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Perceptual learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646363/the-many-routes-of-mental-navigation-contrasting-the-effects-of-a-detailed-and-gist-retrieval-approach-on-using-and-forming-spatial-representations
#1
Signy Sheldon, Alexa Ruel
Navigated routes can be recalled by remembering a schematic layout or with additional sensory and perceptual details, engaging episodic memory processes. In this study, we contrasted the effects of these remembering approaches on retrieving real-world navigated routes, the impact on flexibly using familiar route information and on learning new spatial representations. In a within-subjects design, participants were oriented to recall familiar routes under two remembering conditions-a detail condition that promoted episodic memory processes and a gist condition in which routes were recalled via schematic processes...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639174/profiling-perceptual-learning-styles-of-chinese-as-a-second-language-learners-in-university-settings
#2
Peijian Paul Sun, Lin Sophie Teng
This study revisited Reid's (1987) perceptual learning style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) in an attempt to answer whether the PLSPQ fits in the Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) context. If not, what are CSL learners' learning styles drawing on the PLSPQ? The PLSPQ was first re-examined through reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 224 CSL learners. The results showed that Reid's six-factor PLSPQ could not satisfactorily explain the CSL learners' learning styles. Exploratory factor analyses were, therefore, performed to explore the dimensionality of the PLSPQ in the CSL context...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636883/the-effects-of-monocular-training-on-binocular-functions-in-anisometropic-amblyopia
#3
Wuli Jia, Fangfang Lan, Zhao Xin, Zhong-Lin Lu, Chang-Bing Huang, Wuxiao Zhao, Min Li
PURPOSE: It's been shown that intensive monocular perceptual learning can improve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and vernier acuity in the amblyopic eye in adults with amblyopia. It is however not clear how much monocular training can enhance binocular visual functions. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate effects of monocular training on a variety of binocular functions. METHODS: Nineteen anisometropic amblyopes (18.5±1.26 yrs) were trained in a grating contrast detection task near each individual's cutoff spatial frequency for 6 to 10 days (630 trials/day)...
June 18, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630254/reward-selectively-modulates-the-lingering-neural-representation-of-recently-attended-objects-in-natural-scenes
#4
Clayton Hickey, Marius Peelen
Theories of reinforcement learning and approach behaviour suggest that reward can increase the perceptual salience of environmental stimuli, ensuring that potential predictors of outcome are noticed in the future. But outcome commonly follows visual processing of the environment, occurring even when potential reward cues have long disappeared. How can reward feedback retroactively cause now-absent stimuli to become attention-drawing in the future? One possibility is that reward and attention interact to prime lingering visual representations of attended stimuli that sustain through the interval separating stimulus and outcome...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627909/thought-control-difficulty-motivates-structure-seeking
#5
Anyi Ma, Mark J Landau, Jayanth Narayanan, Aaron C Kay
Struggling to control one's mind can change how the world appears. In prior studies testing the compensatory control theory, reduced control over the external environment motivated the search for perceptual patterns and other forms of structured knowledge, even in remote domains. Going further, the current studies test whether difficulty controlling thoughts similarly predicts structure seeking. As hypothesized, thought-control difficulty positively predicted perceptions of causal connections between remote events (Study 1a) and nonexistent objects in visual noise (Study 1b)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626442/influence-of-cognitive-functioning-on-age-related-performance-declines-in-visuospatial-sequence-learning
#6
Melanie Krüger, Mark R Hinder, Rohan Puri, Jeffery J Summers
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate how age-related performance differences in a visuospatial sequence learning task relate to age-related declines in cognitive functioning. Method: Cognitive functioning of 18 younger and 18 older participants was assessed using a standardized test battery. Participants then undertook a perceptual visuospatial sequence learning task. Various relationships between sequence learning and participants' cognitive functioning were examined through correlation and factor analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626441/teaching-improvisation-through-processes-applications-in-music-education-and-implications-for-general-education
#7
REVIEW
Michele Biasutti
Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622759/catching-audiovisual-interactions-with-a-first-person-fisherman-video-game
#8
Yile Sun, Timothy J Hickey, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Robert Sekuler
The human brain is excellent at integrating information from different sources across multiple sensory modalities. To examine one particularly important form of multisensory interaction, we manipulated the temporal correlation between visual and auditory stimuli in a first-person fisherman video game. Subjects saw rapidly swimming fish whose size oscillated, either at 6 or 8 Hz. Subjects categorized each fish according to its rate of size oscillation, while trying to ignore a concurrent broadband sound seemingly emitted by the fish...
