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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944036/time-lapse-camera-trapping-as-an-alternative-to-pitfall-trapping-for-estimating-activity-of-leaf-litter-arthropods
#1
Rachael A Collett, Diana O Fisher
Pitfall trapping is the standard technique to estimate activity and relative abundance of leaf litter arthropods. Pitfall trapping is not ideal for long-term sampling because it is lethal, labor-intensive, and may have taxonomic sampling biases. We test an alternative sampling method that can be left in place for several months at a time: verticallyplaced time-lapse camera traps that have a short focal distance, enabling identification of small arthropods. We tested the effectiveness of these time-lapse cameras, and quantified escape and avoidance behavior of arthropod orders encountering pitfall traps by placing cameras programed with a range of sampling intervals above pitfalls, to assess numerical, taxonomic, and body size differences in samples collected by the two methods...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941214/spontaneous-hepatocyte-migration-towards-an-endothelial-cell-tube-network
#2
Zhassulan Baimakhanov, Yusuke Sakai, Kosho Yamanouchi, Masaaki Hidaka, Akihiko Soyama, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Susumu Eguchi
A crucial part of the engineering liver tissue is contribution of non-parenchymal cells and maintenance of a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure in vitro for their normal physiology and function. We generated 3D hepatic tissue using primary isolated rat hepatocytes and an endothelial cell tube network from human endothelial vein epithelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: To create the 3D hepatic tissue, co-culture of primary hepatocytes and tube-structured HUVECs was performed on a Matrigel®...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940788/a-naturalistic-longitudinal-analysis-of-post-detoxification-outcomes-in-opioid-dependent-patients
#3
Jo-Hanna Ivers, Lina Zgaga, Brion Sweeney, Eamon Keenan, Catherine Darker, Bobby P Smyth, Joe Barry
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To provide an assessment of outcomes in a cohort of opioid-dependent patients post-detoxification. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed an observational longitudinal cohort design. Patients who completed detoxification in the three major Drug Dependency Units in Ireland during a 14-month period were included in the study (n = 143). Patients opting for one of the three pathways post-detoxification (inpatient aftercare, outpatient aftercare or no formal aftercare) were assessed in the final week of detoxification and followed up after 3, 6 and 9 months...
September 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938734/hyperspectral-microscopy-can-detect-metabolic-heterogeneity-within-bovine-post-compaction-embryos-incubated-under-two-oxygen-concentrations-7-versus-20
#4
Melanie L Sutton-McDowall, Martin Gosnell, Ayad G Anwer, Melissa White, Malcolm Purdey, Andrew D Abell, Ewa M Goldys, Jeremy G Thompson
STUDY QUESTION: Can we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity? SUMMARY ANSWER: Metabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Increased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934530/intraindividual-increase-of-homeostatic-sleep-pressure-across-acute-and-chronic-sleep-loss-a-high-density-eeg-study
#5
Angelina Maric, Caroline Lustenberger, Esther Werth, Christian R Baumann, Rositsa Poryazova, Reto Huber
Study Objectives: To compare intraindividually the effects of acute sleep deprivation (ASD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR) on the homeostatic increase in slow wave activity (SWA) and to relate it to impairments in basic cognitive functioning, that is, vigilance. Methods: The increase in SWA after ASD (40 hours of wakefulness) and after CSR (seven nights with time in bed restricted to 5 hours per night) relative to baseline sleep was assessed in nine healthy, male participants (age = 18-26 years) by high-density electroencephalography...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934338/effect-of-localized-hypoxia-on-drosophila-embryo-development
#6
Zhinan Wang, Shawn C Oppegard, David T Eddington, Jun Cheng
Environmental stress, such as oxygen deprivation, affects various cellular activities and developmental processes. In this study, we directly investigated Drosophila embryo development in vivo while cultured on a microfluidic device, which imposed an oxygen gradient on the developing embryos. The designed microfluidic device enabled both temporal and spatial control of the local oxygen gradient applied to the live embryos. Time-lapse live cell imaging was used to monitor the morphology and cellular migration patterns as embryos were placed in various geometries relative to the oxygen gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933990/influence-of-salinomycin-treatment-on-division-and-movement-of-individual-cancer-cells-cultured-in-normoxia-or-hypoxia-evaluated-with-time-lapse-digital-holographic-microscopy
#7
Sofia Kamlund, Daniel Strand, Birgit Janicke, Kersti Alm, Stina Oredsson
Most studies on new cancer drugs are based on population-derived data, where the absence of response of a small population may pass unnoticed. Thus, individual longitudinal tracking of cells is important for the future development of efficient cancer treatments. We have used digital holographic microscopy to track individual JIMT-1 human breast cancer cells and L929 mouse fibroblast cultivated in normoxia or hypoxia. In addition, JIMT-1 cells were treated with salinomycin, a cancer stem cell targeting compound...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932956/time-lapse-imaging-provides-further-evidence-that-planar-arrangement-of-blastomeres-is-highly-abnormal
