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Daniel A Patten, Garrick K Wilson, Dalan Bailey, Robert K Shaw, Sirpa Jalkanen, Marko Salmi, Antal Rot, Christopher J Weston, David H Adams, Shishir Shetty
: The recruitment of lymphocytes via the hepatic sinusoidal channels and positioning within liver tissue is a critical event in the development and persistence of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. The hepatic sinusoid is a unique vascular bed lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC), a functionally and phenotypically distinct sub-population of endothelial cells. Using flow based adhesion assays to study the migration of lymphocytes across primary human HSEC, we found that lymphocytes enter into HSEC, confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating clear intracellular localization of lymphocytes in vitro and by studies in human liver tissues...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Sylvia Neumann, Romain Chassefeyre, George E Campbell, Sandra E Encalada
In axons, proper localization of proteins, vesicles, organelles, and other cargoes is accomplished by the highly regulated coordination of kinesins and dyneins, molecular motors that bind to cargoes and translocate them along microtubule (MT) tracks. Impairment of axonal transport is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. To understand how MT-based cargo motility is regulated and to delineate its role in neurodegeneration, it is critical to analyze the detailed dynamics of moving cargoes inside axons...
October 22, 2016: Traffic
Gabor Nagy, Viktoria Baksa, Alexandra Kiss, Melinda Turani, Gaspar Banfalvi
The toxicity of gadolinium is reduced by chelating agents that render this heavy metal into contrast complexes used for medical magnetic resonance imaging. However, the dissociation of gadolinium chelates is known to generate Gd(3+) ions, the cellular toxicity of which has not been tested in details. The cytotoxic effects of Gd(III) ions were evaluated by monitoring the proliferation, measuring the cellular motility and following chromatin changes in various cell lines upon Gd(3+) treatment. Measurements applied long-term scanning microscopy and a perfusion platform that replaced the medium with test solutions, bypassed physical contact with the cell culture during experiments, and provided uninterrupted high time-resolution time-lapse photomicrography for an extended period of time...
October 22, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
J E Slotta, U Kopsch, M Ghadimi, O Kollmar
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is a common disease which requires immediate surgical treatment of the focus of inflammation. So far there are no reliable data on how much time can pass between hospitalization, indications for surgery and initiating surgery without an increased risk of morbidity and mortality for the patient. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how much time can lapse between admission and initiation of surgery for acute appendicitis while still providing patient safety and no increase in complication rates...
October 21, 2016: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Ruud L van den Brink, Peter R Murphy, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small...
2016: PloS One
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Carolina Rodriguez-Tirado, Takanori Kitamura, Yu Kato, Jeffery W Pollard, John S Condeelis, David Entenberg
Metastasis to secondary sites such as the lung, liver and bone is a traumatic event with a mortality rate of approximately 90% (1). Of these sites, the lung is the most difficult to assess using intravital optical imaging due to its enclosed position within the body, delicate nature and vital role in sustaining proper physiology. While clinical modalities (positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT)) are capable of providing noninvasive images of this tissue, they lack the resolution necessary to visualize the earliest seeding events, with a single pixel consisting of nearly a thousand cells...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lessly P Sepulveda-Rincon, Delphine Dube, Pierre Adenot, Ludivine Laffont, Sylvie Ruffini, Laurence Gall, Bruce K Campbell, Veronique Duranthon, Nathalie Beaujean, Walid E Maalouf
The first lineage specification during mammalian embryo development can be visually distinguished at blastocyst stage. Two cell lineages are observed on the embryonic/abembryonic axis of the blastocyst: the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm. The timing and mechanisms driving this process are still not fully understood. In mouse embryos, cells seem pre-patterned to become certain cell lineage; as the first cleavage plane has been related with further embryonic-abembryonic axis at blastocyst stage. Nevertheless, this possibility has been very debatable...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Takanobu Inoue, Atsuo Iida, Shingo Maegawa, Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa, Masato Kinoshita
In this study, we verified nuclear transport activity of an artificial nuclear localization signal (aNLS) in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We generated a transgenic medaka strain expresses the aNLS tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by a medaka beta-actin promoter. The aNLS-EGFP was accumulated in the nuclei of somatic tissues and yolk nuclei of oocytes, but undetectable in the spermatozoa. The fluorescent signal was observed from immediately after fertilization by a maternal contribution...
October 19, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Rosario Gajardo-Gómez, Valeria C Labra, Carola J Maturana, Kenji F Shoji, Cristian A Santibañez, Juan C Sáez, Christian Giaume, Juan A Orellana
The mechanisms involved in Alzheimer's disease are not completely understood and how astrocytes and their gliotransmission contribute to this neurodegenerative disease remains to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) induces neuronal death by a mechanism that involves the excitotoxic release of ATP and glutamate associated to astroglial hemichannel opening. We have demonstrated that synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids (CBs) reduce the opening of astrocyte Cx43 hemichannels evoked by activated microglia or inflammatory mediators...
