Read by QxMD icon Read

Extreme heat

Masha Baryakhtar, Joseph Bramante, Shirley Weishi Li, Tim Linden, Nirmal Raj
We identify a largely model-independent signature of dark matter (DM) interactions with nucleons and electrons. DM in the local galactic halo, gravitationally accelerated to over half the speed of light, scatters against and deposits kinetic energy into neutron stars, heating them to infrared blackbody temperatures. The resulting radiation could potentially be detected by the James Webb Space Telescope, the Thirty Meter Telescope, or the European Extremely Large Telescope. This mechanism also produces optical emission from neutron stars in the galactic bulge, and x-ray emission near the galactic center because dark matter is denser in these regions...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Andrew J Grundstein, Yuri Hosokawa, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT:   Weather-based activity modification in athletics is an important way to minimize heat illnesses. However, many commonly used heat-safety guidelines include a uniform set of heat-stress thresholds that do not account for geographic differences in acclimatization. OBJECTIVE:   To determine if heat-related fatalities among American football players occurred on days with unusually stressful weather conditions based on the local climate and to assess the need for regional heat-safety guidelines...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Lothar Bischoff, Michael Stephan, Christina S Birkel, Christian F Litterscheid, Andreas Dreizler, Barbara Albert
Recently developed laser-based measurement techniques are used to image the temperatures and velocities in gas flows. They require new phosphor materials with an unprecedented combination of properties. A novel synthesis procedure is described here; it results in hierarchically structured, hollow microspheres of Eu3+-doped Y2O3, with unusual particle sizes and very good characteristics compared to full particles. Solution-based precipitation on polymer microballoons produces very stable and luminescent, ceramic materials of extremely low density...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michiyo Motoyama, Annie Vénien, Olivier Loison, Christophe Sandt, Genya Watanabe, Jason Sicard, Keisuke Sasaki, Thierry Astruc
Foods meet acid pH during gastric digestion after cooking. An in situ infrared microspectroscopy approach was developed to detect the effects of heat and acid treatments on protein structure separately. Infrared spectra were obtained from meat samples treated with heat and/or acid, and wavenumbers accounting independently for the treatments were extracted by principal component regression. Extreme-acid treatment (pHinitial 2.0) was well predicted (0.5% error) by a simple ratio of as-observed spectral intensities at 1211 and 1396 cm-1, reflecting a perturbation in the vibration of amino acid residues (phenylalanine, tyrosine and aspartic acid) by protein unfolding and protonation...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jun-Young Park, Byung-Hyun Lee, Geon-Beom Lee, Hagyoul Bae, Yang-Kyu Choi
This work investigates localized electrothermal annealing (ETA) with extremely low power consumption. The proposed method utilizes, for the first time, tunneling current-induced Joule heat in a p-i-n diode, comprised of p-type, intrinsic, and n-type semiconductors. The consumed power used for dopant control is the lowest value ever reported. A metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) composed of a p-i-n silicon nanowire, which is a sub-structure of a tunneling FET (TFET), was fabricated and utilized as a test platform to examine the annealing behaviors...
January 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issaka Abdulai, Philippe Vaast, Munir P Hoffmann, Richard Asare, Laurence Jassogne, Piet Van Asten, Reimund P Rötter, Sophie Graefe
The critique of Norgrove, (2017) addresses two main points, which are discussed below (i) Resilience of cocoa agroforestry versus full sun under extreme climatic conditions In our study we covered extreme climatic events, a heat-wave combined with a severe dry season lasting longer than usual and killing cocoa trees under shade. These climatic conditions were not only observed at our study plots, but also in the larger cocoa cultivation region (Fig 1). In line with our observations, "certain cocoa cooperatives in Ivory Coast reported that shade trees in their cocoa fields accentuated the drought stress during the 2015 drought event" (1 Andrew Broosk, pers comm)...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Kai Fan, Min Zhang, Arun S Mujumdar
Microwave heating has been applied in the drying of high-value solids as it affords a number of advantages, including shorter drying time and better product quality. Freeze-drying at cryogenic temperature and extremely low pressure provides the advantage of high product quality, but at very high capital and operating costs due partly to very long drying time. Freeze-drying coupled with a microwave heat source speeds up the drying rate and yields good quality products provided the operating unit is designed and operated to achieve the potential for an absence of hot spot developments...
