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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150945/development-of-an-in-vivo-mouse-model-of-discogenic-low-back-pain
#1
Changgui Shi, Vaskar Das, Xin Li, Ranjan Kc, Sujun Qiu, InSug O-Sullivan, Richard L Ripper, Jeffrey S Kroin, Fackson Mwale, Atiyayein A Wallace, Bingqian Zhu, Lan Zhao, Andre J van Wijnen, Mingliang Ji, Jun Lu, Gina Votta-Velis, Wen Yuan, Hee-Jeong Im
Discogenic Low back pain (DLBP) is extremely common and costly. Effective treatments are lacking due to DLBP's unknown pathogenesis. Currently, there are no in vivo mouse models of DLBP, which restricts research in this field. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable DLBP model in mouse that captures the pathological changes in the disc and allows longitudinal pain testing. The model was generated by puncturing the mouse lumbar discs (L4/5, L5/6, and L6/S1) and removing the nucleus pulposus using a microscalpel under the microscope...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146414/predicting-chronic-climate-driven-disturbances-and-their-mitigation
#2
REVIEW
Nate G McDowell, Sean T Michaletz, Katrina E Bennett, Kurt C Solander, Chonggang Xu, Reed M Maxwell, Craig D Allen, Richard S Middleton
Society increasingly demands the stable provision of ecosystem resources to support our population. Resource risks from climate-driven disturbances, including drought, heat, insect outbreaks, and wildfire, are growing as a chronic state of disequilibrium results from increasing temperatures and a greater frequency of extreme events. This confluence of increased demand and risk may soon reach critical thresholds. We explain here why extreme chronic disequilibrium of ecosystem function is likely to increase dramatically across the globe, creating no-analog conditions that challenge adaptation...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145446/large-scale-climatic-effects-on-traditional-hawaiian-fishpond-aquaculture
#3
Daniel McCoy, Margaret A McManus, Keliʻiahonui Kotubetey, Angela Hiʻilei Kawelo, Charles Young, Brandon D'Andrea, Kathleen C Ruttenberg, Rosanna ʻAnolani Alegado
Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143930/photovoltaic-cell-electrical-heating-system-for-removing-snow-on-panel-including-verification
#4
Agnes Weiss, Helmut Weiss
Small photovoltaic plants in private ownership are typically rated at 5 kW (peak). The panels are mounted on roofs at a decline angle of 20° to 45°. In winter time, a dense layer of snow at a width of e.g., 10 cm keeps off solar radiation from the photovoltaic cells for weeks under continental climate conditions. Practically, no energy is produced over the time of snow coverage. Only until outside air temperature has risen high enough for a rather long-time interval to allow partial melting of snow; the snow layer rushes down in an avalanche...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143880/effects-of-heat-waves-on-daily-excess-mortality-in-14-korean-cities-during-the-past-20%C3%A2-years-1991-2010-an-application-of-the-spatial-synoptic-classification-approach
#5
Dae-Geun Lee, Kyu Rang Kim, Jiyoung Kim, Baek-Jo Kim, Chun-Ho Cho, Scott C Sheridan, Laurence S Kalkstein, Ho Kim, Seung-Muk Yi
The aims of this study are to explore the "offensive" summer weather types classified under the spatial synoptic classification (SSC) system and to evaluate their impacts on excess mortality in 14 Korean cities. All-cause deaths per day for the entire population were examined over the summer months (May-September) of 1991-2010. Daily deaths were standardized to account for long-term trends of subcycles (annual, seasonal, and weekly) at the mid-latitudes. In addition, a mortality prediction model was constructed through multiple stepwise regression to develop a heat-health warning system based on synoptic climatology...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142117/long-necks-enhance-and-constrain-foraging-capacity-in-aquatic-vertebrates
#6
Rory P Wilson, Agustina Gómez-Laich, Juan-Emilio Sala, Giacomo Dell'Omo, Mark D Holton, Flavio Quintana
Highly specialized diving birds display substantial dichotomy in neck length with, for example, cormorants and anhingas having extreme necks, while penguins and auks have minimized necks. We attached acceleration loggers to Imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps and Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, both foraging in waters over the Patagonian Shelf, to examine the difference in movement between their respective heads and bodies in an attempt to explain this dichotomy. The penguins had head and body attitudes and movements that broadly concurred throughout all phases of their dives...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141194/marginal-stability-drives-irreversible-unfolding-of-large-multi-domain-family-3-glycosylhydrolases-from-thermo-tolerant-yeast
#7
Mohammad Asif Shah, Saroj Mishra, Tapan Kumar Chaudhuri
Protein folding is an extremely complex and fast, yet perfectly defined process, involving interplay of many intra and inter-molecular forces. In vitro, these molecular interactions are reversible for many proteins e.g., smaller and monomeric, organized into single domains. However, refolding of larger multi-domain/multimeric proteins is much more complicated, proceeds in a hierarchal way and is often irreversible. In a comparative study on two large, multi-domain and multimeric isozymes, β -glucosidase I (BGLI) and β-glucosidase II (BGLII) from Pichia etchellsii, we studied spontaneous and assisted refolding under three denaturing conditions viz...
