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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097384/stress-response-physiology-of-thermophiles
#1
REVIEW
Preeti Ranawat, Seema Rawat
Thermo (or hyperthermo) philic microorganisms are ubiquitous having a wide range of habitats from freshly fallen snow to pasteurized milk to geothermal areas like hot springs. The variations in physicochemical conditions, viz., temperature, pH, nutrient availability and light intensity in the habitats always pose stress conditions for the inhabitants leading to slow growth or cell death. The industrial processes used for harvesting secondary metabolites such as enzymes, toxins and organic acids also create stressed environments for thermophiles...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095437/relationship-of-climatic-and-forest-factors-to-drought-and-heat-induced-tree-mortality
#2
Qingyin Zhang, Ming'an Shao, Xiaoxu Jia, Xiaorong Wei
Tree mortality due to warming and drought is a critical aspect of forest ecosystem in responding to climate change. Spatial patterns of tree mortality induced by drought and its influencing factors, however, have yet to be documented at the global scale. We collected observations from 248 sites globally where trees have died due to drought and then assessed the effects of climatic and forest factors on the rate of tree mortality. The global mean annual mortality rate was 5.5%. The rate of tree mortality was significantly and negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation (P < 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094349/proteomic-and-carbonylation-profile-analysis-at-the-critical-node-of-seed-ageing-in-oryza-sativa
#3
Guangkun Yin, Xia Xin, Shenzao Fu, Mengni An, Shuhua Wu, Xiaoling Chen, Jinmei Zhang, Juanjuan He, James Whelan, Xinxiong Lu
The critical node (CN), which is the transition from the plateau phase to the rapid decreasing phase of seed ageing, is extremely important for seed conservation. Although numerous studies have investigated the oxidative stress during seed ageing, information on the changes in protein abundance at the CN is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the abundance and carbonylation patterns of proteins at the CN of seed ageing in rice. The results showed that the germination rate of seeds decreased by less than 20% at the CN; however, the abundance of 112 proteins and the carbonylation levels of 68 proteins markedly changed, indicating oxidative damage...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089965/increasing-patient-safety-by-closing-the-sterile-production-gap-part-2-implementation
#4
James Agalloco
Terminal sterilization is considered the preferred means for the production of sterile drug products as it affords enhanced safety for the patient as the formulation is filled into its final container, sealed and sterilized. Despite the obvious patient benefits, the use of terminal sterilization is artificially constrained by unreasonable expectations for the minimum time-temperature process to be used. The core misunderstanding with terminal sterilization is a fixation that destruction of a high population of a resistant biological indicator is required...
January 15, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089964/increasing-patient-safety-by-closing-the-sterile-production-part-1-introduction
#5
James Agalloco
Terminal sterilization is considered the preferred means for the production of sterile drug products as it affords enhanced safety for the patient as the formulation is filled into its final container, sealed and sterilized. Despite the obvious patient benefits, the use of terminal sterilization is artificially constrained by unreasonable expectations for the minimum time-temperature process to be used. The core misunderstanding with terminal sterilization is a fixation that destruction of a high population of a resistant biological indicator is required...
January 15, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074921/heat-related-hospitalizations-in-older-adults-an-amplified-effect-of-the-first-seasonal-heatwave
#6
Alexander Liss, Ruiruo Wu, Kenneth Kwan Ho Chui, Elena N Naumova
Older adults are highly vulnerable to the detriment of extreme weather. The rapid non-linear increase in heat-related morbidity is difficult to quantify, hindering the attribution of direct effects of exposure on severe health outcomes. We examine the effects of ambient temperatures on heat-related hospitalizations (HH) among the elderly in presence of strong seasonality and by assessing the effects caused by the first and subsequent seasonal heatwaves. We empirically derived the thresholds for a heatwave episode in Boston MSA based on 16 years of daily observations...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073440/climate-variability-and-dinophysis-acuta-blooms-in-an-upwelling-system
#7
Patricio A Díaz, Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal, Yolanda Pazos, Teresa Moita, Beatriz Reguera
Dinophysis acuta is a frequent seasonal lipophilic toxin producer in European Atlantic coastal waters associated with thermal stratification. In the Galician Rías, populations of D. acuta with their epicentre located off Aveiro (northern Portugal), typically co-occur with and follow those of Dinophysis acuminata during the upwelling transition (early autumn) as a result of longshore transport. During hotter than average summers, D. acuta blooms also occur in August in the Rías, when they replace D. acuminata...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068073/spatially-explicit-mapping-of-heat-health-risk-utilizing-environmental-and-socioeconomic-data
#8
Kejia Hu, Xuchao Yang, Jieming Zhong, Fangrong Fei, Jiaguo Qi
