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Forest fire smoke

Liubov Volkova, C P Mick Meyer, Vanessa Haverd, Christopher J Weston
The increasing regional and global impact of wildfires on the environment, and particularly on the human population, is becoming a focus of the research community. Both fire behaviour and smoke dispersion models are now underpinning strategic and tactical fire management by many government agencies and therefore model accuracy at regional and local scales is increasingly important. This demands accuracy of all the components of the model systems, biomass fuel loads being among the more significant. Validation of spatial fuels maps at a regional scale is uncommon; in part due to the limited availability of independent observations of fuel loads, and in part due to a focus on the impact of model outputs...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
W M Erb, E J Barrow, A N Hofner, S S Utami-Atmoko, E R Vogel
Indonesia's peatlands experience frequent and intense wildfires, producing hazardous smoke with consequences for human health, yet there is a lack of research into adverse effects on wildlife. We evaluated the effects of smoke on the activity and energy balance of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in a peat swamp forest at the Tuanan Research Station, Central Kalimantan. We collected behavioural data and urine samples from four adult flanged males before, during, and after wildfires between March 2015 and January 2016...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
James C Hogg, Tillie-Louise Hackett
It is well known that particulate matter suspended in the earth's atmosphere generated by tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, industrial processes, and forest fires has been identified as a major risk factor for chronic lung disease. Particulate matter can be divided into large, intermediate, and fine particulates. When inhaled, large particulates develop sufficient momentum to leave the flowing stream of inhaled air and deposit by impaction in the nose, mouth, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, and central bronchi...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Marcel Hinz, Adrian Klein, Anke Schmitz, Helmut Schmitz
Infrared (IR) receptors are rare in insects and have only been found in the small group of so-called pyrophilous insects, which approach forest fires. In previous work the morphology of the IR receptors and the physiology of the inherent sensory cells have been investigated. It was shown that receptors are located on the thorax and the abdomen respectively and show an astounding diversity with respect to structure and the presumed transduction mechanism. What is completely missing, however, is any behavioral evidence for the function of the IR receptors in pyrophilous insects...
2018: PloS One
Matthew Noestheden, Eric G Dennis, Wesley F Zandberg
Smoke-taint is a wine defect linked to organoleptic volatile phenols (VPs) in Vitis vinifera L. berries that have been exposed to smoke from wildland fires. Herein, the levels of smoke-taint-associated VPs are reported in Cabernet Franc berries from veraison to commercial maturity and in wine after primary fermentation following on-vine exposure to simulated wildland fire smoke. VPs increased after smoke exposure were rapidly stored as acid-labile conjugates, and the levels of both free VPs and conjugated forms remained constant through ripening to commercial maturity...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mark A Wolters, C B Dean
Remote sensing images from Earth-orbiting satellites are a potentially rich data source for monitoring and cataloguing atmospheric health hazards that cover large geographic regions. A method is proposed for classifying such images into hazard and nonhazard regions using the autologistic regression model, which may be viewed as a spatial extension of logistic regression. The method includes a novel and simple approach to parameter estimation that makes it well suited to handling the large and high-dimensional datasets arising from satellite-borne instruments...
2017: Statistics in Biosciences
Sayantan Sarkar, Wei Hong Fan, Shiguo Jia, Donald R Blake, Jeffrey S Reid, Puji Lestari, Liya E Yu
This work reports the first ground-based atmospheric measurements of 26 halocarbons in Singapore, an urban-industrial city-state in Southeast (SE) Asia. A total of 166 whole air canister samples collected during two intensive 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) campaigns (August-October 2011 and 2012) were analyzed for C1 -C2 halocarbons using gas chromatography-electron capture/mass spectrometric detection. The halocarbon dataset was supplemented with measurements of selected non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1 -C5 alkyl nitrates, sulfur gases and carbon monoxide to better understand sources and atmospheric processes...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dejan Urbančok, Anthony J R Payne, Richard D Webster
A study of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority listed PAHs associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10 ) was conducted in Singapore during the period 29th May 2015 to 28th May 2016. The sampling period coincided with an extensive, regional smoke haze episode (5th September to 25th October) that occurred as a result of forest and peat fires in neighboring Indonesia. Throughout this study, 54 atmospheric PM10 samples were collected in 24 h periods using a high volume sampler (HVS) and quarts fiber filters (QFF) as the collection medium...
October 2017: Environmental Pollution
Katja Härtl, Fong-Chin Huang, Ashok P Giri, Katrin Franz-Oberdorf, Johanna Frotscher, Yang Shao, Thomas Hoffmann, Wilfried Schwab
Vinification of grapes (Vitis vinifera) exposed to forest fire smoke can yield unpalatable wine due to the presence of taint compounds from smoke and the release of smoke derived volatiles from their respective glycosides during the fermentation process or in-mouth during consumption. To identify glycosyltransferases (GTs) involved in the formation of glycosidically bound smoke-derived volatiles we performed gene expression analysis of candidate GTs in different grapevine tissues. Second, substrates derived from bushfire smoke or naturally occurring in grapes were screened with the candidate recombinant GTs...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Matthew D Ferguson, Erin O Semmens, Emily Weiler, Joe Domitrovich, Mary French, Christopher Migliaccio, Charles Palmer, Charles Dumke, Tony Ward
Across the world, biomass smoke is a major source of air pollution and is linked with a variety of adverse health effects. This is particularly true in the western U.S. where wood smoke from wildland forest fires are a significant source of PM2.5 . Wildland firefighters are impacted as they experience elevated PM2.5 concentrations over extended periods of time, often occurring during physical exertion. Various epidemiological studies have investigated wood smoke impacts on human health, including occupational field exposures experienced by wildland firefighters...
