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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432393/more-functions-of-torpor-and-their-roles-in-a-changing-world
#1
Julia Nowack, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Increased winter survival by reducing energy expenditure in adult animals is often viewed as the primary function of torpor. However, torpor has many other functions that ultimately increase the survival of heterothermic mammals and birds. In this review, we summarize new findings revealing that animals use torpor to cope with the conditions during and after natural disasters, including fires, storms, and heat waves. Furthermore, we suggest that torpor, which also prolongs longevity and was likely crucial for survival of mammals during the time of the dinosaur extinctions, will be advantageous in a changing world...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424893/diversity-in-growth-patterns-among-strains-of-the-lethal-fungal-pathogen-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-across-extended-thermal-optima
#2
Jamie Voyles, Leah R Johnson, Jason Rohr, Rochelle Kelly, Carley Barron, Delaney Miller, Josh Minster, Erica Bree Rosenblum
The thermal sensitivities of organisms regulate a wide range of ecological interactions, including host-parasite dynamics. The effect of temperature on disease ecology can be remarkably complex in disease systems where the hosts are ectothermic and where thermal conditions constrain pathogen reproductive rates. Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a lethal fungal disease that is influenced by temperature. However, recent temperature studies have produced contradictory findings, suggesting that our current understanding of thermal effects on Bd may be incomplete...
April 19, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423462/geochemical-signatures-of-benthic-foraminiferal-shells-from-a-heat-polluted-shallow-marine-environment-provide-field-evidence-for-growth-and-calcification-under-extreme-warmth
#3
Danna Titelboim, Aleksey Sadekov, Ahuva Almogi-Labin, Barak Herut, Michal Kucera, Christiane Schmidt, Orit Hyams-Kaphzan, Sigal Abramovich
Shallow marine calcifiers play an important role as marine ecosystem engineers and in the global carbon cycle. Understanding their response to warming is essential to evaluate the fate of marine ecosystems under global change scenarios. A rare opportunity to test the effect of warming acting on natural ecosystems is by investigation of heat-polluted areas. Here we study growth and calcification in benthic foraminifera that inhabit a thermally polluted coastal area in Israel, where they are exposed to elevated temperatures reaching up to ~42°C in summer...
April 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423055/comparative-analysis-of-the-expression-level-of-recombinant-ginsenoside-transforming-%C3%AE-glucosidase-in-gras-hosts-and-mass-production-of-the-ginsenoside-rh2-mix
#4
Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi, Chang-Hao Cui, Seul-Ki Park, Nam Soo Han, Sun-Chang Kim, Wan-Taek Im
The ginsenoside Rh2, a pharmaceutically active component of ginseng, is known to have anticancer and antitumor effects. However, white ginseng and red ginseng have extremely low concentrations of Rh2 or Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3]. To enhance the production of food-grade ginsenoside Rh2, an edible enzymatic bioconversion technique was developed adopting GRAS host strains. A β-glucosidase (BglPm), which has ginsenoside conversion ability, was expressed in three GRAS host strains (Corynebacterium glutamicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactococus lactis) by using a different vector system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421177/variation-in-population-vulnerability-to-heat-wave-in-western-australia
#5
Jianguo Xiao, Tony Spicer, Le Jian, Grace Yajuan Yun, Changying Shao, John Nairn, Robert J B Fawcett, Andrew Robertson, Tarun Stephen Weeramanthri
Heat waves (HWs) have killed more people in Australia than all other natural hazards combined. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of HWs and leads to a doubling of heat-related deaths over the next 40 years. Despite being a significant public health issue, HWs do not attract the same level of attention from researchers, policy makers, and emergency management agencies compared to other natural hazards. The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors that might lead to population vulnerability to HW in Western Australia (WA)...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418190/strategic-shuffling-of-clay-layers-to-imbue-them-with-responsiveness
#6
Raj Kumar Gogoi, Kalyan Raidongia
Layers of naturally occurring clay minerals are rearranged to prepare highly sensitive multiresponsive clay-clay bilayer membrane (CCBM). The CCBM introduced here responds to the minuscule changes in the surrounding environments including temperature, humidity, and presence of solvent vapors by morphing in specific manners. Strips cut from CCBM exhibit up to 588 N kg(-1) force output when exposed to temperature fluctuations. Inheriting the natural stability of clay minerals, CCBM demonstrates extreme robustness, heating up to 500 °C, cooling with liquid N2 and exposure to corrosive chemical vapors did not deteriorate its bending performance...
