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Perceptual learning

Cristian Axenie, Christoph Richter, Jörg Conradt
Biological and technical systems operate in a rich multimodal environment. Due to the diversity of incoming sensory streams a system perceives and the variety of motor capabilities a system exhibits there is no single representation and no singular unambiguous interpretation of such a complex scene. In this work we propose a novel sensory processing architecture, inspired by the distributed macro-architecture of the mammalian cortex. The underlying computation is performed by a network of computational maps, each representing a different sensory quantity...
October 20, 2016: Sensors
Ashley Galati, Alyson Hock, Ramesh S Bhatt
Configural information (spacing between features) contributes to face-processing expertise in adulthood. We examined whether infants can be "trained" to process this information. In Experiment 1, 3.5-month-olds failed to discriminate changes in the spacing between facial features. However, in Experiments 2 and 3, infants processed the same information after being primed with faces in which the spacing was repeatedly altered. Experiment 4 found that priming was not effective with inverted faces or with faces depicting changes in features but not relations among features, indicating that the priming exhibited in Experiments 2 and 3 was specific to upright faces depicting spacing changes...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Rachel Barr, Alecia Moser, Sylvia Rusnak, Laura Zimmermann, Kelly Dickerson, Herietta Lee, Peter Gerhardstein
Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Meng Liao, Haoxing Zhao, Longqian Liu, Qian Li, Yun Dai, Yudong Zhang, Yifeng Zhou
Perceptual learning is considered a potential treatment for amblyopia even in adult patients who have progressed beyond the critical period of visual development because adult amblyopes retain sufficient visual plasticity. When perceptual learning is performed with the correction of high-order aberrations (HOAs), a greater degree of neural plasticity is present in normal adults and those with highly aberrated keratoconic eyes. Because amblyopic eyes show more severe HOAs than normal eyes, it is interesting to study the effects of HOA-corrected visual perceptual learning in amblyopia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Prawin Kumar, Himanshu Kumar Sanju, J Nikhil
Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Jean-François Nankoo, Christopher R Madan, Marcia L Spetch, Douglas R Wylie
Global motion perception is important for mobile organisms. In laterally eyed birds, global motion appears to be processed in the entopallium, a neural structure that is part of the tectofugal pathway. Electrophysiological research has shown that motion selective cells in the entopallium are most responsive to small dark moving targets. Here, we investigated whether this bias toward dark targets of entopallial cells is mirrored by perceptual performance in a motion detection task in pigeons. We measured the detection thresholds of pigeons using random dot stimuli that consisted of either black or white dots on a gray background...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Martin R Yeomans, John Prescott
Pairing an odor and taste can change ratings of the odor's perceptual and hedonic characteristics. Behavioral indices of such changes are lacking and here we measured sniffing to assess learned changes in odor liking due to pairing with sweet and bitter tastes. Participants were divided on their liking for sweetness, as well as dietary disinhibition (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-Disinhibition scale [TFEQ-D]), both of which influence hedonic odor-taste learning. In sweet likers, both sniff duration and peak amplitude increased for the sweet-paired odor...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Sergio A Recio, Adela F Iliescu, Simón P Mingorance, Germán D Bergés, Geoffrey Hall, Isabel de Brugada
Although modeled on procedures used with nonhuman animals, some recent studies of perceptual learning in humans, using complex visual stimuli, differ in that they usually instruct participants to look for differences between the to-be-discriminated stimuli. This could encourage the use of mechanisms not available to animal subjects. To investigate the role of instructions, in 2 experiments, participants were given preexposure to checkerboards that were similar except for the presence of a small distinctive feature on each...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Yi C Zhang, Alexander C Kagen
TensorFlow is a second-generation open-source machine learning software library with a built-in framework for implementing neural networks in wide variety of perceptual tasks. Although TensorFlow usage is well established with computer vision datasets, the TensorFlow interface with DICOM formats for medical imaging remains to be established. Our goal is to extend the TensorFlow API to accept raw DICOM images as input; 1513 DaTscan DICOM images were obtained from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Mark T Dawidek, Victoria A Roach, Michael C Ott, Timothy D Wilson
OBJECTIVE: A major challenge in laparoscopic surgery is the lack of depth perception. With the development and continued improvement of 3D video technology, the potential benefit of restoring 3D vision to laparoscopy has received substantial attention from the surgical community. Despite this, procedures conducted under 2D vision remain the standard of care, and trainees must become proficient in 2D laparoscopy. This study aims to determine whether incorporating 3D vision into a 2D laparoscopic simulation curriculum accelerates skill acquisition in novices...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
I Fernández-Prieto, C Caprile, D Tinoco-González, B Ristol-Orriols, A López-Sala, P Póo-Argüelles, F Pons, J Navarra
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness...