September 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Ana Abreu, Carla Costa, Susana Pinho E Silva, Simone Morais, Maria do Carmo Pereira, Adília Fernandes, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, João Paulo Teixeira, Solange Costa
Portugal is among the European Union countries most devastated by forest fires each year. In the last three decades, more than 3.8 million hectares of forest were burned. Wildland firefighters are exposed to a variety of hazards, including many toxic combustion products that may lead to deleterious health effects. Epidemiological studies showed a positive association between firefighting and several chronic diseases, including cancer. Results from biomonitoring studies in firefighters, particularly concerning genotoxicity evaluation, constitute a valuable tool for investigating important occupational hazards...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
S N Kotelnikov, E V Stepanov, V T Ivashkin
Dependence of the population morbidity on the ground-level ozone concentration in the summer of 2010 was studied in a city with low urbanization (Vyatskie Polyany, Kirov oblast) and in Moscow. At a high air temperature and low ozone concentration, the population morbidity was not associated with these parameters in Vyatskie Polyany. When the average daily ground-level ozone concentration exceeded 60 μg/m3 for 13 successive days, the correlation coefficient between ozone concentration and the number of ambulance calls was statistically significant, r = 0...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Clare Stawski, Julia Nowack, Gerhard Körtner, Fritz Geiser
Recent work has shown that the use of torpor for energy conservation increases after forest fires in heterothermic mammals, probably in response to the reduction of food. However, the specific environmental cues for this increased torpor expression remain unknown. It is possible that smoke and the novel substrate of charcoal and ash act as signals for an impending period of starvation requiring torpor. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the combined cues of smoke, a charcoal/ash substrate and food shortage will enhance torpor expression in a small forest-dwelling marsupial, the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), because like other animals that live in fire-prone habitats they must effectively respond to fires to ensure survival...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Dewakar Sangaraju, Emily J Boldry, Yesha M Patel, Vernon Walker, Irina Stepanov, Daniel Stram, Dorothy Hatsukami, Natalia Tretyakova
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental chemical classified as a known human carcinogen. Occupational exposure to BD in the polymer and monomer industries is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. BD is present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires, raising concern about potential exposure of the general population to this carcinogen. Following inhalation exposure, BD is bioactivated to 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB). If not detoxified, EB is capable of modifying guanine and adenine bases of DNA to form nucleobase adducts, which interfere with accurate DNA replication and cause cancer-initiating mutations...
February 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Xiaofei Yan, Hong Cheng, Yandong Zhao, Wenhua Yu, Huan Huang, Xiaoliang Zheng
Diverse sensing techniques have been developed and combined with machine learning method for forest fire detection, but none of them referred to identifying smoldering and flaming combustion phases. This study attempts to real-time identify different combustion phases using a developed wireless sensor network (WSN)-based multi-sensor system and artificial neural network (ANN). Sensors (CO, CO₂, smoke, air temperature and relative humidity) were integrated into one node of WSN. An experiment was conducted using burning materials from residual of forest to test responses of each node under no, smoldering-dominated and flaming-dominated combustion conditions...
August 4, 2016: Sensors
Henry Cruz, Martina Eckert, Juan Meneses, José-Fernán Martínez
This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI), developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs) with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96...
June 16, 2016: Sensors
V Huijnen, M J Wooster, J W Kaiser, D L A Gaveau, J Flemming, M Parrington, A Inness, D Murdiyarso, B Main, M van Weele
In September and October 2015 widespread forest and peatland fires burned over large parts of maritime southeast Asia, most notably Indonesia, releasing large amounts of terrestrially-stored carbon into the atmosphere, primarily in the form of CO2, CO and CH4. With a mean emission rate of 11.3 Tg CO2 per day during Sept-Oct 2015, emissions from these fires exceeded the fossil fuel CO2 release rate of the European Union (EU28) (8.9 Tg CO2 per day). Although seasonal fires are a frequent occurrence in the human modified landscapes found in Indonesia, the extent of the 2015 fires was greatly inflated by an extended drought period associated with a strong El Niño...
May 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ke Zu, Ge Tao, Christopher Long, Julie Goodman, Peter Valberg
During July 2002, forest fires in Quebec, Canada, blanketed the US East Coast with a plume of wood smoke. This "natural experiment" exposed large populations in northeastern US cities to significantly elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), providing a unique opportunity to test the association between daily mortality and ambient PM2.5 levels that are uncorrelated with societal activity rhythms. We obtained PM2.5 measurement data and mortality data for a 4-week period in July 2002 for the Greater Boston metropolitan area (which has a population of over 1...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Hiep Nguyen Duc, Ho Quoc Bang, Ngo Xuan Quang
During the dry season, from November to April, agricultural biomass burning and forest fires especially from March to late April in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam frequently cause severe particulate pollution not only in the local areas but also across the whole region and beyond due to the prevailing meteorological conditions. Recently, the BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) and 7-SEAS (7-South-East Asian Studies) studies have provided detailed analysis and important understandings of the transport of pollutants, in particular, the aerosols and their characteristics across the region due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia (SEA)...
February 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
David A Morgott
This review examines available published information on ethylene emission sources, emission magnitudes, and inhalation exposures in order to assess those factors and circumstances that can affect human contact with this omnipresent gas. The results reveal that airborne ethylene concentrations at the ppb levels are commonplace and can arise in the vicinity of traffic corridors, forest fires, indoor kitchens, horticultural areas, oil fields, house fires, and petrochemical sites. The primary biogenic sources of ethylene derive from microbial activity in most soil and marine environments as well as its biological formation in wide variety of plant species...
November 5, 2015: Chemico-biological Interactions
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