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Perceptual learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092861/a-deafening-flash-visual-interference-of-auditory-signal-detection
#1
Christopher Fassnidge, Claudia Cecconi Marcotti, Elliot Freeman
In some people, visual stimulation evokes auditory sensations. How prevalent and how perceptually real is this? 22% of our neurotypical adult participants responded 'Yes' when asked whether they heard faint sounds accompanying flash stimuli, and showed significantly better ability to discriminate visual 'Morse-code' sequences. This benefit might arise from an ability to recode visual signals as sounds, thus taking advantage of superior temporal acuity of audition. In support of this, those who showed better visual relative to auditory sequence discrimination also had poorer auditory detection in the presence of uninformative visual flashes, though this was independent of awareness of visually-evoked sounds...
January 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092773/how-does-a-newly-encountered-face-become-familiar-the-effect-of-within-person-variability-on-adults-and-children-s-perception-of-identity
#2
Kristen A Baker, Sarah Laurence, Catherine J Mondloch
Adults and children aged 6years and older easily recognize multiple images of a familiar face, but often perceive two images of an unfamiliar face as belonging to different identities. Here we examined the process by which a newly encountered face becomes familiar, defined as accurate recognition of multiple images that capture natural within-person variability in appearance. In Experiment 1 we examined whether exposure to within-person variability in appearance helps children learn a new face. Children aged 6-13years watched a 10-min video of a woman reading a story; she was filmed on a single day (low variability) or over three days, across which her appearance and filming conditions (e...
January 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091782/adaptation-perceptual-learning-and-plasticity-of-brain-functions
#3
REVIEW
Jonathan C Horton, Manfred Fahle, Theo Mulder, Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski
The capacity for functional restitution after brain damage is quite different in the sensory and motor systems. This series of presentations highlights the potential for adaptation, plasticity, and perceptual learning from an interdisciplinary perspective. The chances for restitution in the primary visual cortex are limited. Some patterns of visual field loss and recovery after stroke are common, whereas others are impossible, which can be explained by the arrangement and plasticity of the cortical map. On the other hand, compensatory mechanisms are effective, can occur spontaneously, and can be enhanced by training...
January 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091746/-improvement-of-vision-through-perceptual-learning-in-the-case-of-refractive-errors-and-presbyopia-a-critical-valuation
#4
S P Heinrich
The idea of compensating or even rectifying refractive errors and presbyopia with the help of vision training is not new. For most approaches, however, scientific evidence is insufficient. A currently promoted method is "perceptual learning", which is assumed to improve stimulus processing in the brain. The basic phenomena of perceptual learning have been demonstrated by a multitude of studies. Some of these specifically address the case of refractive errors and presbyopia. However, many open questions remain, in particular with respect to the transfer of practice effects to every-day vision...
January 13, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089843/early-chronic-low-level-pb-exposure-alters-global-exploratory-behaviors-but-does-not-impair-spatial-and-object-memory-retrieval-in-an-object-in-place-task-in-pre-adolescent-c57bl-6j-mice
#5
Christina Sobin, Mayra Gisel Flores-Montoya, Juan Manuel Alvarez
The mechanisms by which early chronic low-level lead (Pb) exposure disrupts the developing brain are not yet understood. Rodent models have provided promising results however behavioral tests sensitive to effects at lowest levels of exposure during development are needed. Preadolescent animals (N=52) exposed to low and higher levels of Pb via lactation from birth to PND 28 completed the Object-in-Place Task of visual spatial and visual object memory retrieval (at PND 28). Generalized linear mixed models were used, controlling for sex and litter as a random effect...
January 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088645/towards-solving-the-hard-problem-of-consciousness-the-varieties-of-brain-resonances-and-the-conscious-experiences-that-they-support
#6
Stephen Grossberg
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how we experience qualia or phenomenal experiences, such as seeing, hearing, and feeling, and knowing what they are. To solve this problem, a theory of consciousness needs to link brain to mind by modeling how emergent properties of several brain mechanisms interacting together embody detailed properties of individual conscious psychological experiences. This article summarizes evidence that Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, accomplishes this goal...
