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Perceptual learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342382/words-cluster-phonetically-beyond-phonotactic-regularities
#1
Isabelle Dautriche, Kyle Mahowald, Edward Gibson, Anne Christophe, Steven T Piantadosi
Recent evidence suggests that cognitive pressures associated with language acquisition and use could affect the organization of the lexicon. On one hand, consistent with noisy channel models of language (e.g., Levy, 2008), the phonological distance between wordforms should be maximized to avoid perceptual confusability (a pressure for dispersion). On the other hand, a lexicon with high phonological regularity would be simpler to learn, remember and produce (e.g., Monaghan et al., 2011) (a pressure for clumpiness)...
March 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339410/unimanual-versus-bimanual-therapy-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy-same-same-but-different
#2
Brian Hoare, Susan Greaves
BACKGROUND: There is high-level evidence supporting constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual therapy for children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Evidence-based intervention includes time-limited, goal-directed, skills-based, intensive blocks of practice based on motor learning theory. AIM AND METHODS: Using supporting literature and clinical insight, we provide a theoretical rationale to highlight previously unreported differences between CIMT and bimanual therapy...
2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334110/long-time-no-see-enduring-behavioral-and-neuronal-changes-in-perceptual-learning-of-motion-trajectories-3-years-after-training
#3
Sebastian M Frank, Mark W Greenlee, Peter U Tse
Here, we report on the long-term stability of changes in behavior and brain activity following perceptual learning of conjunctions of simple motion features. Participants were trained for 3 weeks on a visual search task involving the detection of a dot moving in a "v"-shaped target trajectory among inverted "v"-shaped distractor trajectories. The first and last training sessions were carried out during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Learning stability was again examined behaviorally and using fMRI 3 years after the end of training...
February 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333509/how-perception-guides-action-figure-ground-segmentation-modulates-integration-of-context-features-into-s-r-episodes
#4
Christian Frings, Klaus Rothermund
Perception and action are closely related. Responses are assumed to be represented in terms of their perceptual effects, allowing direct links between action and perception. In this regard, the integration of features of stimuli (S) and responses (R) into S-R bindings is a key mechanism for action control. Previous research focused on the integration of object features with response features while neglecting the context in which an object is perceived. In 3 experiments, we analyzed whether contextual features can also become integrated into S-R episodes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327383/sigueme-technology-based-intervention-for-low-functioning-autism-to-train-skills-to-work-with-visual-signifiers-and-concepts
#5
María Vélez-Coto, María José Rodríguez-Fórtiz, María Luisa Rodriguez-Almendros, Marcelino Cabrera-Cuevas, Carlos Rodríguez-Domínguez, Tomás Ruiz-López, Ángeles Burgos-Pulido, Inmaculada Garrido-Jiménez, Juan Martos-Pérez
BACKGROUND: People with low-functioning ASD and other disabilities often find it difficult to understand the symbols traditionally used in educational materials during the learning process. Technology-based interventions are becoming increasingly common, helping children with cognitive disabilities to perform academic tasks and improve their abilities and knowledge. Such children often find it difficult to perform certain tasks contained in educational materials since they lack necessary skills such as abstract reasoning...
March 16, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324757/perceptual-category-learning-and-visual-processing-an-exercise-in-computational-cognitive-neuroscience
#6
George Cantwell, Maximilian Riesenhuber, Jessica L Roeder, F Gregory Ashby
The field of computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) builds and tests neurobiologically detailed computational models that account for both behavioral and neuroscience data. This article leverages a key advantage of CCN-namely, that it should be possible to interface different CCN models in a plug-and-play fashion-to produce a new and biologically detailed model of perceptual category learning. The new model was created from two existing CCN models: the HMAX model of visual object processing and the COVIS model of category learning...