November 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135465/thermally-activated-trp-channels-molecular-sensors-for-temperature-detection
#8
Karen Castillo, Ignacio Diaz-Franulic, Jonathan Canan, Fernando Gonzalez-Nilo, Ramon Latorre
Temperature sensing is one of the most ancient capabilities of living organisms and is essential to sustain life, because failures in avoiding extreme noxious temperatures can result in tissue damage or death. A subset of members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family is finely tuned to detect temperatures ranging from extreme cold to noxious heat, giving rise to thermoTRP channels. Structural and functional experiments have shown that thermoTRP channels are allosteric proteins, containing different domains that sense changes in temperature, among other stimuli, triggering pore opening...
November 14, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134806/acid-catalyzed-skeletal-rearrangements-in-arenes-aryl-vs-alkyl-ring-pirouettes-in-anthracene-and-phenanthrene
#9
Sarah L Skraba-Joiner, Jeffrey W Brulet, Min K Song, Richard P Johnson
In 1 M triflic acid/dichloroethane, anthracene is completely protonated at C9 and the resulting 9-anthracenium ion is easily observed at ambient temperature. When heated at > 84 °C as a dilute (10-3 M) solution in 1 M triflic acid/dichloroethane (DCE), anthracene undergoes conversion to phenanthrene as the major volatile product. Minor dihydro and tetrahydro products are also observed. MALDI analysis supports the simultaneous formation of oligomers, primarily dimeric, which represent 10 - 60% of the product mixture...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134788/thermal-acclimation-in-arabidopsis-lyrata-genotypic-costs-and-transcriptional-changes
#10
Guillaume Wos, Yvonne Willi
Frost and heat events can be challenging for sessile organisms that cannot escape thermal extremes. However, adverse effects of thermal stress on fitness may be reduced by pre-exposure to cold or heat, a process known as acclimation. To understand the ecological and evolutionary implications of acclimation, we investigated (1) the reduction in performance due to stress pre-exposure, (2) the magnitude of increased leaf resistance to subsequent stress, (3) the costs of acclimation, and (4) the genes differing in expression due to stress pre-exposure...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129283/biological-control-agents-in-the-anthropocene-current-risks-and-future-options
#11
REVIEW
Jessa H Thurman, David W Crowder, Tobin D Northfield
Global climate change is often expected to disrupt biological control. Predicting the effects of climate change on biological control, and identifying natural enemies that will thrive in future climate scenarios, is thus essential to ensure agricultural sustainability. To promote biological control under climate change, land managers should prioritise the conservation of natural enemy diversity to ensure some effective natural enemies are always present despite often-unpredictable climate scenarios. In addition, ecophysiological and habitat domain models should be combined to predict climate change-induced shifts in predation by diverse predator communities...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126571/potential-applications-of-the-escherichia-coli-heat-shock-response-in-synthetic-biology
#12
REVIEW
Joana L Rodrigues, Lígia R Rodrigues
The Escherichia coli heat shock response (HSR) is a complex mechanism triggered by heat shock and by a variety of other growth-impairing stresses. We explore here the potential use of the E. coli HSR mechanism in synthetic biology approaches. Several components of the regulatory mechanism (such as heat shock promoters, proteins, and RNA thermosensors) can be extremely valuable in the creation of a toolbox of well-characterized biological parts to construct biosensors or microbial cell factories with applications in the environment, industry, or healthcare...
November 7, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125573/tailoring-nutritional-advice-for-mexicans-based-on-prevalence-profiles-of-diet-related-adaptive-gene-polymorphisms
#13
Claudia Ojeda-Granados, Arturo Panduro, Karina Gonzalez-Aldaco, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Sonia Roman
Diet-related adaptive gene (DRAG) polymorphisms identified in specific populations are associated with chronic disorders in carriers of the adaptive alleles due to changes in dietary and lifestyle patterns in recent times. Mexico's population is comprised of Amerindians (AM) and Mestizos who have variable AM, European (EUR) and African genetic ancestry and an increased risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Nutritional advice based on the Mexican genome and the traditional food culture is needed to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124652/red-shift-in-the-spectrum-of-a-chlorophyll-species-is-essential-for-the-drought-induced-dissipation-of-excess-light-energy-in-a-poikilohydric-moss-bryum-argenteum
#14
Yutaka Shibata, Ahmed Mohamed, Koichiro Taniyama, Kentaro Kanatani, Makiko Kosugi, Hiroshi Fukumura
Some mosses are extremely tolerant of drought stress. Their high drought tolerance relies on their ability to effectively dissipate absorbed light energy to heat under dry conditions. The energy dissipation mechanism in a drought-tolerant moss, Bryum argenteum, has been investigated using low-temperature picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The results are compared between moss thalli samples harvested in Antarctica and in Japan. Both samples show almost the same quenching properties, suggesting an identical drought tolerance mechanism for the same species with two completely different habitats...
