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Perceptual learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444371/neural-correlates-of-both-perception-and-memory-for-objects-in-the-rodent-perirhinal-cortex
#1
Jae-Rong Ahn, Inah Lee
Despite its anatomical positioning as an interface between the perceptual and memory systems, the perirhinal cortex (PER) has long been considered dedicated for object recognition memory. Whether the PER is also involved in object perception has been intensely debated in recent studies, but physiological evidence has been lacking. We recorded single units from the PER while the rat made categorical responses immediately after sampling a visual object as the originally learned objects were ambiguously morphed to varying degrees...
April 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443053/perceptual-improvement-of-lexical-tones-in-infants-effects-of-tone-language-experience
#2
Feng-Ming Tsao
To learn words in a tonal language, tone-language learners should not only develop better abilities for perceiving consonants and vowels, but also for lexical tones. The divergent trend of enhancing sensitivity to native phonetic contrasts and reduced sensitivity to non-native phonetic contrast is theoretically essential to evaluate effects of listening to an ambient language on speech perception development. The loss of sensitivity in discriminating lexical tones among non-tonal language-learning infants was apparent between 6 and 12 months of age, but only few studies examined trends of differentiating native lexical tones in infancy...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442360/the-oxtr-gene-implicit-learning-and-social-processing-does-empathy-evolve-from-perceptual-skills-for-details
#3
Martin Melchers, Christian Montag, Sebastian Markett, Nawael Niazy, Johanna Groß-Bölting, Jelena Zimmermann, Martin Reuter
Oxytocin is an important messenger in the brain that has been linked to a variety of social functions in pharmacological studies. Besides, functional genetic variations on the oxytocin receptor gene have been repeatedly associated with social processing and functioning. Despite this knowledge, there are very few studies investigating the mechanisms that may explain the link between oxytocin and social functions. In the endeavor to fill this gap in the literature, the current study searches for associations between the prominent rs2268498 polymorphism on the oxytocin receptor gene and participants' ability to perceive and store implicit social information, which is a fundamental function in social information processing...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439250/differential-impact-of-visuospatial-working-memory-on-rule-based-and-information-integration-category-learning
#4
Qiang Xing, Hailong Sun
Previous studies have indicated that the category learning system is a mechanism with multiple processing systems, and that working memory has different effects on category learning. But how does visuospatial working memory affect perceptual category learning? As there is no definite answer to this question, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, the dual-task paradigm with sequential presentation was adopted to investigate the influence of visuospatial working memory on rule-based and information-integration category learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438680/time-course-influences-transfer-of-visual-perceptual-learning-across-spatial-location
#5
S J Larcombe, C Kennard, H Bridge
Visual perceptual learning describes the improvement of visual perception with repeated practice. Previous research has established that the learning effects of perceptual training may be transferable to untrained stimulus attributes such as spatial location under certain circumstances. However, the mechanisms involved in transfer have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of altering training time course on the transferability of learning effects. Participants were trained on a motion direction discrimination task or a sinusoidal grating orientation discrimination task in a single visual hemifield...
April 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432592/perceptual-learning-with-tactile-stimuli-in-rodents-shaping-the-somatosensory-system
#6
REVIEW
Nicole Pacchiarini, Kevin Fox, R C Honey
The animal kingdom contains species with a wide variety of sensory systems that have been selected to function in different environmental niches, but that are also subject to modification by experience during an organism's lifetime. The modification of such systems by experience is often called perceptual learning. In rodents, the classic example of perceptual learning is the observation that simple preexposure to two visual stimuli facilitates a subsequent (reinforced) discrimination between them. However, until recently very little behavioral research had investigated perceptual learning with tactile stimuli in rodents, in marked contrast to the wealth of information about plasticity in the rodent somatosensory system...
April 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422677/learning-sparse-representation-for-objective-image-retargeting-quality-assessment
#7
Qiuping Jiang, Feng Shao, Weisi Lin, Gangyi Jiang
The goal of image retargeting is to adapt source images to target displays with different sizes and aspect ratios. Different retargeting operators create different retargeted images, and a key problem is to evaluate the performance of each retargeting operator. Subjective evaluation is most reliable, but it is cumbersome and labor-consuming, and more importantly, it is hard to be embedded into online optimization systems. This paper focuses on exploring the effectiveness of sparse representation for objective image retargeting quality assessment...
