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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214945/characterization-of-tunneling-nanotubes-in-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-an-intercellular-exchange-of-components-between-neighboring-cells
#1
Viviana Sanchez, Nerina Villalba, Luciano Fiore, Carlos Luzzani, Santiago Miriuka, Alberto Boveris, Ricardo J Gelpi, Alicia Brusco, Juan José Poderoso
Intercellular communication is one of the most important events in cell population behavior. In the last decade, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as a new form of long distance intercellular connection. TNT function is to allow molecular and subcellular structure exchange between neighboring cells via the transfer of molecules and organelles such as calcium ions, prions, viral and bacterial pathogens, small lysosomes and mitochondria. New findings support the concept that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can affect cell microenvironment by the release of soluble factors or the transfer of cellular components to neighboring cells, in a way which significantly contributes to cell regulation and tissue repair, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211900/amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-interact-with-neurexin-and-diminish-neurexin-mediated-excitatory-presynaptic-organization
#2
Yusuke Naito, Yuko Tanabe, Alfred Kihoon Lee, Edith Hamel, Hideto Takahashi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by excessive production and deposition of amyloid-beta (Aβ) proteins as well as synapse dysfunction and loss. While soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs) have deleterious effects on synapse function and reduce synapse number, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we screened synaptic organizer proteins for cell-surface interaction with AβOs and identified a novel interaction between neurexins (NRXs) and AβOs. AβOs bind to NRXs via the N-terminal histidine-rich domain (HRD) of β-NRX1/2/3 and alternatively-spliced inserts at splicing site 4 of NRX1/2...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211534/in-vitro-differentiation-of-fertile-sperm-from-cryopreserved-spermatogonia-of-the-endangered-endemic-cyprinid-honmoroko-gnathopogon-caerulescens
#3
Shogo Higaki, Manami Shimada, Kazuaki Kawamoto, Takaaki Todo, Toshihiro Kawasaki, Ikuo Tooyama, Yasuhiro Fujioka, Noriyoshi Sakai, Tatsuyuki Takada
Many endemic fish species are threatened with extinction. Conservation strategies and the restoration of endemic fish after extinction must therefore be investigated. Although sperm cryopreservation is indispensable for the conservation of endangered fishes, the limited number of mature fish and limited availability (volume and period) of sperm from small endemic fish hinders the optimization and practical use of this material. In this report, we demonstrate the in vitro differentiation of fertile sperm from cryopreserved spermatogonia of juveniles of the endangered small cyprinid honmoroko (Gnathopogon caerulescens), which is endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208588/depicting-binding-mediated-translocation-of-hiv-1-tat-peptides-in-living-cells-with-nanoscale-pens-of-tat-conjugated-quantum-dots
#4
Chien Y Lin, Jung Y Huang, Leu-Wei Lo
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can translocate across cell membranes, and thus have great potential for the cellular delivery of macromolecular cargoes. However, the mechanism of this cellular uptake process is not yet fully understood. In this study, a time-lapse single-particle light-sheet microscopy technique was implemented to obtain a parallel visualization of the translocating process of individual human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) transactivator of transcription (Tat) peptide conjugated quantum dots (TatP-QDs) in complex cellular terrains...
February 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207996/the-use-of-a-contextual-modal-and-psychological-classification-of-medication-errors-in-the-emergency-department-a-retrospective-descriptive-study
#5
C J Cabilan, J A Hughes, C Shannon
BACKGROUND: The causes of medication errors are unique in every clinical setting; hence error minimisation strategies are not always effective. For this reason, it is fundamental to understand the causes specific to the emergency department so that targeted strategies can be implemented. OBJECTIVES: To describe the contextual, modal, and psychological classification of medication errors in the emergency department to know the factors associated with the reported medication errors...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205171/synthesis-and-live-cell-imaging-of-fluorescent-sterols-for-analysis-of-intracellular-cholesterol-transport
#6
Maciej Modzel, Frederik W Lund, Daniel Wüstner
Cellular cholesterol homeostasis relies on precise control of the sterol content of organelle membranes. Obtaining insight into cholesterol trafficking pathways and kinetics by live-cell imaging relies on two conditions. First, one needs to develop suitable analogs that resemble cholesterol as closely as possible with respect to their biophysical and biochemical properties. Second, the cholesterol analogs should have good fluorescence properties. This interferes, however, often with the first requirement, such that the imaging instrumentation must be optimized to collect photons from suboptimal fluorophores, but good cholesterol mimics, such as the intrinsically fluorescent sterols, cholestatrienol (CTL) or dehydroergosterol (DHE)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202734/proper-division-plane-orientation-and-mitotic-progression-together-allow-normal-growth-of-maize
#7
Pablo Martinez, Anding Luo, Anne Sylvester, Carolyn G Rasmussen
How growth, microtubule dynamics, and cell-cycle progression are coordinated is one of the unsolved mysteries of cell biology. A maize mutant, tangled1, with known defects in growth and proper division plane orientation, and a recently characterized cell-cycle delay identified by time-lapse imaging, was used to clarify the relationship between growth, cell cycle, and proper division plane orientation. The tangled1 mutant was fully rescued by introduction of cortical division site localized TANGLED1-YFP. A CYCLIN1B destruction box was fused to TANGLED1-YFP to generate a line that mostly rescued the division plane defect but still showed cell-cycle delays when expressed in the tangled1 mutant...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197633/pim1-knockdown-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-of-mesothelioma-cells
#8
Amany Sayed Mawas, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Rui Suzuki, Kei Kushitani, Mouchira M Mohi El-Din, Yukio Takeshima
Malignant mesothelioma is a major asbestos-related cancer with prolonged time lapse from the first exposure of asbestos to the development of mesothelioma. Most of mesothelioma patients show very poor prognosis, thus, an urgent improvement of its treatment is required by development of novel therapeutic strategies. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool in post-genomic research and cancer therapy through inhibition of gene expression. In the present study, we analyzed the function of PIM1 on mesothelioma cell lines with its knockdown by siRNA transfection...