December 6, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077535/the-impact-of-a-perceptual-and-adaptive-learning-module-on-transoesophageal-echocardiography-interpretation-by-anaesthesiology-residents
#7
B T Romito, S Krasne, P J Kellman, A Dhillon
BACKGROUND: The role of transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in anaesthetic practice is expanding. We evaluated the effect of a TOE perceptual and adaptive learning module (PALM) on first-yr anaesthesiology residents' performance, in diagnosing cardiac pathology by TOE. METHODS: First-yr residents were assigned to a group (n = 12) that used a TOE PALM or a control group that did not (n = 12). Both groups received a TOE pretest that measured their accuracy and response times...
October 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043955/structural-cerebellar-correlates-of-cognitive-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-cerebellar-degeneration
#8
Kalyani Kansal, Zhen Yang, Ann M Fishman, Haris I Sair, Sarah H Ying, Bruno M Jedynak, Jerry L Prince, Chiadi U Onyike
Detailed mapping of clinical dysfunctions to the cerebellar lobules in disease populations is necessary to establish the functional significance of lobules implicated in cognitive and motor functions in normal subjects. This study constitutes the first quantitative examination of the lobular correlates of a broad range of cognitive and motor phenomena in cerebellar disease. We analysed cross-sectional data from 72 cases with cerebellar disease and 36 controls without cerebellar disease. Cerebellar lobule volumes were derived from a graph-cut based segmentation algorithm...
January 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039782/reduced-sensitivity-to-social-priors-during-action-prediction-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Valerian Chambon, Chlöé Farrer, Elisabeth Pacherie, Pierre O Jacquet, Marion Leboyer, Tiziana Zalla
An extensive amount of evidence has documented a diminished ability to predict and understand other people's action in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, two theoretical accounts, the "Hypo-priors" and the "Aberrant precision" hypotheses, have suggested that attenuated Bayesian priors or an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior expectations may be responsible for the atypical perceptual experience and difficulties with action understanding in ASD...
December 28, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028776/motion-direction-discrimination-training-reduces-perceived-motion-repulsion
#10
Ke Jia, Sheng Li
Participants often exaggerate the perceived angular separation between two simultaneously presented motion stimuli, which is referred to as motion repulsion. The overestimation helps participants differentiate between the two superimposed motion directions, yet it causes the impairment of direction perception. Since direction perception can be refined through perceptual training, we here attempted to investigate whether the training of a direction discrimination task changes the amount of motion repulsion. Our results showed a direction-specific learning effect, which was accompanied by a reduced amount of motion repulsion both for the trained and the untrained directions...
December 27, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024270/the-stress-hormone-cortisol-blocks-perceptual-learning-in-humans
#11
Hubert R Dinse, J C Kattenstroth, M Lenz, M Tegenthoff, O T Wolf
Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid (GC) in humans, influences neuronal excitability and plasticity by acting on mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. Cellular studies demonstrated that elevated GC levels affect neuronal plasticity, for example through a reduction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). At the behavioural level, after treatment with GCs, numerous studies have reported impaired hippocampal function, such as impaired memory retrieval. In contrast, relatively little is known about the impact of GCs on cortical plasticity and perceptual learning in adult humans...
December 9, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018026/harnessing-learning-biases-is-essential-for-applying-social-learning-in-conservation
#12
REVIEW
Alison L Greggor, Alex Thornton, Nicola S Clayton
Social learning can influence how animals respond to anthropogenic changes in the environment, determining whether animals survive novel threats and exploit novel resources or produce maladaptive behaviour and contribute to human-wildlife conflict. Predicting where social learning will occur and manipulating its use are, therefore, important in conservation, but doing so is not straightforward. Learning is an inherently biased process that has been shaped by natural selection to prioritize important information and facilitate its efficient uptake...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008802/learning-the-marshallese-phonological-system-the-role-of-cross-language-similarity-on-the-perception-and-production-of-secondary-articulations
#13
Heather Willson Sturman, Wendy Baker-Smemoe, Sofía Carreño, Bradley B Miller
The current study determines the influence of cross-language similarity on native English speakers' perception and production of Marshallese consonant contrasts. Marshallese provides a unique opportunity to study this influence because all Marshallese consonants have a secondary articulation. Results of discrimination and production tasks indicate that learners more easily acquire sounds if they are perceptually less similar to native language phonemes. In addition, the degree of cross-language similarity seemed to affect perception and production and may also interact with the effect of orthography...
