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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810996/rhabdomyolysis-after-crawling-military-training
#1
Danit Atias-Varon, Haggai Sherman, Ran Yanovich, Yuval Heled
INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome characterized by muscle necrosis followed by release of intracellular muscle contents into the circulation. Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) occurs in response to nonfamiliar and/or excessive, prolonged, or repetitive exercises, with eccentric characteristics. In military populations, due to the type of intense, all out physical loads, ER is a significant threat, particularly when training under heat stress. However, many other etiologies exist, and clinical presentations vary greatly...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810960/talk-to-the-hand-u-s-army-biophysical-testing
#2
William R Santee, Adam W Potter, Karl E Friedl
BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808095/what-limits-photosynthetic-energy-conversion-efficiency-in-nature-lessons-from-the-oceans
#3
Paul G Falkowski, Hanzhi Lin, Maxim Y Gorbunov
Constraining photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency in nature is challenging. In principle, two yield measurements must be made simultaneously: photochemistry, fluorescence and/or thermal dissipation. We constructed two different, extremely sensitive and precise active fluorometers: one measures the quantum yield of photochemistry from changes in variable fluorescence, the other measures fluorescence lifetimes in the picosecond time domain. By deploying the pair of instruments on eight transoceanic cruises over six years, we obtained over 200 000 measurements of fluorescence yields and lifetimes from surface waters in five ocean basins...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806772/microhabitats-and-canopy-cover-moderate-high-summer-temperatures-in-a-fragmented-mediterranean-landscape
#4
Gunnar Keppel, Sharolyn Anderson, Craig Williams, Sonia Kleindorfer, Christopher O'Connell
Extreme heat events will become more frequent under anthropogenic climate change, especially in Mediterranean ecosystems. Microhabitats can considerably moderate (buffer) the effects of extreme weather events and hence facilitate the persistence of some components of the biodiversity. We investigate the microclimatic moderation provided by two important microhabitats (cavities formed by the leaves of the grass-tree Xanthorrhoea semiplana F.Muell., Xanthorrhoeaceae; and inside the leaf-litter) during the summer of 2015/16 on the Fleurieu Peninsula of South Australia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801909/promoter-activation-with-electromagnetism
#5
Abraham O Rodríguez-De la Fuente, J Antonio Heredia-Rojas, Juan M Alcocer-González, Laura E Rodríguez-Flores, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, Reyes S Taméz-Guerra
Gene expression can be modified by physical factors, such as heat, electricity and magnetic fields , and several types of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Promoter activation with extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields is possible with an appropriate promoter, containing electromagnetic field response elements. Here, we describe how to examine promoter activation with extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields, and we provide a step-by-step guide to the assembly of a solenoid suitable for promoter activation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798956/heat-conduction-tuning-by-wave-nature-of-phonons
#6
Jeremie Maire, Roman Anufriev, Ryoto Yanagisawa, Aymeric Ramiere, Sebastian Volz, Masahiro Nomura
The world communicates to our senses of vision, hearing, and touch in the language of waves, because light, sound, and even heat essentially consist of microscopic vibrations of different media. The wave nature of light and sound has been extensively investigated over the past century and is now widely used in modern technology. However, the wave nature of heat has been the subject of mostly theoretical studies because its experimental demonstration, let alone practical use, remains challenging due to its extremely short wavelengths...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797477/effects-of-oxygen-on-responses-to-heating-in-two-lizard-species-sampled-along-an-elevational-gradient
#7
P Mason DuBois, Tanner K Shea, Natalie M Claunch, Emily N Taylor
Thermal tolerance is an important variable in predictive models about the effects of global climate change on species distributions, yet the physiological mechanisms responsible for reduced performance at high temperatures in air-breathing vertebrates are not clear. We conducted an experiment to examine how oxygen affects three variables exhibited by ectotherms as they heat-gaping threshold, panting threshold, and loss of righting response (the latter indicating the critical thermal maximum)-in two lizard species along an elevational (and therefore environmental oxygen partial pressure) gradient...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797055/an-experimental-study-on-the-thermal-characteristics-and-heating-effect-of-arc-fault-from-cu-core-in-residential-electrical-wiring-fires
#8
Jian-Hua Du, Ran Tu, Yi Zeng, Leng Pan, Ren-Cheng Zhang
The characteristics of a series direct current (DC) arc-fault including both electrical and thermal parameters were investigated based on an arc-fault simulator to provide references for multi-parameter electrical fire detection method. Tests on arc fault behavior with three different initial circuit voltages, resistances and arc gaps were conducted, respectively. The influences of circuit conditions on arc dynamic image, voltage, current or power were interpreted. Also, the temperature rises of electrode surface and ambient air were studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796630/opportunities-and-challenges-for-personal-heat-exposure-research
