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Perceptual learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924946/listeners-are-maximally-flexible-in-updating-phonetic-beliefs-over-time
#1
David Saltzman, Emily Myers
Perceptual learning serves as a mechanism for listenexrs to adapt to novel phonetic information. Distributional tracking theories posit that this adaptation occurs as a result of listeners accumulating talker-specific distributional information about the phonetic category in question (Kleinschmidt & Jaeger, 2015, Psychological Review, 122). What is not known is how listeners build these talker-specific distributions; that is, if they aggregate all information received over a certain time period, or if they rely more heavily upon the most recent information received and down-weight older, consolidated information...
September 18, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923160/applying-the-neurodynamics-of-emotional-circular-causalities-in-psychosocial-and-cognitive-therapy-using-multi-sensory-environments-an-orbde-case-study-analysis
#2
Janice Ryan
This exploratory, evidence-based practice research study focuses on presenting a plausible mesoscopic brain dynamics hypothesis for the benefits of treating clients with psychosocial and cognitive challenges using a mindful therapeutic approach and multi-sensory environments. After an extensive neuroscientific review of the therapeutic benefits of mindfulness, a multi-sensory environment is presented as a window of therapeutic opportunity to more quickly and efficiently facilitate the neurobiological experience of becoming more mindful or conscious of self and environment...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922123/a-data-driven-approach-for-furniture-and-indoor-scene-colorization
#3
Jie Zhu, Yanwen Guo, Han Ma
We present a data-driven approach that colorizes 3D furniture models and indoor scenes by leveraging indoor images on the internet. Our approach is able to colorize the furniture automatically according to an example image. The core is to learn image-guided mesh segmentation to segment the model into different parts according to the imaged object. Given an indoor scene, the system supports colorization-by-example, and has the ability to recommend the colorization scheme that is consistent with a user-desired color theme...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919043/neocortical-dynamics-during-whisker-based-sensory-discrimination-in-head-restrained-mice
#4
Fritjof Helmchen, Ariel Gilad, Jerry L Chen
A fundamental task frequently encountered by brains is to rapidly and reliably discriminate between sensory stimuli of the same modality, be it distinct auditory sounds, odors, visual patterns, or tactile textures. A key mammalian brain structure involved in discrimination behavior is the neocortex. Sensory processing not only involves the respective primary sensory area, which is crucial for perceptual detection, but additionally relies on cortico-cortical communication among several regions including higher-order sensory areas as well as frontal cortical areas...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915298/the-effect-of-stimulus-variability-on-learning-and-generalization-of-reading-in-a-novel-script
#5
Jasmeen Adwan-Mansour, Tali Bitan
Purpose: The benefit of stimulus variability for generalization of acquired skills and knowledge has been shown in motor, perceptual, and language learning but has rarely been studied in reading. We studied the effect of variable training in a novel language on reading trained and untrained words. Method: Sixty typical adults received 2 sessions of training in reading an artificial script. Participants were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a variable training group practicing a large set of 24 words, and 2 nonvariable training groups practicing a smaller set of 12 words, with twice the number of repetitions per word...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905126/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-haptic-object-processing-combined-evidence-from-tractography-and-functional-neuroimaging
#6
Haemy Lee Masson, Hyeok-Mook Kang, Laurent Petit, Christian Wallraven
Touch delivers a wealth of information already from birth, helping infants to acquire knowledge about a variety of important object properties using their hands. Despite the fact that we are touch experts as much as we are visual experts, surprisingly, little is known how our perceptual ability in touch is linked to either functional or structural aspects of the brain. The present study, therefore, investigates and identifies neuroanatomical correlates of haptic perceptual performance using a novel, multi-modal approach...
