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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535614/elucidating-bottlenecks-of-the-efficient-preparation-of-an-ab5-hexamer-mucosal-adjuvant-protein-ltm-by-genetic-engineering
#1
Di Liu, Fabiao Hu, Wenpeng Wang, Dong Wu, Xiujuan He, Wenyun Zheng, Haipeng Liu, Xingyuan Ma
Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and its non-toxic mutant (LTm) are well-known powerful mucosal adjuvants and immunogens. However, the yields of these adjuvants from genetically engineered strains remain at extremely low levels, thereby hindering their extensive application in fundamental and clinical research. Therefore, efficient production of these adjuvant proteins from genetically engineered microbes is a huge challenge in the field of molecular biology. In order to explore expression bottlenecks of LTm in E...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534393/simple-approach-to-high-performance-stretchable-heaters-based-on-kirigami-patterning-of-conductive-paper-for-wearable-thermotherapy-applications
#2
Nam-Su Jang, Kang-Hyun Kim, Sung-Hun Ha, Soo-Ho Jung, Hye Moon Lee, Jong-Man Kim
Recent efforts to develop stretchable resistive heaters open up the possibility for their use in wearable thermotherapy applications. Such heaters should have high electrothermal performance and stability to be used practically, and the fabrication must be simple, economic, reproducible, and scalable. Here we present a simple yet highly efficient way of producing high-performance stretchable heaters, which is based on a facile kirigami pattering (the art of cutting and folding paper) of a highly conductive paper for practical wearable thermotherapy...
May 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#3
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527993/feasible-protein-aggregation-of-phosphorylated-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-derivative-from-bacillus-subtilis-natto
#4
Osamu Kurita, Toru Sago, Kaori Umetani, Yasushi Kokean, Chizuru Yamaoka, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Iwamoto
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) was modified with phosphorylating agents such as sodium metaphosphate and potassium metaphosphate in the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis (natto). The highly phosphorylated PGA derivatives were prepared and investigated for their chemical and physicochemical properties. The PGA derivatives had approximately 7% (W/W) inorganic phosphorus and characteristic absorbance PO2(-) bands at 1082cm(-1) and 1260cm(-1) by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The derivative modified by sodium metaphosphate (J-5) was easily hydrated in water and had extremely low viscosity...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520817/heat-in-the-southeastern-united-states-characteristics-trends-and-potential-health-impact
#5
Jeremy E Diem, Christine E Stauber, Richard Rothenberg
High summer temperatures in extratropical areas have an impact on the public's health, mainly through heat stress, high air pollution concentrations, and the transmission of tropical diseases. The purpose of this study is to examine the current characteristics of heat events and future projections of summer apparent temperature (AT)-and associated health concerns-throughout the southeastern United States. Synoptic climatology was used to assess the atmospheric characteristics of extreme heat days (EHDs) from 1979-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515431/early-onset-of-nucleate-boiling-on-gas-covered-biphilic-surfaces
#6
Biao Shen, Masayuki Yamada, Sumitomo Hidaka, Jiewei Liu, Junichiro Shiomi, Gustav Amberg, Minh Do-Quang, Masamichi Kohno, Koji Takahashi, Yasuyuki Takata
For phase-change cooling schemes for electronics, quick activation of nucleate boiling helps safeguard the electronics components from thermal shocks associated with undesired surface superheating at boiling incipience, which is of great importance to the long-term system stability and reliability. Previous experimental studies show that bubble nucleation can occur surprisingly early on mixed-wettability surfaces. In this paper, we report unambiguous evidence that such unusual bubble generation at extremely low temperatures-even below the boiling point-is induced by a significant presence of incondensable gas retained by the hydrophobic surface, which exhibits exceptional stability even surviving extensive boiling deaeration...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514440/extreme-hydrothermal-conditions-at-an-active-plate-bounding-fault
#7
Rupert Sutherland, John Townend, Virginia Toy, Phaedra Upton, Jamie Coussens, Michael Allen, Laura-May Baratin, Nicolas Barth, Leeza Becroft, Carolin Boese, Austin Boles, Carolyn Boulton, Neil G R Broderick, Lucie Janku-Capova, Brett M Carpenter, Bernard Célérier, Calum Chamberlain, Alan Cooper, Ashley Coutts, Simon Cox, Lisa Craw, Mai-Linh Doan, Jennifer Eccles, Dan Faulkner, Jason Grieve, Julia Grochowski, Anton Gulley, Arthur Hartog, Jamie Howarth, Katrina Jacobs, Tamara Jeppson, Naoki Kato, Steven Keys, Martina Kirilova, Yusuke Kometani, Rob Langridge, Weiren Lin, Timothy Little, Adrienn Lukacs, Deirdre Mallyon, Elisabetta Mariani, Cécile Massiot, Loren Mathewson, Ben Melosh, Catriona Menzies, Jo Moore, Luiz Morales, Chance Morgan, Hiroshi Mori, Andre Niemeijer, Osamu Nishikawa, David Prior, Katrina Sauer, Martha Savage, Anja Schleicher, Douglas R Schmitt, Norio Shigematsu, Sam Taylor-Offord, Damon Teagle, Harold Tobin, Robert Valdez, Konrad Weaver, Thomas Wiersberg, Jack Williams, Nick Woodman, Martin Zimmer
Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513705/on-demand-curing-of-polydimethylsiloxane-pdms-using-the-photothermal-effect-of-gold-nanoparticles
#8
R Joseph Fortenbaugh, Benjamin J Lear
The photothermal effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) produces extremely localized heat that can be harnessed to drive large scale chemical reactions by simultaneously generating many individual reactions on the nanoscale. We use the photothermal effect to enhance the curing rate of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by a factor of 4.9 × 10(9). Photothermal curing occurs via crosslinking reactions between vinyl and Si-H groups of the pre-polymer, and the course of the reaction was followed by monitoring the disappearance of infrared bands associated with these functional groups...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508202/ozone-concentration-in-the-ground-atmosphere-and-morbidity-during-extreme-heat-in-the-summer-of-2010
#9
S N Kotelnikov, E V Stepanov, V T Ivashkin
Dependence of the population morbidity on the ground-level ozone concentration in the summer of 2010 was studied in a city with low urbanization (Vyatskie Polyany, Kirov oblast) and in Moscow. At a high air temperature and low ozone concentration, the population morbidity was not associated with these parameters in Vyatskie Polyany. When the average daily ground-level ozone concentration exceeded 60 μg/m(3) for 13 successive days, the correlation coefficient between ozone concentration and the number of ambulance calls was statistically significant, r = 0...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508070/decoupling-of-microbial-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-cycling-in-response-to-extreme-temperature-events
#10
Maria Mooshammer, Florian Hofhansl, Alexander H Frank, Wolfgang Wanek, Ieda Hämmerle, Sonja Leitner, Jörg Schnecker, Birgit Wild, Margarete Watzka, Katharina M Keiblinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Andreas Richter
Predicted changes in the intensity and frequency of climate extremes urge a better mechanistic understanding of the stress response of microbially mediated carbon (C) and nutrient cycling processes. We analyzed the resistance and resilience of microbial C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling processes and microbial community composition in decomposing plant litter to transient, but severe, temperature disturbances, namely, freeze-thaw and heat. Disturbances led temporarily to a more rapid cycling of C and N but caused a down-regulation of P cycling...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502855/caesalpinia-bonduc-serine-proteinase-inhibitor-cbti-2-exploring-the-conformational-features-and-antimalarial-activity
#11
Arindam Bhattacharyya, C R Babu
Seeds of tropical legumes posses a repertoire of proteinase inhibitors (PI) and the current study highlights some structural/functional features of a strong serine PI from the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc (CbTI-2). Following purification, N-terminal sequence of CbTI-2 revealed over 40% similarity with a few serine PIs of Caesalpinioideae subfamily. Upon exposure to metal ions and ionic/non ionic surfactants, CbTI-2 showed immense variation in the levels of antitryptic activity. Exposure of CbTI-2 to 1,4-Dithiothreitol, Guanidinium HCl, H2O2 and Dimethyl sulfoxide led to a steady loss of inhibitory activity...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502677/biophysical-study-of-bevacizumab-structure-and-bioactivity-under-thermal-and-ph-stresses
#12
Flávia Sousa, Bruno Sarmento, Maria Teresa Neves-Petersen
The evaluation of the structural stability and bioactivity of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) is a crucial step in the development of mAb therapeutic based products, since immunogenicity needs to be avoided. In the present work, a study was carried out to understand the changes on the structure and bioactivity of mAbs induced by different pH and temperature values. Structural changes of bevacizumab were monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498695/ab%C3%A2-initio-green-kubo-approach-for-the-thermal-conductivity-of-solids
#13
Christian Carbogno, Rampi Ramprasad, Matthias Scheffler
We herein present a first-principles formulation of the Green-Kubo method that allows the accurate assessment of the phonon thermal conductivity of solid semiconductors and insulators in equilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. Using the virial for the nuclei, we propose a unique ab initio definition of the heat flux. Accurate size and time convergence are achieved within moderate computational effort by a robust, asymptotically exact extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate the capabilities of the technique by investigating the thermal conductivity of extreme high and low heat conducting materials, namely, Si (diamond structure) and tetragonal ZrO_{2}...