#9
Evan R Kuras, Molly B Richardson, Miriam M Calkins, Kristie L Ebi, Jeremy J Hess, Kristina W Kintziger, Meredith A Jagger, Ariane Middel, Anna A Scott, June T Spector, Christopher K Uejio, Jennifer K Vanos, Benjamin F Zaitchik, Julia M Gohlke, David M Hondula
BACKGROUND: Environmental heat exposure is a public health concern. The impacts of environmental heat on mortality and morbidity at the population scale are well documented, but little is known about specific exposures that individuals experience. OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this work was to catalyze discussion of the role of personal heat exposure information in research and risk assessment. The second objective was to provide guidance regarding the operationalization of personal heat exposure research methods...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796021/psychotropics-environmental-temperature-and-hospital-outcomes-in-older-medical-patients
#10
Arduino A Mangoni, Feruza Kholmurodova, Lidia Mayner, Paul Hakendorf, Richard J Woodman
PURPOSE: The authors investigated whether the use of psychotropics and environmental temperature on admission influence hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality in older medical patients. METHODS: Clinical and demographic characteristics, Charlson Comorbidity Index, use of psychotropic and nonpsychotropic drugs, hospital LOS, and mortality were retrospectively collected in medical patients 65 years and older (n = 382) admitted to a metropolitan teaching hospital during 5 consecutive heat waves (HWs) between 2007 and 2009...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794447/the-role-of-local-heating-in-the-2015-indian-heat-wave
#11
Debjani Ghatak, Benjamin Zaitchik, Christopher Hain, Martha Anderson
India faced a major heat wave during the summer of 2015. Temperature anomalies peaked in the dry period before the onset of the summer monsoon, suggesting that local land-atmosphere feedbacks involving desiccated soils and vegetation might have played a role in driving the heat extreme. Upon examination of in situ data, reanalysis, satellite observations, and land surface models, we find that the heat wave included two distinct peaks: one in late May, and a second in early June. During the first peak we find that clear skies led to a positive net radiation anomaly at the surface, but there is no significant sensible heat flux anomaly within the core of the heat wave affected region...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791459/three-year-lifecycle-large-body-and-very-high-threshold-temperature-in-the-cricket-gryllus-argenteus-for-special-adaptation-to-desiccation-cycle-in-malawi
#12
Takuya Kosumi, Makio Takeda
In temperate climates, the initiation and termination of diapause synchronize the stress-tolerant stage with the stressful season and reproduction with the non-stressful season in many insects. Synchronization is often regulated by photoperiodism.Voltinism and the ultimate size of adults are also important determinants for their lifecycle, and different diapause stages and voltinism patterns are known in crickets.Here, we investigated the life history of the African cricket Gryllus argenteus from Malawi, which is a typical arid tropical highland...
August 8, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791022/enhancing-stability-of-camelid-and-shark-single-domain-antibodies-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Ellen R Goldman, Jinny L Liu, Dan Zabetakis, George P Anderson
Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) are gaining a reputation as superior recognition elements as they combine the advantages of the specificity and affinity found in conventional antibodies with high stability and solubility. Melting temperatures (Tms) of sdAbs cover a wide range from below 50 to over 80°C. Many sdAbs have been engineered to increase their Tm, making them stable until exposed to extreme temperatures. SdAbs derived from the variable heavy chains of camelid and shark heavy chain-only antibodies are termed VHH and VNAR, respectively, and generally exhibit some ability to refold and bind antigen after heat denaturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789677/cold-adaptation-aging-and-korean-women-divers-haenyeo
#14
REVIEW
Joo-Young Lee, Joonhee Park, Siyeon Kim
BACKGROUND: We have been studying the thermoregulatory responses of Korean breath-hold women divers, called haenyeo, in terms of aging and cold adaptation. During the 1960s to the 1980s, haenyeos received attention from environmental physiologists due to their unique ability to endure cold water while wearing only a thin cotton bathing suit. However, their overall cold-adaptive traits have disappeared since they began to wear wetsuits and research has waned since the 1980s. For social and economic reasons, the number of haenyeos rapidly decreased to 4005 in 2015 from 14,143 in 1970 and the average age of haenyeos is about 75 years old at present...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782987/a-review-of-the-current-situation-of-aflatoxin-m1-in-cow-s-milk-in-serbia-risk-assessment-and-regulatory-aspects
#15
Dragan R Milićević, Danka Spirić, Tatjana Radičević, Branko Velebit, Srdjan Stefanović, Lazar Milojević, Saša Janković
The aim of this systematic review is to provide information regarding the incidence and levels of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in raw and heat processed cow's milk in Serbia during 2015-2016 and to compare these with collected data on the occurrence of AFM1 in raw milk and dairy products during last decade in our region. Estimation of Dietary Exposure (EDI) and Hazard Index (HI) calculations for different age groups of the population were also carried out, based on the AFM1 content of the milk samples and on available food consumption data in Serbia...