September 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901711/learning-to-name-smells-increases-activity-in-heteromodal-semantic-areas
#7
Arnaud Fournel, Caroline Sezille, Carmen C Licon, Charlotte Sinding, Johannes Gerber, Camille Ferdenzi, Thomas Hummel, Moustafa Bensafi
Semantic description of odors is a cognitively demanding task. Learning to name smells is, however, possible with training. This study set out to examine how improvement in olfactory semantic knowledge following training reorganizes the neural representation of smells. First, 19 nonexpert volunteers were trained for 3 days; they were exposed (i) to odorants presented without verbal labels (perceptual learning) and (ii) to other odorants paired with lexicosemantic labels (associative learning). Second, the same participants were tested in a brain imaging study (fMRI) measuring hemodynamic responses to learned odors presented in both the perceptual and associative learning conditions...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901676/neural-mechanisms-of-motion-perceptual-learning-in-noise
#8
Nihong Chen, Junshi Lu, Hanyu Shao, Xuchu Weng, Fang Fang
Practice improves our perceptual ability. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this experience-dependent plasticity in adult brain remain unclear. Here, we studied the long-term neural correlates of motion perceptual learning. Subjects' behavioral performance and BOLD signals were tracked before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after practicing a motion direction discrimination task in noise over six daily sessions. Parallel to the specificity and persistency of the behavioral learning effect, we found that training sharpened the cortical tuning in MT, and enhanced the connectivity strength from MT to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a motion decision-making area)...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878068/a-metacognitive-illusion-in-monkeys
#9
Stephen Ferrigno, Nate Kornell, Jessica F Cantlon
Like humans, monkeys can make accurate judgements about their own memory by reporting their confidence during cognitive tasks. Some have suggested that animals use associative learning to make accurate confidence judgements, while others have suggested animals directly access and estimate the strength of their memories. Here we test a third, non-exclusive possibility: perhaps monkeys, like humans, base metacognitive inferences on heuristic cues. Humans are known to use cues like perceptual fluency (e.g. how easy something is to see) when making metacognitive judgements...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877536/trial-dependent-psychometric-functions-accounting-for-perceptual-learning-in-2-afc-discrimination-tasks
#10
Florian Kattner, Aaron Cochrane, C Shawn Green
The majority of theoretical models of learning consider learning to be a continuous function of experience. However, most perceptual learning studies use thresholds estimated by fitting psychometric functions to independent blocks, sometimes then fitting a parametric function to these block-wise estimated thresholds. Critically, such approaches tend to violate the basic principle that learning is continuous through time (e.g., by aggregating trials into large "blocks" for analysis that each assume stationarity, then fitting learning functions to these aggregated blocks)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866499/what-would-a-graph-look-like-in-this-layout-a-machine-learning-approach-to-large-graph-visualization
#11
Oh-Hyun Kwon, Tarik Crnovrsanin, Kwan-Liu Ma
Using different methods for laying out a graph can lead to very different visual appearances, with which the viewer perceives different information. Selecting a "good" layout method is thus important for visualizing a graph. The selection can be highly subjective and dependent on the given task. A common approach to selecting a good layout is to use aesthetic criteria and visual inspection. However, fully calculating various layouts and their associated aesthetic metrics is computationally expensive. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach to large graph visualization based on computing the topological similarity of graphs using graph kernels...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863035/same-or-different-the-overlap-between-children-with-auditory-processing-disorders-and-children-with-other-developmental-disorders-a-systematic-review
#12
Ellen de Wit, Pim van Dijk, Sandra Hanekamp, Margot I Visser-Bochane, Bert Steenbergen, Cees P van der Schans, Margreet R Luinge
OBJECTIVES: Children diagnosed with auditory processing disorders (APD) experience difficulties in auditory functioning and with memory, attention, language, and reading tasks. However, it is not clear whether the behavioral characteristics of these children are distinctive from the behavioral characteristics of children diagnosed with a different developmental disorder, such as specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disorder (LD), or autism spectrum disorder...