March 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196805/cell-division-and-cadherin-mediated-adhesion-regulate-lens-epithelial-cell-movement-in-zebrafish
#9
Toshiaki Mochizuki, Yi-Jyun Luo, Hsieh-Fu Tsai, Akane Hagiwara, Ichiro Masai
In vertebrates, lens epithelial cells cover the anterior half of the lens fiber core. During development, lens epithelial cells proliferate, move posteriorly and differentiate into lens fiber cells after passing through the equator. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying lens epithelial cell movement, we conducted time-lapse imaging of zebrafish lens epithelium. Lens epithelial cells do not intermingle but maintain their relative positions during development. Cell division induces epithelial rearrangement, which subsequently promotes cell movement towards the equator...
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193697/error-induced-blindness-error-detection-leads-to-impaired-sensory-processing-and-lower-accuracy-at-short-response-stimulus-intervals
#10
George A Buzzell, Paul J Beatty, Natalie A Paquette, Daniel M Roberts, Craig G McDonald
Empirical evidence indicates that detecting one's own mistakes can serve as a signal to improve task performance. However, little work has focused on how task constraints, such as the response-stimulus interval (RSI), influence post-error adjustments. In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and behavioral measures were used to investigate the time course of error-related processing while humans performed a difficult visual discrimination task. We found that error commission resulted in a marked reduction in both task performance and sensory processing on the following trial when RSIs were short, but that such impairments were not detectable at longer RSIs...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185267/regulation-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cell-orientation-and-motility-in-2d-and-3d-cultures-by-direct-current-electrical-field
#11
Gang Yang, Haiyan Long, Xiaomei Ren, Kunlong Ma, Zhenghua Xiao, Ying Wang, Yingqiang Guo
Cell alignment and motility play a critical role in a variety of cell behaviors, including cytoskeleton reorganization, membrane-protein relocation, nuclear gene expression, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Direct current electric field (EF) in vitro can direct many types of cells to align vertically to EF vector. In this work, we investigated the effects of EF stimulation on rat adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) in 2D-culture on plastic culture dishes and in 3D-culture on various scaffold materials, including collagen hydrogels, chitosan hydrogels and poly(L-lactic acid)/gelatin electrospinning fibers...
February 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185121/the-association-between-coenzyme-q10-concentrations-in-follicular-fluid-with-embryo-morphokinetics-and-pregnancy-rate-in-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#12
Süleyman Akarsu, Funda Gode, Ahmet Zeki Isik, Zeliha Günnur Dikmen, Mustafa Agah Tekindağ
PURPOSE: This study seeks to evaluate the association between follicular fluid (FF) coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) levels, embryo morphokinetics, and pregnancy rate. METHODS: Sixty infertile patients who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were included in the study. For each patient, CoQ10 level of the follicular fluid was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography system. After the ICSI of each oocyte, the relationship between the level of CoQ10 content of each follicular fluid, the subsequent embryo quality, and embryo morphokinetics was investigated...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183231/autonomic-nervous-activities-associated-with-bruxism-events-during-sleep
#13
Shinichi Nukazawa, Hidehiro Yoshimi, Sadao Sato
OBJECTIVES: To confirm the relationship between sleep bruxism (SB) and autonomic nervous (AN) activities to elucidate SB physiology. METHODS: Subjects included 11 healthy males (mean age, 24.7 ± 2.3 years). These data were recorded in the sleep laboratory using a system composed of a two-axis accelerometer, an infrared camera, electroencephalography, electromyography, and electrocardiography. Time lapse analysis confirmed correlations between AN activity and SB events during sleep in subjects...