October 19, 2016: Glia
Mario A Cepeda, Jacob J H Pelling, Caitlin L Evered, Karla C Williams, Zoey Freedman, Ioana Stan, Jessica A Willson, Hon S Leong, Sashko Damjanovski
BACKGROUND: Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease implicated in metastatic progression ostensibly due to its ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) components and allow migration of cells through the basement membrane. Despite in vitro studies demonstrating this principle, this knowledge has not translated into the use of MMP inhibitors (MMPi) as effective cancer therapeutics, or been corroborated by evidence of in vivo ECM degradation mediated by MT1-MMP, suggesting that our understanding of the role of MT1-MMP in cancer progression is incomplete...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Cancer
Roger Christopher Gill, K M Inam Pal, Fatima Mannan, Amber Bawa, Saulat H Fatimi
INTRODUCTION: Penetrating oesophageal injuries are extremely rare. Their timely recognition can be difficult and optimal treatment remains controversial. Early recognition of injury is possible with the help of a high index of suspicion and early radiological and endoscopic examinations. Prompt surgical intervention with primary repair of injury, should be the goal. PRESENTATION OF CASES: We describe two cases of penetrating oesophageal trauma where T-Tube placement through the oesophageal defect, was successfully employed...
January 4, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Michael S Businelle, Ping Ma, Darla E Kendzor, Summer G Frank, David W Wetter, Damon J Vidrine
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone‒based real-time ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) have been used to record health risk behaviors, and antecedents to those behaviors, as they occur in near real time. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if intensive longitudinal data, collected via mobile phone, could be used to identify imminent risk for smoking lapse among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. METHODS: Participants were recruited into a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial at an urban safety-net hospital tobacco cessation clinic...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Hyun Jeong Oh, Yoojin Shin, Seok Chung, Do Won Hwang, Dong Soo Lee
The effective role of exosome delivering neurogenic microRNA (miRNA) enables to induce efficient differentiation process during neurogenesis. The microfludic system capable of visualizing the exosomal behavior such as secretion, migration, and uptake of individual exosomes can be used as a robust technique to understand the exosome-mediated change of cellular behavior. Here, we developed the exosome-tracing microfluidic system to visualize exosomal transport carrying the neurogenic miRNA from leading to neighboring cells, and found a new mode of exosome-mediated cell-non-autonomous neurogenesis...
October 5, 2016: Biomaterials
Alladi Mohan, G Sivaram Naik, J Harikrishna, D Prabath Kumar, M H Rao, Kvs Sarma, K K Guntupalli
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Ingestion of Cleistanthus collinus causes hypokalemia and cardiac arrhythmias leading to mortality in most cases. We undertook this retrospective study to evaluate the clinical presentation and predictors of outcome in critically ill patients admitted with C. collinus poisoning. METHODS: The case records of 56 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India (2000-2014) with C...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
H N Alexander Logemann, Koen B E Böcker, Peter K H Deschamps, Peter N van Harten, Jeroen Koning, Chantal Kemner, Zsófia Logemann-Molnár, J Leon Kenemans
RATIONALE: The dopaminergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, but the exact role has yet to be elucidated. Scarce literature suggests that attenuation of dopaminergic neurotransmission negatively affects attentional focusing and inhibition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated the effect of dopaminergic antagonism on stopping performance. METHODS: Dopaminergic neurotransmission was attenuated in 28 healthy male participants by using 2 mg haloperidol...
October 17, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Mark Cropley, Fred R H Zijlstra, Dawn Querstret, Sarah Beck
Work-related rumination, that is, perseverative thinking about work during leisure time, has been associated with a range of negative health and wellbeing issues. The present paper examined the association between work-related rumination and cognitive processes centerd around the theoretical construct of executive functioning. Executive functioning is an umbrella term for high level cognitive processes such as planning, working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility; and it underlies how people manage and regulate their goal directed behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Konstantinos A Economou, Dimitra Christopikou, Erika Tsorva, Stephen Davies, Minas Mastrominas, Haris Cazlaris, Michael Koutsilieris, Panagoula Angelogianni, Dimitris Loutradis
PURPOSE: Artificial oocyte activation using calcium ionophores and enhancement of embryonic developmental potential by the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have already been reported. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic effect of these two methods on aged human unfertilized oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Then, we cultured the resulting embryos to the blastocyst stage and screened them for chromosomal abnormalities, to assess the safety of this protocol...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Olle R Lindberg, Andrew McKinney, Jane R Engler, Gayane Koshkakaryan, Henry Gong, Aaron E Robinson, Andrew J Ewald, Emmanuelle Huillard, C David James, Annette M Molinaro, Joseph T Shieh, Joanna J Phillips
Abnormal activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) due to a deletion of exons 2-7 of EGFR (EGFRvIII) is a common alteration in glioblastoma (GBM). While this alteration can drive gliomagenesis, tumors harboring EGFRvIII are heterogeneous. To investigate the role for EGFRvIII activation in tumor phenotype we used a neural progenitor cell-based murine model of GBM driven by EGFR signaling and generated tumor progenitor cells with high and low EGFRvIII activation, pEGFRHi and pEGFRLo. In vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies suggested a direct association between EGFRvIII activity and increased tumor cell proliferation, decreased tumor cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, and altered progenitor cell phenotype...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
G Cucinella, G Calagna, G Romano, G Di Buono, G Gugliotta, S Saitta, G Adile, M Manzone, G Accardi, A Perino, A Agrusa
The apical prolapse has always been considered the most complex of the defects of the pelvic floor, for both the difficulty of the surgical corrective technique and for the high post-surgical recurrence rate. Today, the laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy can be considered the standard treatment for apical prolapse. In the last years, several author performed robotic sacrocolpopexy, obtaining positive results. So, we developed a casecontrol study in order to compare the surgical outcome of robotic group with a control group of laparoscopic approach in patients with symptomatic apical pro-lapsed between January 2015 and December 2015 at University Hospital Policlinico "P...
May 2016: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
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