August 31, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856966/rapid-response-learning-of-brand-logo-priming-evidence-that-brand-priming-is-not-dominated-by-rapid-response-learning
#13
Stephan G Boehm, Ciaran Smith, Niklas Muench, Kirsty Noble, Catherine Atherton
Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856962/do-delayed-judgments-of-learning-reduce-metamemory-illusions-a-meta-analysis
#14
Karlos Luna, Beatriz Martín-Luengo, Pedro B Albuquerque
Past research has shown that the perceptual characteristics of studied items (e.g., font size) leads to a metamemory illusion, and that delayed JOLs are better predictors of memory performance than immediate JOLs. Here, we tested whether delayed JOLs could reduce or eliminate the effect of perceptual characteristics on JOLs and restudy decisions. We adopted a meta-analytic approach and analysed the results of 28 experiments in which participants studied items presented in either large or small font. JOLs and, sometimes, restudy decisions, were collected either immediately or after a delay...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852917/perceptual-training-of-second-language-vowels-does-musical-ability-play-a-role
#15
Payam Ghaffarvand Mokari, Stefan Werner
The present study attempts to extend the research on the effects of phonetic training on the production and perception of second-language (L2) vowels. We also examined whether success in learning L2 vowels through high-variability intensive phonetic training is related to the learners' general musical abilities. Forty Azerbaijani learners of Standard Southern British English participated in a pre-test/training/post-test setting. Discrimination and production tests were used in pre- and post-tests. The participants' musical ability was evaluated through three musical aptitude tests...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846082/memory-reactivation-improves-visual-perception
#16
Rotem Amar-Halpert, Rony Laor-Maayany, Shlomi Nemni, Jonathan D Rosenblatt, Nitzan Censor
Human perception thresholds can improve through learning. Here we report findings challenging the fundamental 'practice makes perfect' basis of procedural learning theory, showing that brief reactivations of encoded visual memories are sufficient to improve perceptual discrimination thresholds. Learning was comparable to standard practice-induced learning and was not due to short training per se, nor to an epiphenomenon of primed retrieval enhancement. The results demonstrate that basic perceptual functions can be substantially improved by memory reactivation, supporting a new account of perceptual learning dynamics...
August 28, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840573/response-time-modeling-reveals-multiple-contextual-cuing-mechanisms
#17
David K Sewell, Ben Colagiuri, Evan J Livesey
Contextual cuing refers to a response time (RT) benefit that occurs when observers search through displays that have been repeated over the course of an experiment. Although it is generally agreed that contextual cuing arises via an associative learning mechanism, there is uncertainty about the type(s) of process(es) that allow learning to influence RT. We contrast two leading accounts of the contextual cuing effect that differ in terms of the general process that is credited with producing the effect. The first, the expedited search account, attributes the cuing effect to an increase in the speed with which the target is acquired...
August 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840544/transferring-an-analytical-technique-from-ecology-to-the-sport-sciences
#18
Carl T Woods, Sam Robertson, Neil French Collier, Anne L Swinbourne, Anthony S Leicht
BACKGROUND: Learning transfer is defined as an individual's capability to apply prior learnt perceptual, motor, or conceptual skills to a novel task or performance environment. In the sport sciences, learning transfers have been investigated from an athlete-specific perspective. However, sport scientists should also consider the benefits of cross-disciplinary learning to aid critical thinking and metacognitive skill gained through the interaction with similar quantitative scientific disciplines...
August 24, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838469/the-unpredictive-brain-under-threat-a-neurocomputational-account-of-anxious-hypervigilance
#19
Brian R Cornwell, Marta I Garrido, Cassie Overstreet, Daniel S Pine, Christian Grillon
BACKGROUND: Anxious hypervigilance is marked by sensitized sensory-perceptual processes and attentional biases to potential danger cues in the environment. How this is realized at the neurocomputational level is unknown but could clarify the brain mechanisms disrupted in psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Predictive coding, instantiated by dynamic causal models, provides a promising framework to ground these state-related changes in the dynamic interactions of reciprocally connected brain areas...
September 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837699/talking-to-fewer-people-leads-to-having-more-malleable-linguistic-representations
#20
Shiri Lev-Ari
We learn language from our social environment. In general, the more sources we have, the less informative each of them is, and the less weight we should assign it. If this is the case, people who interact with fewer others should be more susceptible to the influence of each of their interlocutors. This paper tests whether indeed people who interact with fewer other people have more malleable phonological representations. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, this paper shows that individuals who regularly interact with fewer others are more likely to change their boundary between /d/ and /t/ following exposure to an atypical speaker...
2017: PloS One
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