid receptor antibodies. Complete blood count showed pancytopenia...
March 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Qiang Li, Wenli Huang, Chuan Xiong, Jian Zhao
Pleurotus eryngii is widely cultivated in China. However, our understanding of its transcriptional response to heavy metal stress and the underlying mechanism of nitric oxide (NO) in enhancing its tolerance to heavy metals is limited. In the present study, RNA-seq was used to generate large transcript sequences from P. eryngii exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) and exogenous NO. A total of 45,833 unigenes were assembled from the P. eryngii transcriptome, of which 32,333 (70.54%) unigenes matched known proteins in the nr database...
March 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Y Song, D Zhao, X Xu, F Lv, L Li, Y Jiang, O Wang, W Xia, X Xing, M Li
We identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in SERPINH1 in a Chinese boy suffering from recurrent fractures, femoral deformities, and growth retardation, which resulted in extremely rare autosomal recessive OI type X. Long-term treatment of BPs was effective in increasing BMD Z-score, reducing fracture incidence and reshaping vertebrae compression. INTRODUCTION: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable bone disorder characterized by low bone mineral density, recurrent fractures, and progressive bone deformities...
March 9, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Françoise Debart, Christelle Dupouy, Jean-Jacques Vasseur
Oligonucleotides (ONs) have been envisaged for therapeutic applications for more than thirty years. However, their broad use requires overcoming several hurdles such as instability in biological fluids, low cell penetration, limited tissue distribution, and off-target effects. With this aim, many chemical modifications have been introduced into ONs definitively as a means of modifying and better improving their properties as gene silencing agents and some of them have been successful. Moreover, in the search for an alternative way to make efficient ON-based drugs, the general concept of prodrugs was applied to the oligonucleotide field...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
K W Oleson, G B Anderson, B Jones, S A McGinnis, B Sanderson
Previous studies examining future changes in heat/cold waves using climate model ensembles have been limited to grid cell-average quantities. Here, we make use of an urban parameterization in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that represents the urban heat island effect, which can exacerbate extreme heat but may ameliorate extreme cold in urban relative to rural areas. Heat/cold wave characteristics are derived for U.S. regions from a bias-corrected CESM 30-member ensemble for climate outcomes driven by the RCP8...
February 2018: Climatic Change
Thi Thuy Nguyen, Fayna Mammeri, Souad Ammar
Iron oxide and gold-based magneto-plasmonic nanostructures exhibit remarkable optical and superparamagnetic properties originating from their two different components. As a consequence, they have improved and broadened the application potential of nanomaterials in medicine. They can be used as multifunctional nanoprobes for magneto-plasmonic heating as well as for magnetic and optical imaging. They can also be used for magnetically assisted optical biosensing, to detect extreme traces of targeted bioanalytes...
March 7, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kiyoshi Tamura, Toshiyuki Maruyama
Objective : Endovenous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), a relatively new technique for treating great saphenous varicose veins, is less invasive compared with stripping surgery. This study examined the mid-term safety and effectiveness of RFA for varicose veins. Materials and Methods : We enrolled 104 patients (147 limbs) who underwent RFA for varicose veins of the lower extremities (females, 67; 64.4%). The mean age was 68.9±9.2 years (39-85 years). In 121 limbs (82.3%), there were great saphenous veins. All patients were observed as outpatients for 12 months after the procedure...
December 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Kunihiro Ikuta, Yoshihiro Nishida, Hideshi Sugiura, Satoshi Tsukushi, Kenji Yamada, Hiroshi Urakawa, Eisuke Arai, Shunsuke Hamada, Naoki Ishiguro
BACKGROUND: Biological reconstruction with recycled heat-treated autografts has been an option for a segmental skeletal defect after intercalary resection for malignant musculoskeletal tumors in the extremity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients treated with this procedure and identify factors affecting the incidence of complications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 24 patients treated with heat-treated autografts after intercalary resection at our institution between 1992 and 2015...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
David A Nelson, Silas J Leavesley, Carmen D Zirlott, Xi-Ming Yang, James M Downey
Implementation of clinical guidelines for diagnosing Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) will demand screening many millions of patients who are considered at-risk. This will demand faster, easier screening technologies to identify patients with compromised blood flow to the extremities. The feasibility of using surface temperature response to Ka band (26.5 - 40 GHz) near-field irradiation to assess skin blood flow was explored using an animal model. Ears of domestic rabbits were subjected to low power continuous wave radio frequency heating from an open-ended waveguide (WR-28) at f=35 GHz...