Extreme heat events, a leading cause of weather-related fatality worldwide, are expected to intensify, last longer, and occur more frequently in the near future. In heat health risk assessments, a spatiotemporal mismatch usually exists between hazard (heat stress) data and exposure (population distribution) data. Such mismatch is present because demographic data are generally updated every couple of years and unavailable at the subcensus unit level, which hinders the ability to diagnose human risks. In the present work, a human settlement index based on multi-sensor remote sensing data, including nighttime light, vegetation index, and digital elevation model data, was used for heat exposure assessment on a per-pixel basis...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067816/indoor-temperatures-in-patient-waiting-rooms-in-eight-rural-primary-health-care-centers-in-northern-south-africa-and-the-related-potential-risks-to-human-health-and-wellbeing
#9
Caradee Y Wright, Renée A Street, Nokulunga Cele, Zamantimande Kunene, Yusentha Balakrishna, Patricia N Albers, Angela Mathee
Increased temperatures affect human health and vulnerable groups including infants, children, the elderly and people with pre-existing diseases. In the southern African region climate models predict increases in ambient temperature twice that of the global average temperature increase. Poor ventilation and lack of air conditioning in primary health care clinics, where duration of waiting time may be as long as several hours, pose a possible threat to patients seeking primary health care. Drawing on information measured by temperature loggers installed in eight clinics in Giyani, Limpopo Province of South Africa, we were able to determine indoor temperatures of waiting rooms in eight rural primary health care facilities...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067111/extremely-low-level-microwaves-attenuate-immune-imbalance-induced-by-inhalation-exposure-to-low-level-toluene-in-mice
#10
Elena G Novoselova, Olga V Glushkova, Maxim O Khrenov, Tatyana V Novoselova, Sergey M Lunin, Eugeny E Fesenko
PURPOSE: To clarify whether extremely low-level microwaves (MW) alone or in combination with p38 inhibitor affect immune cell responses to inhalation exposure of mice to low-level toluene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytokine profile, heat shock proteins expression, and the activity of several signal cascades, namely, NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IRF-3, p38 MAPK, and TLR4 were measured in spleen lymphocytes of mice treated to air-delivered toluene (0.6 mg/m(3)) or extremely low-level microwaves (8...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064445/a-panel-of-autoantibodies-against-multiple-tumor-associated-antigens-for-detecting-gastric-cancer
#11
Isamu Hoshino, Matsuo Nagata, Nobuhiro Takiguchi, Yoshihiro Nabeya, Atsushi Ikeda, Sana Yokoi, Akiko Kuwajima, Masatoshi Tagawa, Kazuyuki Matsushita, Yajima Satoshi, Shimada Hideaki
Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and effective diagnosis is extremely important for good outcome. We assessed the diagnostic potential of an autoantibody panel that may provide a novel tool for the early detection of gastric cancer. We analyzed data from patients with gastric cancer and normal controls in a test and validation cohorts. Autoantibody levels were measured against a panel of six tumor-associated antigens [TAAs; p53, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), HCC-22-5, peroxiredoxin VI (Prx VI), KM-HN-1, and p90 TAA (CYP2A)] via ELISA...
January 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063186/the-combined-and-separate-impacts-of-climate-extremes-on-the-current-and-future-us-rainfed-maize-and-soybean-production-under-elevated-co2
#12
Zhenong Jin, Qianlai Zhuang, Jiali Wang, Sotirios V Archontoulis, Zachary Zobel, Veerabhadra R Kotamarthi
Heat and drought are two emerging climatic threats to the US maize and soybean production, yet their impacts on yields are collectively determined by the magnitude of climate change and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This study quantifies the combined and separate impacts of high temperature, heat and drought stresses on the current and future US rainfed maize and soybean production, and for the first time characterizes spatial shifts in the relative importance of individual stress. Crop yields are simulated using the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), driven by high-resolution (12 km) dynamically downscaled climate projections for 1995-2004 and 2085-2094...
January 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060477/in-situ-localized-growth-of-ordered-metal-oxide-hollow-sphere-array-on-microheater-platform-for-sensitive-ultra-fast-gas-sensing
#13
Ameya Rao, Hu Long, Anna Harley-Trochimczyk, Thang Pham, Alex Zettl, Carlo Carraro, Roya Maboudian
A simple and versatile strategy is presented for the localized on-chip synthesis of an ordered metal oxide hollow sphere array directly on a low power microheater platform to form a closely integrated miniaturized gas sensor. Selective microheater surface modification through fluorinated monolayer self-assembly and its subsequent microheater-induced thermal decomposition enables the position-controlled deposition of an ordered two-dimensional colloidal sphere array, which serves as a sacrificial template for metal oxide growth via homogeneous chemical precipitation; this strategy ensures control in both the morphology and placement of the sensing material on only the active heated area of the microheater platform, providing a major advantage over other methods of presynthesized nanomaterial integration via suspension coating or printing...