March 6, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324696/online-neural-monitoring-of-statistical-learning
#7
Laura J Batterink, Ken A Paller
The extraction of patterns in the environment plays a critical role in many types of human learning, from motor skills to language acquisition. This process is known as statistical learning. Here we propose that statistical learning has two dissociable components: (1) perceptual binding of individual stimulus units into integrated composites and (2) storing those integrated representations for later use. Statistical learning is typically assessed using post-learning tasks, such that the two components are conflated...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319685/linking-actions-and-objects-context-specific-learning-of-novel-weight-priors
#8
Kevin M Trewartha, J Randall Flanagan
Distinct explicit and implicit memory processes support weight predictions used when lifting objects and making perceptual judgments about weight, respectively. The first time that an object is encountered weight is predicted on the basis of learned associations, or priors, linking size and material to weight. A fundamental question is whether the brain maintains a single, global representation of priors, or multiple representations that can be updated in a context specific way. A second key question is whether the updating of priors, or the ability to scale lifting forces when repeatedly lifting unusually weighted objects requires focused attention...
March 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316841/the-impact-of-feedback-on-the-different-time-courses-of-multisensory-temporal-recalibration
#9
Matthew A De Niear, Jean-Paul Noel, Mark T Wallace
The capacity to rapidly adjust perceptual representations confers a fundamental advantage when confronted with a constantly changing world. Unexplored is how feedback regarding sensory judgments (top-down factors) interacts with sensory statistics (bottom-up factors) to drive long- and short-term recalibration of multisensory perceptual representations. Here, we examined the time course of both cumulative and rapid temporal perceptual recalibration for individuals completing an audiovisual simultaneity judgment task in which they were provided with varying degrees of feedback...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315168/aging-enhances-cognitive-biases-to-friends-but-not-the-self
#10
Jie Sui, Glyn W Humphreys
We measured changes in self and friend biases in perceptual matching in young and older participants. Participants learned associations between neutral geometric shapes and three personal labels (You, Friend, or Stranger), representing themselves, their named best friend, and a stranger not corresponding to anyone they knew. They then responded whether the shapes and labels matched or mismatched. In addition, participants reported the perceived personal distance between themselves, their best friend, and a stranger...
March 17, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301186/the-role-of-error-processing-in-the-contextual-interference-effect-during-the-training-of-perceptual-cognitive-skills
#11
David P Broadbent, Joe Causer, A Mark Williams, Paul R Ford
The contextual interference (CI) effect refers to the learning benefits that occur from a random compared with blocked practice order. In this article, the cognitive effort explanation for the CI effect was examined by investigating the role of error processing. In 2 experiments, a perceptual-cognitive task was used in which participants anticipated 3 different tennis skills across a pretest, 3 practice sessions, and retention test. During practice, the skills were presented in either a random or blocked practice order...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287796/-multisensory-brand-search-how-the-meaning-of-sounds-guides-consumers-visual-attention-correction-to-knoeferle-et-al-2016
#12
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers' visual attention" by Klemens M. Knoeferle, Pia Knoeferle, Carlos Velasco and Charles Spence (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2016[Jun], Vol 22[2], 196-210). In the article, under Experiment 2, Design and Stimuli, the set number of target products and visual distractors reported in the second paragraph should be 20 and 13, respectively: "On each trial, the 16 products shown in the display were randomly selected from a set of 20 products belonging to different categories...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287760/abstract-feature-codes-the-building-blocks-of-the-implicit-learning-system
#13
Katharina Eberhardt, Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
According to the Theory of Event Coding (TEC; Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, 2001), action and perception are represented in a shared format in the cognitive system by means of feature codes. In implicit sequence learning research, it is still common to make a conceptual difference between independent motor and perceptual sequences. This supposedly independent learning takes place in encapsulated modules (Keele, Ivry, Mayr, Hazeltine, & Heuer 2003) that process information along single dimensions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285994/midbrain-dopamine-neurons-signal-belief-in-choice-accuracy-during-a-perceptual-decision
#14
Armin Lak, Kensaku Nomoto, Mehdi Keramati, Masamichi Sakagami, Adam Kepecs
Central to the organization of behavior is the ability to predict the values of outcomes to guide choices. The accuracy of such predictions is honed by a teaching signal that indicates how incorrect a prediction was ("reward prediction error," RPE). In several reinforcement learning contexts, such as Pavlovian conditioning and decisions guided by reward history, this RPE signal is provided by midbrain dopamine neurons. In many situations, however, the stimuli predictive of outcomes are perceptually ambiguous...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283306/-if-no-one-stops-me-i-ll-make-the-mistake-again-changing-prescribing-behaviours-through-feedback-a-perceptual-control-theory-perspective
#15
Jane Ferguson, Chris Keyworth, Mary P Tully
BACKGROUND: Doctors at all levels make prescribing errors which can prolong patients' hospital stay, increase the risk of death, and place a significant financial burden on the health system. Doctors have previously reported receiving little or no feedback on their prescribing errors. The effectiveness of feedback in modifying future practice varies widely, depending on how feedback is delivered. To date there is little evidence about why and how feedback interventions do or do not work...