July 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619654/representational-precision-in-visual-cortex-reveals-outcome-encoding-and-reward-modulation-during-action-preparation
#9
Henk van Steenbergen, Christopher M Warren, Simone Kühn, Sanne de Wit, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel
According to ideomotor theory, goal-directed action involves the active perceptual anticipation of actions and their associated effects. We used multivariate analysis of fMRI data to test if preparation of an action promotes precision in the perceptual representation of the action. In addition, we tested how reward magnitude modulates this effect. Finally, we examined how expectation and uncertainty impact neural precision in the motor cortex. In line with our predictions, preparation of a hand or face action increased the precision of neural activation patterns in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform face area (FFA), respectively...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618817/an-algorithm-to-increase-intelligibility-for-hearing-impaired-listeners-in-the-presence-of-a-competing-talker
#10
Eric W Healy, Masood Delfarah, Jordan L Vasko, Brittney L Carter, DeLiang Wang
Individuals with hearing impairment have particular difficulty perceptually segregating concurrent voices and understanding a talker in the presence of a competing voice. In contrast, individuals with normal hearing perform this task quite well. This listening situation represents a very different problem for both the human and machine listener, when compared to perceiving speech in other types of background noise. A machine learning algorithm is introduced here to address this listening situation. A deep neural network was trained to estimate the ideal ratio mask for a male target talker in the presence of a female competing talker...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614849/perceptual-learning-is-specific-beyond-vision-and-decision-making
#11
Lukasz Grzeczkowski, Aline Cretenoud, Michael H Herzog, Fred W Mast
Perceptual learning is usually assumed to occur within sensory areas or when sensory evidence is mapped onto decisions. Subsequent procedural and motor processes, involved in most perceptual learning experiments, are thought to play no role in the learning process. Here, we show that this is not the case. Observers trained with a standard three-line bisection task and indicated the offset direction of the central line by pressing either a left or right push button. Before and after training, observers adjusted the central line of the same bisection stimulus using a computer mouse...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612755/learning-to-see-again-biological-constraints-on-cortical-plasticity-and-the-implications-for-sight-restoration-technologies
#12
Michael Beyeler, Ariel Rokem, Geoffrey Boynton, Ione Fine
The "bionic eye" - so long a dream of the future - is finally becoming a reality with retinal prostheses available to patients in both the US and Europe. However, clinical experience with these implants has made it apparent that the vision provided by these devices differs substantially from normal sight. Consequently, the ability to learn to make use of this abnormal retinal input plays a critical role in whether or not some functional vision is successfully regained. The goal of the present review is to summarize the vast basic science literature on developmental and adult cortical plasticity with an emphasis on how this literature might relate to the field of prosthetic vision...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608397/reward-learning-modulates-the-attentional-processing-of-faces-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Tianbi Li, Xueqin Wang, Junhao Pan, Shuyuan Feng, Mengyuan Gong, Yaxue Wu, Guoxiang Li, Sheng Li, Li Yi
The processing of social stimuli, such as human faces, is impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which could be accounted for by their lack of social motivation. The current study examined how the attentional processing of faces in children with ASD could be modulated by the learning of face-reward associations. Sixteen high-functioning children with ASD and 20 age- and ability-matched typically developing peers participated in the experiments. All children started with a reward learning task, in which the children were presented with three female faces that were attributed with positive, negative, and neutral values, and were required to remember the faces and their associated values...