February 10, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177524/in-vivo-expression-of-nurr1-nr4a2a-in-developing-retinal-amacrine-subtypes-in-zebrafish-tg-nr4a2a-egfp-transgenics
#14
Liana Goodings, Jie He, Alasdair Wood, William A Harris, Peter D Currie, Patricia R Jusuf
The Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2 (Nr4a2) is crucial for the formation or maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system including the retina, where dopaminergic amacrine cells contribute to visual function. Little is known about which cells express Nr4a2 at which developmental stage. Furthermore, whether Nr4a2 functions in combination with other genes is poorly understood. Thus, we generated a novel transgenic to visualise Nr4a2 expression in vivo during zebrafish retinogenesis...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174247/self-organisation-after-embryonic-kidney-dissociation-is-driven-via-selective-adhesion-of-ureteric-epithelial-cells
#15
J G Lefevre, H S Chiu, A N Combes, J M Vanslambrouck, A Ju, N A Hamilton, M H Little
Human pluripotent stem cells, after directed differentiation in vitro, can spontaneously generate complex tissues via self-organisation of the component cells. Self-organisation can also reform embryonic organ structure after tissue disruption. It has previously been demonstrated that dissociated embryonic kidneys can recreate component epithelial and mesenchymal relationships sufficient to allow continued kidney morphogenesis. Here we investigate the timing and underlying mechanisms driving self-organisation after dissociation of the embryonic kidney using time-lapse imaging, high-resolution confocal analyses and mathematical modelling...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169975/simple-urine-test-to-evaluate-adherence-to-oral-5-asa-in-teenagers-with-ulcerative-colitis-proof-of-concept
#16
Alie Dijkstra, Daan J Touw, Patrick F van Rheenen
OBJECTIVES: 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is an important maintenance drug for patients with ulcerative colitis. A proportion of the ingested dose is excreted in the urine. Measuring 5-ASA and its metabolites in urine requires mass spectrometry, which is not widely available for this purpose. Urinary 5-ASA can be measured by colorimetry using the serum salicylic acid assay and is a surrogate marker of recent 5-ASA ingestion. We evaluated whether measuring 5-ASA in first morning voids or in random spot urine samples correctly identifies teenagers with poor adherence to oral 5-ASA...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166426/the-elusive-role-of-mitotic-bookmarking-in-transcriptional-regulation-insights-from-sox2
#17
Cédric Deluz, Daniel Strebinger, Elias T Friman, David M Suter
The ability of some transcription factors to remain bound to specific genes on condensed mitotic chromosomes has been suggested to play a role in their rapid transcriptional reactivation upon mitotic exit. We have recently shown that SOX2 and OCT4 remain associated to mitotic chromosomes, and that depletion of SOX2 at the mitosis-G1 (M-G1) transition impairs its ability to maintain pluripotency and drive neuroectodermal commitment. Here we report on the role of SOX2 at the M-G1 transition in regulating transcriptional activity of embryonic stem cells...
February 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165017/bet-hedging-in-bacteriocin-producing-escherichia-coli-populations-the-single-cell-perspective
#18
Bihter Bayramoglu, David Toubiana, Simon van Vliet, R Fredrik Inglis, Nadav Shnerb, Osnat Gillor
Production of public goods in biological systems is often a collaborative effort that may be detrimental to the producers. It is therefore sustainable only if a small fraction of the population shoulders the cost while the majority reap the benefits. We modelled this scenario using Escherichia coli populations producing colicins, an antibiotic that kills producer cells' close relatives. Colicin expression is a costly trait, and it has been proposed that only a small fraction of the population actively expresses the antibiotic...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164757/bone-micrornas-and-aging
#19
Janja Marc, Barbara Ostanek, Tilen Kranjc
The decline of tissue function in ageing is a consequence of many changes in the gene expression and other extrinsic factors. The molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are heavily investigated with focus on regulation of time-lapse gene expression. microRNAs, short non-coding RNA molecules are among the major regulators of gene expression. microRNAs have been shown to control ageing-related mechanisms and several evidence suggest age-related changes in microRNA transcriptome. However, the source regulator of time-lapse gene expression control still remains unknown...
February 2, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160860/novel-effect-and-the-mechanistic-insights-of-fruiting-body-extract-of-medicinal-fungus-antrodia-cinnamomea-against-t47d-breast-cancer
#20
Kuang-Ming Shang, Tzu-Hsuan Su, Wai Leng Lee, Wen-Wei Hsiao, Ching-Yi Chiou, Bing-Ying Ho, Sheng-Yang Wang, Lie-Fen Shyur
INTRODUCTION: Tamoxifen, an anti-oestrogenic drug for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, was observed to stimulate tumor growth or drug resistance in patients. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), a precious medicinal fungus has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for cancers in Asian countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the bioefficacy and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the AC fruiting bodies extracts (AC-3E) against human ER+ T47D breast cancer cells, and compare the effect with that of tamoxifen...
January 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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