October 3, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
David J Frank, Beatrice G Kuhlmann
Experience-based cues, such as perceptual fluency, have long been thought to influence metacognitive judgments (Kelley & Jacoby, 1996; Koriat, 1997). Studies found that manipulations of perceptual fluency via changes in font and volume alter Judgments of Learning (JOLs) without influencing memory performance (Rhodes & Castel, 2008, 2009). Nonetheless, recent research (Mueller, Tauber, & Dunlosky, 2013; Mueller, Dunlosky, Tauber, & Rhodes, 2014, 2016) has challenged the notion that experience-based cues such as fluency are the primary basis for item-level JOLs, arguing instead that preexisting beliefs about these manipulations are responsible for these effects...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Akikazu Kamiyama, Kazuhisa Fujita, Yoshiki Kashimori
Visual recognition involves bidirectional information flow, which consists of bottom-up information coding from retina and top-down information coding from higher visual areas. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of early visual areas such as primary visual area (V1) in recognition and memory formation. V1 neurons are not passive transformers of sensory inputs but work as adaptive processor, changing their function according to behavioral context. Top-down signals affect tuning property of V1 neurons and contribute to the gating of sensory information relevant to behavior...
September 28, 2016: Bio Systems
Linoy Schwartz, Galit Yovel
The representation of familiar objects is comprised of perceptual information about their visual properties as well as the conceptual knowledge that we have about them. What is the relative contribution of perceptual and conceptual information to object recognition? Here, we examined this question by designing a face familiarization protocol during which participants were either exposed to rich perceptual information (viewing each face in different angles and illuminations) or with conceptual information (associating each face with a different name)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Michael Craig, Thomas Wolbers, Mathew A Harris, Patrick Hauff, Sergio Della Sala, Michaela Dewar
Flexible spatial navigation depends on cognitive mapping, a function that declines with increasing age. In young adults, a brief period of postnavigation rest promotes the consolidation and integration of spatial memories into accurate cognitive maps. We examined (1) whether rest promotes spatial memory consolidation and integration in older adults; and (2) whether the magnitude of the rest benefit changes with increasing age. Young and older adults learned a route through a virtual environment, followed by a 10-minute delay comprising either wakeful rest or a perceptual task, and a subsequent cognitive mapping task, requiring the pointing to landmarks from different locations...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Emmanuelle Courtiol, Donald A Wilson
Olfactory perception and its underlying neural mechanisms are not fixed, but rather vary over time, dependent on various parameters such as state, task, or learning experience. In olfaction, one of the primary sensory areas beyond the olfactory bulb is the piriform cortex. Due to an increasing number of functions attributed to the piriform cortex, it has been argued to be an associative cortex rather than a simple primary sensory cortex. In fact, the piriform cortex plays a key role in creating olfactory percepts, helping to form configural odor objects from the molecular features extracted in the nose...
September 28, 2016: Perception
Anthony F Morse, Angelo Cangelosi
Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities...
September 28, 2016: Cognitive Science
Yannick Boddez, Marc Patrick Bennett, Silke van Esch, Tom Beckers
Generalising what is learned about one stimulus to other but perceptually related stimuli is a basic behavioural phenomenon. We evaluated whether a rule learning mechanism may serve to explain such generalisation. To this end, we assessed whether inference rules communicated through verbal instructions affect generalisation. Expectancy ratings, but not valence ratings, proved sensitive to this manipulation. In addition to revealing a role for inference rules in generalisation, our study has clinical implications as well...
September 28, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Nicolas Rothen, Beat Meier
We investigated whether circadian arousal affects perceptual priming as a function of whether stimuli were attended or ignored during learning. We tested 160 participants on- and off-peak with regards to their circadian arousal. In the study phase, they were presented with two superimposed pictures in different colours. They had to name the pictures of one colour while ignoring the others. In the test phase, they were presented with the same and randomly intermixed new pictures. Each picture was presented in black colour in a fragment completion task...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
T-D Ngo, T-D Tran, M-T Le, K-M Thai
The efflux pumps P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in humans and NorA in Staphylococcus aureus are of great interest for medicinal chemists because of their important roles in multidrug resistance (MDR). The high polyspecificity as well as the unavailability of high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of these transmembrane proteins lead us to combining ligand-based approaches, which in the case of this study were machine learning, perceptual mapping and pharmacophore modelling. For P-gp inhibitory activity, individual models were developed using different machine learning algorithms and subsequently combined into an ensemble model which showed a good discrimination between inhibitors and noninhibitors (acctrain-diverse = 84%; accinternal-test = 92% and accexternal-test = 100%)...
September 2016: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
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