January 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060324/measurement-of-outgassing-rates-of-steels
#14
Chongdo Park, Se-Hyun Kim, Sanghoon Ki, Taekyun Ha, Boklae Cho
Steels are commonly used materials in the fabrication of vacuum systems because of their good mechanical, corrosion, and vacuum properties. A variety of steels meet the criterion of low outgassing required for high or ultrahigh vacuum applications. However, a given material can present different outgassing rates depending on its manufacturing process or the various pretreatment processes involved during the fabrication. Thus, the measurement of outgassing rates is highly desirable for a specific vacuum application...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059581/hot-and-cold-drugs-national-park-service-medication-stability-at-the-extremes-of-temperature
#15
Patil Armenian, Danielle Campagne, Geoff Stroh, Crystal Ives Tallman, William Z D Zeng, Thomas Lin, Roy R Gerona
STUDY OBJECTIVE: National Park Service (NPS) Parkmedics provide medical care in austere environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of specific medications used by Parkmedics at extremes of temperatures likely to be faced in the field. METHODS: This is a bench research study conducted in the laboratory setting over a 4-week period. Parenteral medications were separated into 4 temperature exposure groups: A) 45°C (hot); B) -20°C (cold); C) hot then cold temperatures alternating weekly; and D) cold then hot temperatures alternating weekly...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057418/improving-the-product-stability-and-fertilizer-value-of-cattle-slurry-solid-fraction-through-co-composting-or-co-ensiling
#16
Jarinda Viaene, Victoria Nelissen, Bert Reubens, Koen Willekens, Frank Driehuis, Stefaan De Neve, Bart Vandecasteele
Separating dairy cattle slurry in a liquid and solid fraction (SF) is gaining more interest, since it enables a more targeted use of both fractions. However, the valorization of the SF is limited on P-rich soils, due to its high P content, and the export or use as bedding material requires sanitation. Therefore, we investigated the influence of composting or ensiling the SF, whether or not mixed with bulking agents, on the product quality in terms of fertilizer value, sanitation and stability. Ensiling can be considered as a controlled storage method for conserving C and nutrients...
January 2, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056065/wolbachia-infections-in-aedes-aegypti-differ-markedly-in-their-response-to-cyclical-heat-stress
#17
Perran A Ross, Itsanun Wiwatanaratanabutr, Jason K Axford, Vanessa L White, Nancy M Endersby-Harshman, Ary A Hoffmann
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria are currently being released for arbovirus suppression around the world. Their potential to invade populations and persist will depend on interactions with environmental conditions, particularly as larvae are often exposed to fluctuating and extreme temperatures in the field. We reared Ae. aegypti larvae infected with different types of Wolbachia (wMel, wAlbB and wMelPop-CLA) under diurnal cyclical temperatures. Rearing wMel and wMelPop-CLA-infected larvae at 26-37°C reduced the expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility, a reproductive manipulation induced by Wolbachia...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#18
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051170/major-cause-of-unprecedented-arctic-warming-in-january-2016-critical-role-of-an-atlantic-windstorm
#19
Baek-Min Kim, Ja-Young Hong, Sang-Yoon Jun, Xiangdong Zhang, Hataek Kwon, Seong-Joong Kim, Joo-Hong Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Hyun-Kyung Kim
In January 2016, the Arctic experienced an extremely anomalous warming event after an extraordinary increase in air temperature at the end of 2015. During this event, a strong intrusion of warm and moist air and an increase in downward longwave radiation, as well as a loss of sea ice in the Barents and Kara seas, were observed. Observational analyses revealed that the abrupt warming was triggered by the entry of a strong Atlantic windstorm into the Arctic in late December 2015, which brought enormous moist and warm air masses to the Arctic...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048054/su-f-j-05-the-effect-of-air-pockets-in-the-urinary-bladder-during-bladder-hyperthermia-treatment
#20
G Schooneveldt, H P Kok, A Bakker, E D Geijsen, T M de Reijke, J Crezee
PURPOSE: Hyperthermia combined with Mitomycin C is used for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), using a phased array system of microwave antennas for bladder heating. Often some air is present in the bladder, which effectively blocks the microwave radiation, potentially preventing proper treatment of that part of the bladder. Air can be a relevant fraction of the bladder content and large air pockets are expected to have a noticeable influence on achieved temperatures...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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