March 2, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280567/early-development-of-abstract-language-knowledge-evidence-from-perception-production-transfer-of-birth-language-memory
#16
Jiyoun Choi, Anne Cutler, Mirjam Broersma
Children adopted early in life into another linguistic community typically forget their birth language but retain, unaware, relevant linguistic knowledge that may facilitate (re)learning of birth-language patterns. Understanding the nature of this knowledge can shed light on how language is acquired. Here, international adoptees from Korea with Dutch as their current language, and matched Dutch-native controls, provided speech production data on a Korean consonantal distinction unlike any Dutch distinctions, at the outset and end of an intensive perceptual training...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268635/multi-domain-feature-selection-in-auditory-mismatch-negativity-via-parafac-based-template-matching-approach
#17
Saeed Pouryazdian, Andrew Chang, Dan J Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor, Soosan Beheshti, Sridhar Krishnan
MisMatch Negativity (MMN) is a small event-related potential (ERP) that provide an index of sensory learning and perceptual accuracy for the cognitive research. Group-level analysis plays an important role for detecting differences at group or condition level, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Tensor factorization has provided a framework for group-level analysis of ERPs by exploiting more information of brain responses in more domains simultaneously. A 4-way ERP tensor of time × frequency × channel × subjects/condition is generated and decomposed via PARAFAC...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266640/corrigendum-perceptual-learning-to-discriminate-the-intensity-and-spatial-location-of-nociceptive-stimuli
#18
Flavia Mancini, Karina Dolgilevica, James Steckelmacher, Patrick Haggard, Karl Friston, Giandomenico D Iannetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262488/perceptual-learning-generalization-from-sequential-perceptual-training-as-a-change-in-learning-rate
#19
Florian Kattner, Aaron Cochrane, Christopher R Cox, Thomas E Gorman, C Shawn Green
With practice, humans tend to improve their performance on most tasks. But do such improvements then generalize to new tasks? Although early work documented primarily task-specific learning outcomes in the domain of perceptual learning [1-3], an emerging body of research has shown that significant learning generalization is possible under some training conditions [4-9]. Interestingly, however, research in this vein has focused nearly exclusively on just one possible manifestation of learning generalization, wherein training on one task produces an immediate boost to performance on the new task...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259065/interaction-between-age-and-perceptual-similarity-in-olfactory-discrimination-learning-in-f344-rats-relationships-with-spatial-learning
#20
Wendy M Yoder, Leslie S Gaynor, Sara N Burke, Barry Setlow, David W Smith, Jennifer L Bizon
Emerging evidence suggests that aging is associated with a reduced ability to distinguish perceptually similar stimuli in one's environment. As the ability to accurately perceive and encode sensory information is foundational for explicit memory, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of discrimination impairments that emerge with advancing age could help elucidate the mechanisms of mnemonic decline. To this end, there is a need for preclinical approaches that robustly and reliably model age-associated perceptual discrimination deficits...
February 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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