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Radon gas

Dragan Adamović, Jovan Dorić, Mirjana Vojinović Miloradov, Savka Adamović, Sabolč Pap, Jelena Radonić, Maja Turk Sekulić
The results of the research in the field of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) concentrations in exhaust gases of spark ignition engines under different operating conditions are presented in this paper. The aim of this paper is to gain a clearer insight into the impact of different engine working parameters on the concentrations of BTEX. The experimental investigation has been performed on the SCHENCK 230 W test stand with the controlled IC engine. The engine operating points have been chosen based on the results of a simulation and they are considered as the typical driving conditions according to the New European Driving Cycle...
May 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Carlos Rizo Maestre, Víctor Echarri Iribarren
In healthy buildings, it is considered essential to quantify air quality. One of the most fashionable indicators is radon gas. To determine the presence of this element, which is harmful to health, in the environment, the composition of the soil is studied. The presence of radon gas within a building depends both on the terrain in which it is located and on the composition of the materials of which it is composed, and not as was previously believed, only by the composition of the soil (whether granitic or not)...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Santiago Celaya González, Daniel Rábago Gómez, Ismael Fuente Merino, Luis Quindós López, Núria Bon Carreras, María Trinidad Valero Castell, José Luis Gutierrez Villanueva, Carlos Sainz Fernández
Radon-222, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, responsible together with its progeny of around 50% of the average effective dose received by the population, has not been regulated by law until the recent Directive 2013/51 /Euratom. Its transposition into Spanish legislation was made in the recent RD 314/2016, which sets at limit value of 500 Bq l-1 for radon-222 in water for human consumption. Intercomparison exercises, such as those carried out by IPROMA SL and the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity of the Cantabria University (LARUC) in November 2015 and December 2016, represent the most useful tool available for detecting problems and taking corrective actions necessary for an efficient measurement by part of the laboratories...
March 9, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
J Elío, Q Crowley, R Scanlon, J Hodgson, L Zgaga
Radon is a naturally occurring gas, classified as a Class 1 human carcinogen, being the second most significant cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. A robust spatial definition of radon distribution in the built environment is therefore essential for understanding the relationship between radon exposure and its adverse health effects on the general population. Using Ireland as a case study, we present a methodology to estimate an average indoor radon concentration and calculate the expected radon-related lung cancer incidence...
May 2018: Environment International
K Mitev, Ch Dutsov, S Georgiev, T Boshkova, D Pressyanov
This work presents a method for measuring the depth distribution of 222 Rn activity in soil gas. The method is based on the capacity of polycarbonates to absorb 222 Rn and on the possibility of performing sensitive measurements of 222 Rn absorbed by the polycarbonates via liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The method is the following: cylindrical holes are drilled along a metal rod and Makrofol® N polycarbonate foils enclosed in polyethylene envelopes are placed in each hole. The rod is driven into the soil and kept for a certain time...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Anna Luiza Marques Ayres da Silva, Sérgio Médici Eston, Wilson Siguemasa Iramina, Diego Diegues Francisca
Radon is a chemically inert noble radioactive gas found in several radioactive decay chains. In underground mines, especially those that contain or have contained ores associated with uranium-bearing minerals, workers might be exposed to high levels of radon and its decay products (RDP). This work aimed to investigate whether the exposure of workers to radon gas and its progeny has been evaluated in Brazilian non-uranium and non-thorium underground mines. If so, the results and control measures undertaken or recommended to maintain the concentrations under Brazilian occupational exposure limits (OELs) were documented...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Argha Deb, Mahasin Gazi, Jayita Ghosh, Saheli Chowdhury, Chiranjib Barman
The present paper deals with monitoring soil radon-222 concentration at two different locations, designated Site A and Site B, 200 m apart at Jadavpur University campus, Kolkata, India, with a view to find possible precursors for the earthquakes that occurred within a few hundred kilometers from the monitoring site. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used for detection of radon gas coming out from soil. Radon-222 time series at both locations during the period August 2012-December 2013 have been analysed...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ludwik Dobrzynski, Krzysztof W Fornalski, Joanna Reszczynska
A re-analysis has been carried out of thirty-two case-control and two ecological studies concerning the influence of radon, a radioactive gas, on the risk of lung cancer. Three mathematically simplest dose-response relationships (models) were tested: constant (zero health effect), linear, and parabolic (linear-quadratic). Health effect end-points reported in the analysed studies are odds ratios or relative risk ratios, related either to morbidity or mortality. In our preliminary analysis, we show that the results of dose-response fitting are qualitatively (within uncertainties, given as error bars) the same, whichever of these health effect end-points are applied...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
B J Kim, J M Lee, K B Lee, T S Park, B C Kim
The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) participated, in 2015, in an international Key Comparison (KC) of gaseous radon-222 activity named CCRI (II) -K2.Rn-222 to confirm international equivalence of KRISS-established gaseous radon-222 measurement standards. LNHB acted as KC pilot laboratory. This paper describes the KC measurement procedure followed at KRISS using the defined solid angle counting method together with auxiliary relative measurement methods and presents the results.
April 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Botond Papp, Alexandra Cucos Dinu, Constantin Cosma
This study presents results of a complex survey about residential, soil and water radon in the North of Mureş county (Romania). Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors, while radon concentrations in soil and in water were measured by using the LUK3C device and accessories. The indoor radon concentrations of 157 houses ranged from 9 to 414 Bq m-3, with an arithmetic mean of 131 Bq m-3 and a geometric mean of 105 Bq m-3. In ~3.2% of the investigated houses exceed the recommended reference level of 300 Bq m-3...