April 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422653/learning-compositional-sparse-bimodal-models
#8
Suren Kumar, Vikas Dhiman, Parker A Koch, Jason J Corso
Various perceptual domains have underlying compositional semantics that are rarely captured in current models. We suspect this is because directly learning the compositional structure has evaded these models. Yet, the compositional structure of a given domain can be grounded in a separate domain thereby simplifying its learning. To that end, we propose a new approach to modeling bimodal perceptual domains that explicitly relates distinct projections across each modality and then jointly learns a bimodal sparse representation...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410461/gradients-of-fear-how-perception-influences-fear-generalization
#9
Dieter Struyf, Jonas Zaman, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
The current experiment investigated whether overgeneralization of fear could be due to an inability to perceptually discriminate the initial fear-evoking stimulus from similar stimuli, as fear learning-induced perceptual impairments have been reported but their influence on generalization gradients remain to be elucidated. Three hundred and sixty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with circles of different sizes as conditioned stimuli (CS), of which one was paired to an aversive IAPS picture...
June 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410404/novel-behavioral-indicator-of-explicit-awareness-reveals-temporal-course-of-frontoparietal-neural-network-facilitation-during-motor-learning
#10
Regan R Lawson, Jordan O Gayle, Lewis A Wheaton
Deficits in sequential motor learning have been observed in many patient populations. Having an understanding of the individual neural progression associated with sequential learning in healthy individuals may provide valuable insights for effective interventions with these patients. Due to individual variability in motor skill acquisition, the temporal course of such learning will be vary, suggesting a need for a more individualized approach. Knowing when a subject becomes aware of movement patterns may provide a marker with which to identify each individual's learning time course...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397243/infants-rely-more-on-gaze-cues-from-own-race-than-other-race-adults-for-learning-under-uncertainty
#11
Naiqi G Xiao, Rachel Wu, Paul C Quinn, Shaoying Liu, Kristen S Tummeltshammer, Natasha Z Kirkham, Liezhong Ge, Olivier Pascalis, Kang Lee
Differential experience leads infants to have perceptual processing advantages for own- over other-race faces, but whether this experience has downstream consequences is unknown. Three experiments examined whether 7-month-olds (range = 5.9-8.5 months; N = 96) use gaze from own- versus other-race adults to anticipate events. When gaze predicted an event's occurrence with 100% reliability, 7-month-olds followed both adults equally; with 25% (chance) reliability, neither was followed. However, with 50% (uncertain) reliability, infants followed own- over other-race gaze...
April 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396586/statistical-learning-leads-to-persistent-memory-evidence-for-one-year-consolidation
#12
Andrea Kóbor, Karolina Janacsek, Ádám Takács, Dezso Nemeth
Statistical learning is a robust mechanism of the brain that enables the extraction of environmental patterns, which is crucial in perceptual and cognitive domains. However, the dynamical change of processes underlying long-term statistical memory formation has not been tested in an appropriately controlled design. Here we show that a memory trace acquired by statistical learning is resistant to inference as well as to forgetting after one year. Participants performed a statistical learning task and were retested one year later without further practice...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391488/selective-auditory-grouping-by-zebra-finches-testing-the-iambic-trochaic-law
#13
Michelle Spierings, Jeroen Hubert, Carel Ten Cate
Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals...
April 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390494/generalization-of-pain-related-fear-based-on-conceptual-knowledge
#14
Ann Meulders, Kristof Vandael, Johan W S Vlaeyen
Increasing evidence suggests that pain-related fear is key to the transition from acute to chronic pain. Previous research has shown that perceptual similarity with a pain-associated movement fosters the generalization of fear to novel movements. Perceptual generalization of pain-related fear is adaptive as it enables individuals to extrapolate the threat value of one movement to another without the necessity to learn anew. However, excessive spreading of fear to safe movements may become maladaptive and may lead to sustained anxiety, dysfunctional avoidance behaviors, and severe disability...