January 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Changyou Song, Yanting Cui, Bo Liu, Jun Xie, Xianping Ge, Pao Xu, Mingchun Ren, Linghong Miao, Qunlan Zhou, Yan Lin
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play critical roles in the process of anti-stress and immunity and are implicated in autoimmune diseases. In order to understand the comparative stress responses of HSP60 and HSP90β under intermittent thermal stress and Aeromonas hydrophila infection, we cloned their full-length cDNAs from Megalobrama amblycephala liver, predicted their secondary and tertiary structure, and examined their tissue-specific expression patterns. The full length of HSP60 and HSP90β cDNAs indicated that they included all signature sequences of corresponding protein families...
January 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ming Xie, Wenhai Luo, Hao Guo, Long D Nghiem, Chuyang Y Tang, Stephen R Gray
We investigated transport mechanisms of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) through aquaporin thin-film composite forward osmosis (FO) membrane, and membrane stability under extreme conditions with respect to TrOC rejections. Morphology and surface chemistry of the aquaporin membrane were characterised to identify the incorporation of aquaporin vesicles into membrane active layer. Pore hindrance model was used to estimate aquaporin membrane pore size as well as to describe TrOC transport. TrOC transport mechanisms were revealed by varying concentration and type of draw solutions...
December 28, 2017: Water Research
Joris Adriaan Frank van Loenhout, Tefera Darge Delbiso, Anna Kiriliouk, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Johan Segers, Debarati Guha-Sapir
BACKGROUND: Due to a global warming-related increase in heatwaves, it is important to obtain detailed understanding of the relationship between heat and health. We assessed the relationship between heat and urgent emergency room admissions in the Netherlands. METHODS: We collected daily maximum temperature and relative humidity data over the period 2002-2007. Daily urgent emergency room admissions were divided by sex, age group and disease category. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models, estimating temperature-admission associations...
January 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
Yang Yang, Ruiqi Zhao, Tengfei Zhang, Kai Zhao, Peishuang Xiao, Yanfeng Ma, Pulickel M Ajayan, Gaoquan Shi, Yongsheng Chen
Harvesting solar energy for desalination and sewage treatment has been considered as a promising solution to produce clean water. However, state-of-the-art technologies often require optical concentrators and complicated systems with multiple components, leading to poor efficiency and high cost. Here we demonstrate an extremely simple and standalone solar energy converter consisting of only an as-prepared 3D cross-linked honeycomb graphene foam material without any other supporting components. Remarkably this simple all-in-one material can act as an ideal solar-thermal converter capable of capturing and converting sunlight into heat which in turn can distill water from various water sources into steam and produce purified water under ambient conditions and low solar flux with very high efficiency...
January 4, 2018: ACS Nano
Franz Langer, Nadine Havenstein, Joanna Fietz
Hibernation is the most effective way to reduce thermoregulatory costs during periods of unfavourable environmental conditions. In preparation to hibernation, fat-storing hibernators accumulate large quantities of body fat, which increases their locomotor costs and also the risk of predation. As a consequence, there should be a strong selective pressure to restrict pre-hibernation fattening to a short-time period before the onset of hibernation. The edible dormouse (Glis glis) is characterized by having adapted its whole life history to the irregularly occurring mast-seeding pattern of the European beech (Fagus sylvaticus)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Robert C Godfree, David J Marshall, Andrew G Young, Cathy H Miller, Sarah Mathews
A long-standing hypothesis in evolutionary biology is that polyploid plants have a fitness advantage over diploids in climatically variable or extreme habitats. Here we provide the first empirical evidence that polyploid advantage in these environments is caused by two distinct processes: homeostatic maintenance of reproductive output under elevated abiotic stress, and fixed differences in seed development. In an outdoor climate manipulation experiment using coastal to inland Australian populations of the perennial grass Themeda triandra Forssk...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Glenn R McGregor, Jennifer K Vanos
OBJECTIVES: To provide a primer on the physical characteristics of heat from a biometeorological perspective for those interested in the epidemiology of extreme heat. STUDY DESIGN: A literature search design was used. METHODS: A review of the concepts of heat, heat stress and human heat balance was conducted using Web of Sciences, Scopus and PubMed. RESULTS: Heat, as recognised in the field of human biometeorology, is a complex phenomenon resulting from the synergistic effects of air temperature, humidity and ventilation levels, radiation loads and metabolic activity...