April 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491321/thermotolerance-capacities-of-native-and-exotic-coastal-plants-will-lead-to-changes-in-species-composition-under-increased-heat-waves
#14
Kris French, Sharon A Robinson, Jodie Lia
With an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events, plants are likely to reach their thermal limits and show slower growth or increased mortality. We investigated differences amongst coastal native and invasive shrubs and grasses to investigate if particular species might be more at risk in the future. Using an ecologically relevant experimental set of heat waves over a month, we assessed changes in biomass and photosynthetic efficiency in a laboratory setting using 25 coastal Australian species divided into native and exotic shrubs, and native and exotic grasses...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485512/metamorphic-superomniphobic-surfaces
#15
Wei Wang, Joshua Salazar, Hamed Vahabi, Alexandra Joshi-Imre, Walter E Voit, Arun K Kota
Superomniphobic surfaces are extremely repellent to virtually all liquids. By combining superomniphobicity and shape memory effect, metamorphic superomniphobic (MorphS) surfaces that transform their morphology in response to heat are developed. Utilizing the MorphS surfaces, the distinctly different wetting transitions of liquids with different surface tensions are demonstrated and the underlying physics is elucidated. Both ex situ and in situ wetting transitions on the MorphS surfaces are solely due to transformations in morphology of the surface texture...
May 9, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484957/characterization-of-recombinant-thermococcus-kodakaraensis-kod-dna-polymerases-produced-using-silkworm-baculovirus-expression-vector-system
#16
Mami Yamashita, Jian Xu, Daisuke Morokuma, Kazuma Hirata, Masato Hino, Hiroaki Mon, Masateru Takahashi, Samir M Hamdan, Kosuke Sakashita, Kazuhiro Iiyama, Yutaka Banno, Takahiro Kusakabe, Jae Man Lee
The KOD DNA polymerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tkod-Pol) has been preferred for PCR due to its rapid elongation rate, extreme thermostability and outstanding fidelity. Here in this study, we utilized silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS) to express the recombinant Tkod-Pol (rKOD) with N-terminal (rKOD-N) or C-terminal (rKOD-C) tandem fusion tags. By using BEVS, we produced functional rKODs with satisfactory yields, about 1.1 mg/larva for rKOD-N and 0.25 mg/larva for rKOD-C, respectively...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483875/evolution-caused-by-extreme-events
#17
Peter R Grant, B Rosemary Grant, Raymond B Huey, Marc T J Johnson, Andrew H Knoll, Johanna Schmitt
Extreme events can be a major driver of evolutionary change over geological and contemporary timescales. Outstanding examples are evolutionary diversification following mass extinctions caused by extreme volcanism or asteroid impact. The evolution of organisms in contemporary time is typically viewed as a gradual and incremental process that results from genetic change, environmental perturbation or both. However, contemporary environments occasionally experience strong perturbations such as heat waves, floods, hurricanes, droughts and pest outbreaks...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483862/quantifying-thermal-extremes-and-biological-variation-to-predict-evolutionary-responses-to-changing-climate
#18
REVIEW
Joel G Kingsolver, Lauren B Buckley
Central ideas from thermal biology, including thermal performance curves and tolerances, have been widely used to evaluate how changes in environmental means and variances generate changes in fitness, selection and microevolution in response to climate change. We summarize the opportunities and challenges for extending this approach to understanding the consequences of extreme climatic events. Using statistical tools from extreme value theory, we show how distributions of thermal extremes vary with latitude, time scale and climate change...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481509/bioinspired-smart-coating-with-superior-tribological-performance
#19
Shuangjian Li, Yulong An, Xiaoqin Zhao, Huidi Zhou, Jianmin Chen, Guoliang Hou
Inspired by the structure of cancellous bone and the nutrition metabolism of articular cartilage, we present a novel concept for a synthetic articular-cartilage-like material. The bioinspired material possesses a low coefficient of friction even under ultrahigh loads and has an extremely long lifetime. Furthermore, the composite shows zero-wear behavior and causes negligible wear damage to the friction pair. The superior tribological performance is attributed to the spontaneously generated articular-cartilage-like layer, which is constantly replenished by frictional heat and pressure...
May 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479993/temperature-increase-and-fluctuation-induce-phytoplankton-biodiversity-loss-evidence-from-a-multi-seasonal-mesocosm-experiment
#20
Serena Rasconi, Katharina Winter, Martin J Kainz
Global climate change scenarios predict lake water temperatures to increase up to 4°C and extreme weather events, including heat waves and large temperature fluctuations, to occur more frequently. Such changes may result in a reorganization of the plankton community structure, causing shifts in diversity and structure toward a community dominated by fewer species that are more adapted to endure warmer and irregular temperature conditions. We designed a long-term (8 months) mesocosm experiment to explore how ambient water temperature (C: control), induced increased temperature (T: +4°C), and temperature fluctuations (F: ±4°C relative to T) change phytoplankton phenology, taxonomical diversity, and community structure, and how such changes affected zooplankton abundance and composition...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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