#8
Thomas Ebner, Alexandra Höggerl, Peter Oppelt, Elisabeth Radler, Simon-Hermann Enzelsberger, Richard B Mayer, Erwin Petek, Omar Shebl
PURPOSE: Recently, guidelines on the annotation of dynamic human embryo monitoring recommended screening for the presence of planar blastomere arrangement at the 4-cell stage. This observational study was set up in order to analyze whether developmental kinetics of planar human embryos are different from tetrahedral ones. METHODS: Therefore, embryos of 115 consecutive ICSI patients (showing 32 planar and 554 tetrahedral embryos) were cultured in a new time-lapse system (Miri TL) and their embryos were annotated for morphokinetic development and screened for irregular cleavages and morphological dysmorphisms...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931894/factors-generating-glucose-degradation-products-in-sterile-glucose-solutions-for-infusion-statistical-relevance-determination-of-their-impacts
#9
J Haybrard, N Simon, C Danel, C Pinçon, C Barthélémy, F J Tessier, B Décaudin, E Boulanger, P Odou
Sterilising glucose solutions by heat promotes the generation of a large number of glucose degradation products (GDPs). It has been shown that high levels of GDPs may result in Advanced Glycation End products that have an impact on cellular homeostasis and health in general. If data is available for peritoneal dialysis solutions, little has been published for glucose infusion fluids. It is essential to identify the parameters causing the formation of GDPs and so limit the risk of exposing patients to them. After quantifying both 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, considered as an important indicator of degradation, and 2-furaldehyde, an ultimate GDP of one degradation pathway, in marketed solutions, the aim of this work is to build a model integrating all the parameters involved in the formation rates of these two GDPs: supplier, glucose amount, container material, oxygen permeability coefficient and time-lapse since manufacture...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931624/the-first-wave-of-t-lymphopoiesis-in-zebrafish-arises-from-aorta-endothelium-independent-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#10
Ye Tian, Jin Xu, Shachuan Feng, Sicong He, Shizheng Zhao, Lu Zhu, Wan Jin, Yimei Dai, Lingfei Luo, Jianan Y Qu, Zilong Wen
T lymphocytes are key cellular components of the adaptive immune system and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity in vertebrates. Despite their heterogeneities, it is believed that all different types of T lymphocytes are generated exclusively via the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Using temporal-spatial resolved fate-mapping analysis and time-lapse imaging, here we show that the ventral endothelium in the zebrafish aorta-gonad-mesonephros and posterior blood island, the hematopoietic tissues previously known to generate HSCs and erythromyeloid progenitors, respectively, gives rise to a transient wave of T lymphopoiesis independent of HSCs...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930993/confocal-imaging-of-neuropeptide-y-phluorin-a-technique-to-visualize-insulin-granule-exocytosis-in-intact-murine-and-human-islets
#11
Madina Makhmutova, Tao Liang, Herbert Gaisano, Alejandro Caicedo, Joana Almaça
Insulin secretion plays a central role in glucose homeostasis under normal physiological conditions as well as in disease. Current approaches to study insulin granule exocytosis either use electrophysiology or microscopy coupled to the expression of fluorescent reporters. However most of these techniques have been optimized for clonal cell lines or require dissociating pancreatic islets. In contrast, the method presented here allows for real time visualization of insulin granule exocytosis in intact pancreatic islets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929643/demons-registration-for-in-vivo-and-deformable-laser-scanning-confocal-endomicroscopy
#12
Wei-Ming Chiew, Feng Lin, Hock Soon Seah
A critical effect found in noninvasive in vivo endomicroscopic imaging modalities is image distortions due to sporadic movement exhibited by living organisms. In three-dimensional confocal imaging, this effect results in a dataset that is tilted across deeper slices. Apart from that, the sequential flow of the imaging-processing pipeline restricts real-time adjustments due to the unavailability of information obtainable only from subsequent stages. To solve these problems, we propose an approach to render Demons-registered datasets as they are being captured, focusing on the coupling between registration and visualization...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927531/discriminating-rna-variants-with-single-molecule-allele-specific-fish
#13
REVIEW
Martyna O Urbanek, Wlodzimierz J Krzyzosiak
DNA mutations of various types often affect the cellular localization and function of gene products. The role of mutant transcripts in the pathogenesis of human disease is increasingly recognized. Among the pathogenic RNA variants are transcripts with single nucleotide substitutions, small insertions or deletions, aberrantly or alternatively spliced transcripts and RNAs derived from fused genes. To discriminate among transcripts, particularly those of low abundance, showing small or large sequence differences, a highly sensitive and specific RNA imaging method is required...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924669/measuring-nanometer-distances-between-fluorescent-labels-step-by-step