April 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416700/intensifying-postfire-weather-and-biological-invasion-drive-species-loss-in-a-mediterranean-type-biodiversity-hotspot
#7
Jasper A Slingsby, Cory Merow, Matthew Aiello-Lammens, Nicky Allsopp, Stuart Hall, Hayley Kilroy Mollmann, Ross Turner, Adam M Wilson, John A Silander
Prolonged periods of extreme heat or drought in the first year after fire affect the resilience and diversity of fire-dependent ecosystems by inhibiting seed germination or increasing mortality of seedlings and resprouting individuals. This interaction between weather and fire is of growing concern as climate changes, particularly in systems subject to stand-replacing crown fires, such as most Mediterranean-type ecosystems. We examined the longest running set of permanent vegetation plots in the Fynbos of South Africa (44 y), finding a significant decline in the diversity of plots driven by increasingly severe postfire summer weather events (number of consecutive days with high temperatures and no rain) and legacy effects of historical woody alien plant densities 30 y after clearing...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414789/effect-of-ph-on-temperature-controlled-degradation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-heat-shock-protein-expression-and-mucosal-immunity-in-the-sea-cucumber-isostichopus-badionotus
#8
Mariel Gullian Klanian, Montserrat Terrats Preciat
This study evaluated the effect of pH on the activity of antioxidant and immune enzymes in the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus exposed to different temperatures. The organisms (530 ±110 g) were exposed to 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 34 and 36°C for 6 h to evaluate thermal limits at two water pH values (treatment = 7.70; control = 8.17). For the thermal tolerance experiment, the organisms were exposed to sublethal temperature of 34°C for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. I. badionotus showed signs of thermal stress by synthesizing heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) at the cold (16°C) and warm thermal limits (34°C)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413684/physiological-effects-of-environmentally-relevant-multi-day-thermal-stress-on-wild-juvenile-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#9
Emily Corey, Tommi Linnansaari, Richard A Cunjak, Suzanne Currie
The frequency of extreme thermal events in temperate freshwater systems is expected to increase alongside global surface temperature. The Miramichi River, located in eastern Canada, is a prominent Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) river where water temperatures can exceed the proposed upper thermal limit for the species (~27°C). Current legislation closes the river to recreational angling when water temperatures exceed 20°C for two consecutive nights. We aimed to examine how natural thermal variation, representative of extreme high thermal events, affected the thermal tolerance and physiology of wild, juvenile Atlantic salmon...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411725/effects-of-heat-stress-on-risk-perceptions-and-risk-taking
#10
Chu-Hsiang Chang, Thomas E Bernard, Jennifer Logan
Exposure to extreme heat at work is a serious occupational hazard, as exposure can result in heat-related illnesses, and it has been linked to increased risk of accidents and injuries. The current study aimed to examine whether heat exposure is related to changes in individuals' psychological process of risk evaluation, and whether acclimatization can mitigate the effect of heat exposure. A study with quasi-experiment research design was used to compare participants' risk perceptions and risk-taking behaviors at baseline, initial exposure to heat, and exposure after acclimatization across male participants who were exposed to heat (N = 6), and males (N = 5) and females (N = 6) who were in the control group who were exposed to ambient temperature...
July 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411635/guide-to-the-preparation-of-molecularly-imprinted-polymer-nanoparticles-for-protein-recognition-by-solid-phase-synthesis
#11
Jingjing Xu, Paulina X Medina-Rangel, Karsten Haupt, Bernadette Tse Sum Bui
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic antibody mimics possessing specific cavities designed for a target molecule. Nowadays, molecular imprinting of proteins still remains a challenge as the generation of selective imprinted cavities is extremely difficult, due to their flexible structure and the presence of a multitude of functional sites. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a solid-phase synthesis strategy to prepare MIPs specific for any protein that can be immobilized in an oriented way on a solid support...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409088/city-scale-climate-change-policies-do-they-matter-for-wellbeing
#12
Rosemary Hiscock, Arja Asikainen, Jouni Tuomisto, Matti Jantunen, Erkki Pärjälä, Clive E Sabel
Climate change mitigation policies aim to reduce climate change through reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whereas adaption policies seek to enable humans to live in a world with increasingly variable and more extreme climatic conditions. It is increasingly realised that enacting such policies will have unintended implications for public health, but there has been less focus on their implications for wellbeing. Wellbeing can be defined as a positive mental state which is influenced by living conditions...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407135/pro-heat-stress-as-a-potential-etiology-of-mesoamerican-and-sri-lankan-nephropathy-a-late-night-consult-with-sherlock-holmes
#13
Richard J Johnson
Epidemics of chronic kidney disease are now recognized in Central America, Mexico, India and Sri Lanka, and there is also some evidence that similar epidemics may be occurring in the USA, Thailand and elsewhere. A common denominator for each location is manually working outside in extremely hot environments. Here we review the evidence that the primary etiology may be heat stress related to repeated subclinical or clinical acute kidney injury that eventually manifests as chronic kidney disease. In some aspects, the disease may manifest as subclinical heat stroke, subclinical rhabdomyolysis or a subclinical tumor lysis syndrome...