December 28, 2017: Public Health
Zhongqi Chen, Anthony P Farrell, Amanda Matala, Shawn R Narum
Heterogeneous and ever-changing thermal environments drive the evolution of populations and species, especially when extreme conditions increase selection pressure for traits influencing fitness. However, projections of biological diversity under scenarios of climate change rarely consider evolutionary adaptive potential of natural species. In this study, we tested for mechanistic evidence of evolutionary thermal adaptation among ecologically divergent redband trout populations (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) in cardiorespiratory function, cellular response and genomic variation...
December 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Michelle E Ross, Ana M Vicedo-Cabrera, Robert E Kopp, Lihai Song, David S Goldfarb, Jose Pulido, Steven Warner, Susan L Furth, Gregory E Tasian
Temperature and relative humidity have opposing effects on evaporative water loss, the likely mediator of the temperature-dependence of nephrolithiasis. However, prior studies considered only dry-bulb temperatures when estimating the temperature-dependence of nephrolithiasis. We used distributed lag non-linear models and repeated 10-fold cross-validation to determine the daily temperature metric and corresponding adjustment for relative humidity that most accurately predicted kidney stone presentations during hot and cold periods in South Carolina from 1997 to 2015...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Research
Xingli Wang, Wanjing Wang, Jichao Wang, Ran Wei, Zhaoxuan Sun, Qiang Li, Chunyi Xie, Guang-Nan Luo
Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) have been widely used in the sensor field to monitor temperature and strain. However, the weak mechanical property of optical fibers and insufficient heat-resistant property of general optic-fiber sensors have prevented it from being widely used, such as in some extreme engineering situations. In this work, a bare FBG sensor system had been introduced to measure thermal strain of an Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak tungsten divertor component under baking condition. This strain measurement system had withstood as high temperature as 210 °C and finished the measurement experiment successfully...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
C Brininger, S Spradlin, L Cobani, C Evilia
Discovering how organisms and their proteins adapt to extreme conditions is a complicated process. Every condition has its own set of adaptations that make it uniquely stable in its environment. The purpose of our review is to discuss what is known in the extremophilic community about protein adaptations. To simplify our mission, we broke the extremophiles into three broad categories: thermophiles, halophiles and psychrophiles. While there are crossover organisms- organisms that exist in two or more extremes, like heat plus acid or cold plus pressure, most of them have a primary adaptation that is within one of these categories which tends to be the most easily identifiable one...
December 27, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Dario Manara, Luca Soldi, Sara Mastromarino, Kostantinos Boboridis, Davide Robba, Luka Vlahovic, Rudy Konings
Major and severe accidents have occurred three times in nuclear power plants (NPPs), at Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (former USSR, 1986) and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). Research on the causes, dynamics, and consequences of these mishaps has been performed in a few laboratories worldwide in the last three decades. Common goals of such research activities are: the prevention of these kinds of accidents, both in existing and potential new nuclear power plants; the minimization of their eventual consequences; and ultimately, a full understanding of the real risks connected with NPPs...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Oliver R Barley, Dale W Chapman, Chris R Abbiss
PURPOSE: Combat sports are typically divided into weight classes and body mass manipulation to reach a weight class is commonplace. Previous research suggests that mixed martial arts (MMA) weight loss practices may be more extreme than other combat sports. We sought to investigate the magnitude of weight lost and prevalence of weight loss strategies in different combat sports. METHODS: Competitors (n=637) from Brazilian jiu jitsu (BJJ), boxing, judo, MMA, muay Thai/kickboxing (MT/K), taekwondo (TKD) and wrestling completed an online questionnaire seeking information regarding their weight loss practices...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"