May 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389493/learning-outcomes-for-communication-skills-across-the-health-professions-a-systematic-literature-review-and-qualitative-synthesis
#15
Charlotte Denniston, Elizabeth Molloy, Debra Nestel, Robyn Woodward-Kron, Jennifer L Keating
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and analyse communication skills learning outcomes via a systematic review and present results in a synthesised list. Summarised results inform educators and researchers in communication skills teaching and learning across health professions. DESIGN: Systematic review and qualitative synthesis. METHODS: A systematic search of five databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL plus and Scopus), from first records until August 2016, identified published learning outcomes for communication skills in health professions education...
April 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383987/the-malleability-of-emotional-perception-short-term-plasticity-in-retinotopic-neurons-accompanies-the-formation-of-perceptual-biases-to-threat
#16
Nina N Thigpen, Felix Bartsch, Andreas Keil
Emotional experience changes visual perception, leading to the prioritization of sensory information associated with threats and opportunities. These emotional biases have been extensively studied by basic and clinical scientists, but their underlying mechanism is not known. The present study combined measures of brain-electric activity and autonomic physiology to establish how threat biases emerge in human observers. Participants viewed stimuli designed to differentially challenge known properties of different neuronal populations along the visual pathway: location, eye, and orientation specificity...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383111/changes-in-the-stimulus-preceding-negativity-and-lateralized-readiness-potential-during-reinforcement-learning
#17
Xi Ren, Fernando Valle-Inclán, Sergii Tukaiev, Steven A Hackley
According to reinforcement learning theory, dopamine-dependent anticipatory processes play a critical role in learning from action outcomes such as feedback or reward. To better understand outcome anticipation, we examined variation in slow cortical potentials and assessed their changes over the course of motor-skill acquisition. Healthy young adults learned a series of precisely timed, key press sequences. Feedback was delivered at a delay of either 2.5 or 8 s, to encourage use of either the striatally mediated, habit learning system or the hippocampus-dependent, episodic memory system, respectively...
April 6, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381998/real-time-biologically-inspired-action-recognition-from-key-poses-using-a-neuromorphic-architecture
#18
Georg Layher, Tobias Brosch, Heiko Neumann
Intelligent agents, such as robots, have to serve a multitude of autonomous functions. Examples are, e.g., collision avoidance, navigation and route planning, active sensing of its environment, or the interaction and non-verbal communication with people in the extended reach space. Here, we focus on the recognition of the action of a human agent based on a biologically inspired visual architecture of analyzing articulated movements. The proposed processing architecture builds upon coarsely segregated streams of sensory processing along different pathways which separately process form and motion information (Layher et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380399/local-and-global-processing-in-block-design-tasks-in-children-with-dyslexia-or-nonverbal-learning-disability
#19
Ramona Cardillo, Irene C Mammarella, Ricardo Basso Garcia, Cesare Cornoldi
Visuo-constructive and perceptual abilities have been poorly investigated in children with learning disabilities. The present study focused on local or global visuospatial processing in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) and dyslexia compared with typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants were presented with a modified block design task (BDT), in both a typical visuo-constructive version that involves reconstructing figures from blocks, and a perceptual version in which respondents must rapidly match unfragmented figures with a corresponding fragmented target figure...
April 2, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378829/relevance-of-deep-learning-to-facilitate-the-diagnosis-of-her2-status-in-breast-cancer
#20
Michel E Vandenberghe, Marietta L J Scott, Paul W Scorer, Magnus Söderberg, Denis Balcerzak, Craig Barker
Tissue biomarker scoring by pathologists is central to defining the appropriate therapy for patients with cancer. Yet, inter-pathologist variability in the interpretation of ambiguous cases can affect diagnostic accuracy. Modern artificial intelligence methods such as deep learning have the potential to supplement pathologist expertise to ensure constant diagnostic accuracy. We developed a computational approach based on deep learning that automatically scores HER2, a biomarker that defines patient eligibility for anti-HER2 targeted therapies in breast cancer...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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