August 7, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782036/deadly-heat-waves-projected-in-the-densely-populated-agricultural-regions-of-south-asia
#16
Eun-Soon Im, Jeremy S Pal, Elfatih A B Eltahir
The risk associated with any climate change impact reflects intensity of natural hazard and level of human vulnerability. Previous work has shown that a wet-bulb temperature of 35°C can be considered an upper limit on human survivability. On the basis of an ensemble of high-resolution climate change simulations, we project that extremes of wet-bulb temperature in South Asia are likely to approach and, in a few locations, exceed this critical threshold by the late 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780354/asymmetric-inheritance-of-the-yeast-chaperone-hsp26p-and-its-functional-consequences
#17
George Lytras, Ioannis Zacharioudakis, Dimitris Tzamarias
The yeast Hsp26 protein, a conserved a-crystallin small heatshock chaperone, is assembled in to oligomeric complexes, microscopically visible as distinct cytoplasmic foci. We studied at single cell resolution the dynamics of Hsp26p foci assembly, the mode of their inheritance in to progeny cells and the physiological significance of Hsp26p function. We showed that Hsp26p foci are formed upon cells' entry in to stationary phase, but upon re-entry to proliferation they are asymmetrically retained in the mother cells and are absent from the newborn daughters...
August 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775362/oscillatory-vapour-shielding-of-liquid-metal-walls-in-nuclear-fusion-devices
#18
G G van Eden, V Kvon, M C M van de Sanden, T W Morgan
Providing an efficacious plasma facing surface between the extreme plasma heat exhaust and the structural materials of nuclear fusion devices is a major challenge on the road to electricity production by fusion power plants. The performance of solid plasma facing surfaces may become critically reduced over time due to progressing damage accumulation. Liquid metals, however, are now gaining interest in solving the challenge of extreme heat flux hitting the reactor walls. A key advantage of liquid metals is the use of vapour shielding to reduce the plasma exhaust...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773832/fabrication-and-physical-evaluation-of-gelatin-coated-carbonate-apatite-foam
#19
Kanae Hara, Kenji Fujisawa, Hirokazu Nagai, Natsumi Takamaru, Go Ohe, Kanji Tsuru, Kunio Ishikawa, Youji Miyamoto
Carbonate apatite (CO₃Ap) foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO₃Ap foam for bone replacement, CO₃Ap foam was reinforced with gelatin and the resulting physical characteristics were evaluated. The mechanical strength increased significantly with the gelatin reinforcement. The compressive strength of gelatin-free CO₃Ap foam was 74 kPa whereas that of the gelatin-reinforced CO₃Ap foam, fabricated using 30 mass % gelatin solution, was approximately 3 MPa...
August 23, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773098/finite-element-analysis-of-interfacial-debonding-in-copper-diamond-composites-for-thermal-management-applications
#20
Muhammad Zain-Ul-Abdein, Hassan Ijaz, Waqas Saleem, Kabeer Raza, Abdullah Salmeen Bin Mahfouz, Tarek Mabrouki
Copper/diamond (Cu/D) composites are famous in thermal management applications for their high thermal conductivity values. They, however, offer some interface related problems like high thermal boundary resistance and excessive debonding. This paper investigates interfacial debonding in Cu/D composites subjected to steady-state and transient thermal cyclic loading. A micro-scale finite element (FE) model was developed from a SEM image of the Cu/20 vol % D composite sample. Several test cases were assumed with respect to the direction of heat flow and the boundary interactions between Cu/uncoated diamonds and Cu/Cr-coated diamonds...
July 2, 2017: Materials
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