March 7, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Phoebe Tengdin, Wenjing You, Cong Chen, Xun Shi, Dmitriy Zusin, Yingchao Zhang, Christian Gentry, Adam Blonsky, Mark Keller, Peter M Oppeneer, Henry C Kapteyn, Zhensheng Tao, Margaret M Murnane
It has long been known that ferromagnets undergo a phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic at the Curie temperature, associated with critical phenomena such as a divergence in the heat capacity. A ferromagnet can also be transiently demagnetized by heating it with an ultrafast laser pulse. However, to date, the connection between out-of-equilibrium and equilibrium phase transitions, or how fast the out-of-equilibrium phase transitions can proceed, was not known. By combining time- and angle-resolved photoemission with time-resolved transverse magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopies, we show that the same critical behavior also governs the ultrafast magnetic phase transition in nickel...
March 2018: Science Advances
Sean T Hunt, Yuriy Román-Leshkov
Conspecuts Commercial and emerging renewable energy technologies are underpinned by precious metal catalysts, which enable the transformation of reactants into useful products. However, the noble metals (NMs) comprise the least abundant elements in the lithosphere, making them prohibitively scarce and expensive for future global-scale technologies. As such, intense research efforts have been devoted to eliminating or substantially reducing the loadings of NMs in various catalytic applications. These efforts have resulted in a plethora of heterogeneous NM catalyst morphologies beyond the traditional supported spherical nanoparticle...
March 6, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Federico Cilento, Giulia Manzoni, Andrea Sterzi, Simone Peli, Andrea Ronchi, Alberto Crepaldi, Fabio Boschini, Cephise Cacho, Richard Chapman, Emma Springate, Hiroshi Eisaki, Martin Greven, Mona Berciu, Alexander F Kemper, Andrea Damascelli, Massimo Capone, Claudio Giannetti, Fulvio Parmigiani
Many puzzling properties of high-critical temperature ( T c ) superconducting (HTSC) copper oxides have deep roots in the nature of the antinodal quasiparticles, the elementary excitations with wave vector parallel to the Cu-O bonds. These electronic states are most affected by the onset of antiferromagnetic correlations and charge instabilities, and they host the maximum of the anisotropic superconducting gap and pseudogap. We use time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet photoemission with proper photon energy (18 eV) and time resolution (50 fs) to disclose the ultrafast dynamics of the antinodal states in a prototypical HTSC cuprate...
February 2018: Science Advances
Caroline J Muller, David M Romps
Idealized simulations of tropical moist convection have revealed that clouds can spontaneously clump together in a process called self-aggregation. This results in a state where a moist cloudy region with intense deep convection is surrounded by extremely dry subsiding air devoid of deep convection. Because of the idealized settings of the simulations where it was discovered, the relevance of self-aggregation to the real world is still debated. Here, we show that self-aggregation feedbacks play a leading-order role in the spontaneous genesis of tropical cyclones in cloud-resolving simulations...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Syed Gul Abbas Shah Sani, Peter L Chang, Asif Zubair, Noelia Carrasquilla-Garcia, Matilde Cordeiro, Ramachandra Varma Penmetsa, M Farooq H Munis, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Douglas R Cook, Eric J von Wettberg
Chickpea ( L.) production in arid regions, such as those predominant in Pakistan, faces immense challenges of drought and heat stress. Addressing these challenges is made more difficult by the lack of genetic and phenotypic characterization of available cultivated varieties and breeding materials. Genotyping-by-sequencing offers a rapid and cost-effective means to identify genome-wide nucleotide variation in crop germplasm. When combined with extended crop phenotypes deduced from climatic variation at sites of collection, the data can predict which portions of genetic variation might have roles in climate resilience...
March 2018: Plant Genome
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