June 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606387/the-effect-of-integration-masking-on-visual-processing-in-perceptual-categorization
#14
Sébastien Hélie
Learning to recognize and categorize objects is an essential cognitive skill allowing animals to function in the world. However, animals rarely have access to a canonical view of an object in an uncluttered environment. Hence, it is essential to study categorization under noisy, degraded conditions. In this article, we explore how the brain processes categorization stimuli in low signal-to-noise conditions using multivariate pattern analysis. We used an integration masking paradigm with mask opacity of 50%, 60%, and 70% inside a magnetic resonance imaging scanner...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605629/analytic-information-processing-style-in-epilepsy-patients
#15
Marzia Buonfiglio, Francesco Di Sabato, Silvia Mandillo, Mariarita Albini, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Annateresa Giallonardo, Giuliano Avanzini
Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C...
June 9, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605484/infants-born-preterm-demonstrate-impaired-exploration-of-their-bodies-and-surfaces-throughout-the-first-two-years-of-life
#16
Iryna Babik, James Cole Galloway, Michele A Lobo
Background.: Non-object-oriented exploratory behaviors infants perform with their bodies and surfaces have been proposed to be key precursors of infants' object exploration, early learning, and future cognitive development. Little is known about the developmental trajectories of these behaviors, especially for infants born preterm. Objective.: The purpose of the study was to longitudinally compare non-object-oriented exploratory behaviors performed by full-term and preterm infants...
June 12, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602633/automated-cleft-speech-evaluation-using-speech-recognition
#17
Megan Vucovich, Rami R Hallac, Alex A Kane, Julie Cook, Cortney Van'T Slot, James R Seaward
Perceptual evaluation remains the gold-standard evaluation of cleft speech, but with any human interpretation, there can be bias. Eliminating bias, allowing comparison of speech data between units, is labor and time intensive. Globally, there is a shortage of listeners. We have developed a computer learning system to evaluate cleft speech. Our automated cleft speech evaluator interprets resonance and articulatory cleft speech errors. Speech recognition engines typically ignore voice characteristics and speech errors of the speaker, but in cleft speech evaluation, these features are paramount...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599541/prosodic-exaggeration-within-infant-directed-speech-consequences-for-vowel-learnability
#18
Frans Adriaans, Daniel Swingley
Perceptual experiments with infants show that they adapt their perception of speech sounds toward the categories of the native language. How do infants learn these categories? For the most part, acoustic analyses of natural infant-directed speech have suggested that phonetic categories are not presented to learners as separable clusters of sounds in acoustic space. As a step toward explaining how infants begin to solve this problem, the current study proposes that the exaggerated prosody characteristic of infant-directed speech may highlight for infants certain speech-sound tokens that collectively form more readily identifiable categories...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588510/the-representation-of-motor-inter-action-states-of-action-and-learning-three-perspectives-on-motor-learning-by-way-of-imagery-and-execution
#19
Cornelia Frank, Thomas Schack
Learning in intelligent systems is a result of direct and indirect interaction with the environment. While humans can learn by way of different states of (inter)action such as the execution or the imagery of an action, their unique potential to induce brain- and mind-related changes in the motor action system is still being debated. The systematic repetition of different states of action (e.g., physical and/or mental practice) and their contribution to the learning of complex motor actions has traditionally been approached by way of performance improvements...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587504/%C3%A2-attention-to-perceive-to-learn-and-to-respond
#20
Geoffrey Hall, Gabriel Rodríguez
Mackintosh and his collaborators (e.g., McLaren, Kaye, & Mackintosh, 1989) put forward an account of perceptual learning effects based, in part, on learned changes in stimulus salience. In the workshop held to mark Mackintosh's retirement, and published as a special issue of this journal, Hall (2003) discussed Mackintosh's theory, and proposed his own alternative account. We now want to take the story forward in the light of findings and theoretical perspectives that have emerged since then. Specifically, we will argue that neither Mackintosh nor Hall was correct in his account of the principles that govern how changes in salience occur...
June 7, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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