April 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401624/unexpected-population-response-to-increasing-temperature-in-the-context-of-a-strong-species-interaction
#14
Jeffrey D White, Orlando Sarnelle, Stephen K Hamilton
Climate change is driving large changes in the spatial and temporal distributions of species, with significant consequences for individual populations. Community- and ecosystem-level implications of altered species distributions may be complex and challenging to anticipate due to the cascading effects of disrupted interactions among species, which may exhibit threshold responses to extreme climatic events. Toxic, bloom-forming cyanobacteria like Microcystis are expected to increase worldwide with climate change, due in part to their high temperature optima for growth...
April 12, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399362/insights-into-the-morphological-instability-of-bulk-heterojunction-ptb7-th-pcbm-solar-cells-upon-high-temperature-aging
#15
Yen-Ju Hsieh, Yu-Ching Huang, Wei-Shin Liu, Yu-An Su, Cheng-Si Tsao, Syang-Peng Rwei, Leeyih Wang
The impact of the morphological stability of the donor/acceptor mixture under thermal stress on the photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on the poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']-dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]-thiophene)-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl]/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7-Th/PC61BM) blend is extensively investigated. Both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs show that long-term high-temperature aging stimulates the formation of microscale clusters, the size of which, however, is about 1 order of magnitude smaller than those observed in thermally annealed poly(3-hexylthiophene)/PC61BM composite film...
April 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398715/grass-like-alumina-with-low-refractive-index-for-scalable-broadband-omnidirectional-antireflection-coatings-on-glass-using-atomic-layer-deposition
#16
Christoffer Kauppinen, Kirill Isakov, Markku Sopanen
We present a new type of nanoporous antireflection (AR) coating based on grass-like alumina with a graded refractive index profile. The grass-like alumina AR coating is fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina and immersion in heated deionized water. Optical transmittance of 99.5% at 500 nm was achieved with average transmittance of 99.0% in the range of 350-800 nm at normal incidence for double-sided coated glass. Angular spectral transmittance (0-80°) of the double-sided AR coated glass was also measured in the range of 350-800 nm and found to have mean spectral transmittance of 94...
April 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394190/technology-derived-storage-solutions-for-stabilizing-insulin-in-extreme-weather-conditions-i-the-vivicap-1-device
#17
Andreas Pfützner, Gidi Pesach, Ron Nagar
BACKGROUND: Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures <4°C/39°F or >30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy...
April 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391594/the-functional-roles-of-the-unstructured-n-and-c-terminal-regions-in-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-and-other-mammalian-small-heat-shock-proteins
#18
John A Carver, Aidan B Grosas, Heath Ecroyd, Roy A Quinlan
Small heat-shock proteins (sHsps), such as αB-crystallin, are one of the major classes of molecular chaperone proteins. In vivo, under conditions of cellular stress, sHsps are the principal defence proteins that prevent large-scale protein aggregation. Progress in determining the structure of sHsps has been significant recently, particularly in relation to the conserved, central and β-sheet structured α-crystallin domain (ACD). However, an understanding of the structure and functional roles of the N- and C-terminal flanking regions has proved elusive mainly because of their unstructured and dynamic nature...
April 8, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391379/heat-stress-induced-effects-of-photosystem-i-an-overview-of-structural-and-functional-responses
#19
REVIEW
Alexander G Ivanov, Maya Y Velitchkova, Suleyman I Allakhverdiev, Norman P A Huner
Temperature is one of the main factors controlling the formation, development, and functional performance of the photosynthetic apparatus in all photoautotrophs (green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria) on Earth. The projected climate change scenarios predict increases in air temperature across Earth's biomes ranging from moderate (3-4 °C) to extreme (6-8 °C) by the year 2100 (IPCC in Climate change 2007: The physical science basis: summery for policymakers, IPCC WG1 Fourth Assessment Report 2007; Climate change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change, IPCC WG3 Fifth Assessment Report 2014)...
April 8, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389828/cross-adaptation-heat-and-cold-adaptation-to-improve-physiological-and-cellular-responses-to-hypoxia
#20
REVIEW
Oliver R Gibson, Lee Taylor, Peter W Watt, Neil S Maxwell
To prepare for extremes of heat, cold or low partial pressures of oxygen (O2), humans can undertake a period of acclimation or acclimatization to induce environment-specific adaptations, e.g. heat acclimation (HA), cold acclimation (CA), or altitude training. While these strategies are effective, they are not always feasible due to logistical impracticalities. Cross-adaptation is a term used to describe the phenomenon whereby alternative environmental interventions, e.g. HA or CA, may be a beneficial alternative to altitude interventions, providing physiological stress and inducing adaptations observable at altitude...
April 7, 2017: Sports Medicine
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