November 18, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Douglas R Tait, Damien T Maher, WeiWen Wong, Isaac R Santos, Mahmood Sadat-Noori, Ceylena Holloway, Perran L M Cook
Estuaries are an important source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, but uncertainties remain in the flux rates and production pathways of greenhouse gases in these dynamic systems. This study performs simultaneous high resolution measurements of the three major greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) as well as carbon stable isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and methane, above and below the pycnocline along a salt wedge estuary (Yarra River estuary, Australia). We identified distinct zones of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
S Pierre, B Sabot, P Cassette, J Liang, S Courte, L Ferreux, G Ratel
Two main non-destructive techniques can be used to measure standard 222 Rn gas ampoules: well-type ionization chambers and gamma-ray spectrometry, the former being used in the Système International de Référence (SIR) for international comparison purposes. The reliability of these techniques requires that the variability of the flame-sealed gas glass ampoules used have a negligible influence on the detector response. This variability is studied in this work by considering three parameters: the volume of the ampoule, the position of the sealing point and the thickness of the glass...
April 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Jácint Jónás, János Somlai, Anita Csordás, Edit Tóth-Bodrogi, Tibor Kovács
In petroleum engineering, the produced drilling mud sometimes contains elevated amounts of natural radioactivity. In this study, a remediated Hungarian drilling mud depository was investigated from a radiological perspective. The depository was monitored before and after a clay layer was applied as covering. In this study, the ambient dose equivalent rate H*(10) of the depository has been measured by a Scintillator Probe (6150AD-b Dose Rate Meter). Outdoor radon concentration, radon concentration in soil gas, and in situ field radon exhalation measurements were carried out using a pulse-type ionization chamber (AlphaGUARD radon monitor)...
August 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
F Kabrt, A Baumgartner, M Stietka, F J Maringer
The radioactive noble gas radon is identified as the highest risk factor for lung cancer after smoking. The exhalation of radon from building materials can contribute to the radon indoor activity concentration. Therefore, the emanation of radon might be a crucial factor. It is defined as the release of radon from the solid soil matter into the pore space of the material. This article describes a new on-site measurement method for the emanation of radon from building materials at industrial sites. Therefore, a closed vessel with sample material and a passive radon detector inside is used to measure the integrated build-up-curve of the activity concentration...
November 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
F Tondeur, G Cinelli, B Dehandschutter
Radon risk maps are usually based either on indoor radon data, or on measurements of soil gas radon and soil permeability. If these data are not available or not sufficient, it was suggested that other data could be used as an approximate substitute (a proxy) to the missing information, like the concentration of 238U or 226Ra in soils or the terrestrial gamma dose rate (TGDR). We examine here the correlation between airborne measurements of soil U and indoor radon, and between airborne U and TGDR, and their link with affected/unaffected areas...
November 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
C Sabbarese, F Ambrosino, F De Cicco, M Pugliese, M Quarto, V Roca
This work concerns continuous monitoring of radon and thoron specific activity in soil gas within the framework of identifying possible anomalies. It is based on the analysis of a medium-term data record obtained from soil gas in an area of geophysical interest. The RaMonA spectrometric system is also used to measure the climatic parameters and a specific analysis of the alpha spectra is performed to better determine the alpha lines intensity. Since radon emission is also influenced by meteorological parameters, it is mandatory to differentiate the changes due to the deep phenomena...
November 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
C Licour, F Tondeur, I Gerardy, N Medaghri Alaoui, N Dubois, R Perreaux, N Gerardy, D Christiaens
Knowing the concentration of 226Ra in soil and of 222Rn in soil gas is important for the analysis of indoor radon data and the prediction of radon-prone areas. Except for soil Rn in Ardenne, the data concerning these two radionuclides in Belgian soils are very scarce. In the context of Master theses and international courses, students made 92 measurements of 226Ra in soil samples, 105 of 222Rn in soil gas, and 74 of soil permeability, a significant addition to the existing similar data. The data are analysed in relation with soil texture, geological units and indoor radon risk...
November 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Mohammad R Tanha, Jan-Willem Vahlbruch, Beate Riebe, Josef Irlinger, Werner Rühm, Fazal R Khalid, Abobaker Storai, Clemens Walther
Radon gas concentrations in eight basements, four living rooms and four caves from different locations in Kabul and Panjsher, Afghanistan, were measured by using eight active radon exposure meters recently developed by the Helmholtz Center in Munich, Germany. The two-phase measurements lasted from a week to a year. In the first phase of measurements which lasted one week, the mean activity concentrations ranged from 6 to 120 Bq/m3 and 25 to 139 Bq/m3 for the basements and caves, respectively. In the second phase of measurements which lasted one year, the mean activity concentrations ranged from 33 to 2064 Bq/m3 and the corresponding effective annual doses calculated for the inhabitants were in the range between 0...
January 1, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
A K Visnuprasad, G Jaikrishnan, B K Sahoo, C E Pereira, P J Jojo
In an environment having thorium rich soil the activity concentration of thoron in soil gas and ground-level outside air is comparable to that to radon. Recent reports indicate that in terms of the energy of the alpha particle decays of thoron's progeny, its concentration in indoor air is significant, typically about half that due to radon progeny. We made a detailed radiometric profiling of inhalation dose to the population of the high background radiation area in the west southern coastal region of India...
March 1, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Z Daraktchieva, J M Wasikiewicz, C B Howarth, E J Bradley
The Vale of Pickering in Yorkshire, England has been identified as a potential area for shale gas extraction. Public Health England joined a collaboration led by the British Geological Survey for environmental baseline monitoring near the potential shale gas extraction site following a grant award from UK Government Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The analysis of results for the first 6 months of indoor monitoring indicated that the results followed a log-normal distribution. The numbers of homes found to be at or above the Action Level followed the numbers predicted by the radon potential maps...
November 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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