November 9, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123110/site-of-asteroid-impact-changed-the-history-of-life-on-earth-the-low-probability-of-mass-extinction
#15
Kunio Kaiho, Naga Oshima
Sixty-six million years ago, an asteroid approximately 9 km in diameter hit the hydrocarbon- and sulfur-rich sedimentary rocks in what is now Mexico. Recent studies have shown that this impact at the Yucatan Peninsula heated the hydrocarbon and sulfur in these rocks, forming stratospheric soot and sulfate aerosols and causing extreme global cooling and drought. These events triggered a mass extinction, including dinosaurs, and led to the subsequent macroevolution of mammals. The amount of hydrocarbon and sulfur in rocks varies widely, depending on location, which suggests that cooling and extinction levels were dependent on impact site...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116741/high-performance-plga-magnetic-microspheres-prepared-by-rotating-membrane-emulsification-for-transcatheter-arterial-embolization-and-magnetic-ablation-in-vx2-liver-tumors
#16
Yi-Jun Liang, Hui Yu, Guodong Feng, Linlin Zhuang, Wei Xi, Ming Ma, Jun Chen, Ning Gu, Yu Zhang
Interventional embolization is a popular minimally invasive vascular therapeutic technique and has been widely applied for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. However, harmful effects caused by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radioembolization, such as the toxicity of chemotherapy or excessive radiation damage, are serious disadvantages and significantly reduce the therapeutic efficacy. Here, a synergistic therapeutic strategy combined transcatheter arterial embolization and magnetic ablation (TAEMA) by using PLGA-magnetic microspheres (MMs) has been successfully applied to orthotopic VX2 liver tumors of rabbits...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116624/the-concomitant-use-of-diuretics-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-or-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-triple-whammy-extreme-heat-and-in-hospital-acute-kidney-injury-in-older-medical-patients
#17
Arduino A Mangoni, Feruza Kholmurodova, Lidia Mayner, Paul Hakendorf, Richard J Woodman
INTRODUCTION: We investigated whether the concomitant use of diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (triple whammy, TW) predicts in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI) and whether admission during recorded periods of extreme heat influences this association. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patient characteristics and use of TW/non-TW drugs on admission, AKI (increase in serum creatinine ≥ 27 µmol/l either within the first 48 h of admission or throughout hospitalization, primary outcome), length of stay (LOS), and mortality (secondary outcomes) in medical patients ≥65 years admitted (1) during five consecutive heat waves (HWs) between 2007 and 2009 (n = 382) or (2) either before or after each HW, matched for HW period, age, and admission day of the week (non-HW, controls, n = 1339)...
November 7, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116123/self-jumping-mechanism-of-melting-frost-on-superhydrophobic-surfaces
#18
Xiaolin Liu, Huawei Chen, Zehui Zhao, Yamei Wang, Hong Liu, Deyuan Zhang
Frost accretion on surfaces may cause severe problems and the high-efficiency defrosting methods are still urgently needed in many application fields like heat transfer, optical and electric power system, etc. In this study, a nano-needle superhydrophobic surface is prepared and the frosting/defrosting experiments are conducted on it. Three steps are found in the defrosting process: melting frost shrinking and splitting, instantaneous self-triggered deforming followed by deformation-induced movements (namely, in-situ shaking, rotating, rolling, and self-jumping)...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109786/-one-pot-fabrication-of-highly-versatile-and-biocompatible-poly-vinyl-alcohol-porphyrin-based-nanotheranostics
#19
Yan Luo, Hao Wu, Caihong Feng, Kai Xiao, Xixiao Yang, Qiangqiang Liu, Tzu-Yin Lin, Hongyong Zhang, Jeffrey H Walton, Yousif Ajena, Yide Hu, Kit S Lam, Yuanpei Li
Nanoparticle-based theranostic agents have emerged as a new paradigm in nanomedicine field for integration of multimodal imaging and therapeutic functions within a single platform. However, the clinical translation of these agents is severely limited by the complexity of fabrication, long-term toxicity of the materials, and unfavorable biodistributions. Here we report an extremely simple and robust approach to develop highly versatile and biocompatible theranostic poly(vinyl alcohol)-porphyrin nanoparticles (PPNs)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109266/climate-extremes-and-predicted-warming-threaten-mediterranean-holocene-firs-forests-refugia
#20
Raúl Sánchez-Salguero, J Julio Camarero, Marco Carrer, Emilia Gutiérrez, Arben Q Alla, Laia Andreu-Hayles, Andrea Hevia, Athanasios Koutavas, Elisabet Martínez-Sancho, Paola Nola, Andreas Papadopoulos, Edmond Pasho, Ervin Toromani, José A Carreira, Juan C Linares
Warmer and drier climatic conditions are projected for the 21st century; however, the role played by extreme climatic events on forest vulnerability is still little understood. For example, more severe droughts and heat waves could threaten quaternary relict tree refugia such as Circum-Mediterranean fir forests (CMFF). Using tree-ring data and a process-based model, we characterized the major climate constraints of recent (1950-2010) CMFF growth to project their vulnerability to 21st-century climate. Simulations predict a 30% growth reduction in some fir species with the 2050s business-as-usual emission scenario, whereas growth would increase in moist refugia due to a longer and warmer growing season...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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