#14
Susanna Maria Früh, Ingmar Schoen
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods are increasingly applied to study the structure of biological molecules within their natural context or at biomaterial interfaces. We here provide a protocol for Single-molecule High-Resolution Imaging with Photobleaching (SHRImP) that can be used to obtain information about the conformation of large proteins or other macromolecules at the single-molecule level. This procedure requires site-specific protein labeling with fluorescent dyes, immobilization and sample preparation, optimization of imaging buffer composition and microscope settings, and acquisition of short time-lapse movies that capture the stepwise bleaching behavior of individual molecules...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924659/sted-imaging-of-golgi-dynamics-with-cer-sir-a-two-component-photostable-high-density-lipid-probe-for-live-cells
#15
Roman S Erdmann, Derek Toomre, Alanna Schepartz
Long time-lapse super-resolution imaging in live cells requires a labeling strategy that combines a bright, photostable fluorophore with a high-density localization probe. Lipids are ideal high-density localization probes, as they are >100 times more abundant than most membrane-bound proteins and simultaneously demark the boundaries of cellular organelles. Here, we describe Cer-SiR, a two-component, high-density lipid probe that is exceptionally photostable. Cer-SiR is generated in cells via a bioorthogonal reaction of two components: a ceramide lipid tagged with trans-cyclooctene (Cer-TCO) and a reactive, photostable Si-rhodamine dye (SiR-Tz)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922990/streamlined-system-for-conducting-in-vitro-studies-using-decellularized-kidney-scaffolds
#16
Andrew Reyes Padalhin, Chanmi Park, Byong-Taek Lee
Kidney regeneration is a complex process that can only be studied in vitro at a limited capacity due to the inherent structural and functional complexity of its tissues. Thus, a suitable platform for conducting cellular response and development should be established from decellularized tissues with intact microarchitecture. In this study, a modular streamlined system was developed to allow manageable handling and set-up of in vitro studies using decellularized rat kidneys. The system is composed of commercially available parts that can be reused, interchanged, and re-configured based on the desired experimental stage and process...
September 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922804/hunting-for-agile-prey-trophic-specialisation-in-leptophryid-amoebae-vampyrellida-rhizaria-revealed-by-two-novel-predators-of-planktonic-algae
#17
Sebastian Hess
Vampyrellid amoebae (Vampyrellida, Rhizaria) are widespread in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems and consume a wide range of eukaryotes, e.g. algae, fungi and micrometazoa. Environmental sequences indicate that only a small fraction of their genetic diversity is phenotypically characterised, emphasising the need to further explore unknown vampyrellids and their interactions with prey organisms. This study tests the prey range specificity of three vampyrellid amoebae with 49 strains of three common groups of freshwater algae (Zygnematophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Volvocales), and documents specific interactions by time-lapse microscopy...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#18
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922371/the-association-between-cigarette-smoking-and-inflammation-the-genetic-epidemiology-network-of-arteriopathy-genoa-study
#19
Martin Tibuakuu, Daisuke Kamimura, Sina Kianoush, Andrew P DeFilippis, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Lindsay M Reynolds, Wendy B White, Kenneth R Butler, Thomas H Mosley, Stephen T Turner, Iftikhar J Kullo, Michael E Hall, Michael J Blaha
To inform the study and regulation of emerging tobacco products, we sought to identify sensitive biomarkers of tobacco-induced subclinical cardiovascular damage by testing the cross-sectional associations of smoking with 17 biomarkers of inflammation in 2,702 GENOA study participants belonging to sibships ascertained on the basis of hypertension. Cigarette smoking was assessed by status, intensity (number of cigarettes per day), burden (pack-years of smoking), and time since quitting. We modeled biomarkers as geometric mean (GM) ratios using generalized estimating equations (GEE)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920003/cd226-natural-killer-cells-fail-to-establish-stable-contacts-with-cancer-cells-and-show-impaired-control-of-tumor-metastasis-in-vivo
#20
Ji Sung Kim, Bo Ram Shin, Hong Kyung Lee, Jae Hee Lee, Ki Hun Kim, Jeong Eun Choi, A Young Ji, Jin Tae Hong, Youngsoo Kim, Sang-Bae Han
CD226 is an activating receptor expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T cells, and other immune cells. Upon binding to its ligands expressed on target cells, CD226 activates intracellular signaling that triggers cytokine production and degranulation in NK cells. However, the role of CD226 in contact dynamics between NK and cancer cells has remained unclear. Our time-lapse images showed that individual wild-type CD226(+) NK cells contacted B16F10 melanoma cells for 23.7 min, but Cd226(-/-) NK cells only for 12...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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