December 2016: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007982/generalization-of-prior-information-for-rapid-bayesian-time-estimation
#14
Neil W Roach, Paul V McGraw, David J Whitaker, James Heron
To enable effective interaction with the environment, the brain combines noisy sensory information with expectations based on prior experience. There is ample evidence showing that humans can learn statistical regularities in sensory input and exploit this knowledge to improve perceptual decisions and actions. However, fundamental questions remain regarding how priors are learned and how they generalize to different sensory and behavioral contexts. In principle, maintaining a large set of highly specific priors may be inefficient and restrict the speed at which expectations can be formed and updated in response to changes in the environment...
December 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002542/auditory-training-with-multiple-talkers-and-passage-based-semantic-cohesion
#15
Elizabeth D Casserly, Erin C Barney
Purpose: Current auditory training methods typically result in improvements to speech recognition abilities in quiet, but learner gains may not extend to other domains in speech (e.g., recognition in noise) or self-assessed benefit. This study examined the potential of training involving multiple talkers and training emphasizing discourse-level top-down processing to produce more generalized learning. Method: Normal-hearing participants (N = 64) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 auditory training protocols using noise-vocoded speech simulating the processing of an 8-channel cochlear implant: sentence-based single-talker training, training with 24 different talkers, passage-based transcription training, and a control (transcribing unvocoded sentence materials)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996022/perceptual-learning-to-discriminate-the-intensity-and-spatial-location-of-nociceptive-stimuli
#16
Flavia Mancini, Karina Dolgevica, James Steckelmacher, Patrick Haggard, Karl Friston, Giandomenico D Iannetti
Accurate discrimination of the intensity and spatial location of nociceptive stimuli is essential to guide appropriate behaviour. The ability to discriminate the attributes of sensory stimuli is continuously refined by practice, even throughout adulthood - a phenomenon called perceptual learning. In the visual domain, perceptual learning to discriminate one of the features that define a visual stimulus (e.g., its orientation) can transfer to a different feature of the same stimulus (e.g., its contrast). Here, we performed two experiments on 48 volunteers to characterize perceptual learning in nociception, which has been rarely studied...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996015/passive-exposure-to-speech-sounds-induces-long-term-memory-representations-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-adult-rats
#17
Jari L O Kurkela, Arto Lipponen, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Risto Näätänen, Piia Astikainen
Experience-induced changes in the functioning of the auditory cortex are prominent in early life, especially during a critical period. Although auditory perceptual learning takes place automatically during this critical period, it is thought to require active training in later life. Previous studies demonstrated rapid changes in single-cell responses of anesthetized adult animals while exposed to sounds presented in a statistical learning paradigm. However, whether passive exposure to sounds can form long-term memory representations remains to be demonstrated...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993649/preliminary-evidence-for-a-role-of-the-personality-trait-in-visual-perceptual-learning
#18
Mingxia Zhang, Jiangbo Tu, Bo Dong, Chuansheng Chen, Min Bao
Recent research has shown that reinforcement can facilitate visual perceptual learning (VPL), but no study has examined the relations between individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity and VPL. This study tested the hypothesis that when monetary incentive was involved, the personality traits of harm avoidance and reward dependence (HA and RD, two measures of reinforcement sensitivity) would be linked to VPL performance. We trained two groups of subjects with a visual motion direction discrimination task for six days...
December 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991807/practice-makes-it-better-a-psychophysical-study-of-visual-perceptual-learning-and-its-transfer-effects-on-aging
#19
Xuan Li, Philip A Allen, Mei-Ching Lien, Naohide Yamamoto
Previous studies on perceptual learning, acquiring a new skill through practice, appear to stimulate brain plasticity and enhance performance (Fiorentini & Berardi, 1981). The present study aimed to determine (a) whether perceptual learning can be used to compensate for age-related declines in perceptual abilities, and (b) whether the effect of perceptual learning can be transferred to untrained stimuli and subsequently improve capacity of visual working memory (VWM). We tested both healthy younger and older adults in a 3-day training session using an orientation discrimination task...
December 19, 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988932/young-children-s-reliance-on-information-from-inaccurate-informants
#20
Sunae Kim, Markus Paulus, Chuck Kalish
Prior work shows that children selectively learn from credible speakers. Yet little is known how they treat information from non-credible speakers. This research examined to what extent and under what conditions children may or may not learn from problematic sources. In three studies, we found that children displayed trust toward previously inaccurate speakers. Children were equally likely to extend labels from previously accurate and inaccurate speakers to novel objects. Moreover, they expected third parties to share labels provided by previously inaccurate speakers...
December 18, 2016: Cognitive Science
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