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Perceptual learning

Natacha Deroost, Daphné Coomans
We examined the role of sequence awareness in a pure perceptual sequence learning design. Participants had to react to the target's colour that changed according to a perceptual sequence. By varying the mapping of the target's colour onto the response keys, motor responses changed randomly. The effect of sequence awareness on perceptual sequence learning was determined by manipulating the learning instructions (explicit versus implicit) and assessing the amount of sequence awareness after the experiment. In the explicit instruction condition (n = 15), participants were instructed to intentionally search for the colour sequence, whereas in the implicit instruction condition (n = 15), they were left uninformed about the sequenced nature of the task...
January 10, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Lauren A M Lebois, Christine D Wilson-Mendenhall, W Kyle Simmons, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Lawrence W Barsalou
From the perspective of constructivist theories, emotion results from learning assemblies of relevant perceptual, cognitive, interoceptive, and motor processes in specific situations. Across emotional experiences over time, learned assemblies of processes accumulate in memory that later underlie emotional experiences in similar situations. A neuroimaging experiment guided participants to experience (and thus learn) situated forms of emotion, and then assessed whether participants tended to experience situated forms of the emotion later...
January 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Alba Práxedes, Alberto Moreno, Alexander Gil-Arias, Fernando Claver, Fernando Del Villar
To optimize players' tactical abilities, coaches need to design training sessions with representative learning tasks, such as, small-sided games. Moreover, it is necessary to adapt the complexity of the tasks to the skill level of the athletes to maximally improve their perceptual, visual and attentive abilities. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two teaching programs, each utilizing modified games with varied levels of opposition, on decision-making and action execution in young players with different levels of sports expertise...
2018: PloS One
Marcello Maniglia, Vincent Soler, Benoit Cottereau, Yves Trotter
Macular degeneration (MD) affects central vision and represents the leading cause of visual diseases in elderly population worldwide. As a consequence of central vision loss, MD patients develop a preferred retinal locus (PRL), an eccentric fixation point that replaces the fovea. Here, our aim was to determine whether and to what extent spontaneous plasticity takes place in the cortical regions formerly responding to central vision and whether a visual training based on perceptual learning (PL) can boost this plasticity within the PRL area...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephanie Hearnshaw, Elise Baker, Natalie Munro
PURPOSE: To investigate whether Australian-English speaking children with and without speech sound disorder (SSD) differ in their overall speech perception accuracy. Additionally, to investigate differences in the perception of specific phonemes and the association between speech perception and speech production skills. METHOD: Twenty-five Australian-English speaking children aged 48-60 months participated in this study. The SSD group included 12 children and the typically developing (TD) group included 13 children...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
F Sayako Earle, Dana T Arthur
This study examined the relationship between native phonological processing ability and the learning outcome of a trained nonnative (Hindi /ɖ/ - / d̪/) contrast. Participants were perceptually trained and assessed in the evening, and reassessed early the next morning. Native phonological processing ability did not predict the learning of the nonnative contrasts on Day 1. However, after a period of post-training sleep, Blending ability predicted nonnative Discrimination performance, and Nonword Repetition predicted nonnative Identification...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Martin Rolfs, Nicholas Murray-Smith, Marisa Carrasco
Traditional perceptual learning protocols rely almost exclusively on long periods of uninterrupted fixation. Taking a first step towards understanding perceptual learning in natural vision, we had observers report the orientation of a briefly flashed stimulus (clockwise or counterclockwise from a reference orientation) presented strictly during saccade preparation at a location offset from the saccade target. For each observer, the saccade direction, stimulus location, and orientation remained the same throughout training...
December 22, 2017: Vision Research
Aaron P Blaisdell, Julia E Schroeder, Cynthia D Fast
We've shown that pigeons can integrate separately acquired spatial maps into a cognitive map. Integration requires an element shared between maps. In two experiments using a spatial-search task in pigeons, we test spatial combination rules when no shared element was present during training. In all three experiments, pigeons first learned individual landmark-target maps. In subsequent tests involving combinations of landmarks, we found evidence that landmarks collaborate in guiding spatial choice at test (Experiment 1)...
December 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Jessica Galliussi, Lukasz Grzeczkowski, Walter Gerbino, Michael H Herzog, Paolo Bernardis
Perceptual learning can occur for a feature irrelevant to the training task, when it is sub-threshold and outside of the focus of attention (task-irrelevant perceptual learning, TIPL); however, TIPL does not occur when the task-irrelevant feature is supra-threshold. Here, we asked the question whether TIPL occurs when the task-irrelevant feature is sub-threshold but within the focus of spatial attention. We tested participants in three different discrimination tasks performed on a 3-dot stimulus: a horizontal Vernier task and a vertical bisection task (during pre- and post-training sessions), and a luminance task (during training)...
December 20, 2017: Vision Research
Xin-Yu Xie, Cong Yu
Location specific perceptual learning can transfer to a new location if the new location is trained with a secondary task that by itself does not impact the performance of the primary learning task (double training). Learning may also transfer to other locations when double training is performed at the same location. Here we investigated the mechanisms underlying double-training enabled learning and transfer with an external noise paradigm. Specifically, we measured the Vernier thresholds at various external noise contrasts before and after double training...
December 17, 2017: Vision Research
Stephanie Rosemann, Freimuth Brunner, Andreas Kastrup, Manfred Fahle
The perception of music can be impaired after a stroke. This dysfunction is called amusia and amusia patients often also show deficits in visual abilities, language, memory, learning, and attention. The current study investigated whether deficits in music perception are selective for musical input or generalize to other perceptual abilities. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in working memory or attention account for impairments in music perception. Twenty stroke patients with small infarctions in the supply area of the middle cerebral artery were investigated with tests for music and visual perception, categorization, neglect, working memory and attention...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
Gabriel Arnold, Malika Auvray
Sensory substitution devices aim at assisting a deficient sensory modality by means of another sensory modality. For instance, to perceive with visual-to-tactile devices, users learn to recognize visual stimuli through their tactile conversion. A crucial characteristic of learning lies in the ability to generalize, that is, the ability to extend the acquired perceptual abilities to both new stimuli and new perceptual conditions. The study reported here investigated the perceptual learning of tactile alphanumerical stimuli...
December 16, 2017: Vision Research
Noelle LaVoie, Yi-Ching Lee, Anna Allison, James Parker
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and injury for teens and speeding is a major contributor, particularly driving too fast for conditions (CDC, 2015, 2013; NHTSA, 2012; Lam, 2003; McKnight & McKnight, 2003). Speed management is a type of tacit knowledge learned through experience that combines speed perception with decisions about safety. Effective training and assessment of speed management requires a safe method for accumulating practice that includes realistic perceptual cues. This study investigated whether speed can be manipulated in an online environment using special effects technology without distorting speed perception...
December 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Sofoklis Kakouros, Nelli Salminen, Okko Räsänen
Perceptual prominence of linguistic units such as words has been earlier connected to the concepts of predictability and attentional orientation. One hypothesis is that low-probability prosodic or lexical content is perceived as prominent due to the surprisal and high information value associated with the stimulus. However, the existing behavioral studies have used stimulus manipulations that follow or violate typical linguistic patterns present in the listeners' native language, i.e., assuming that the listeners have already established a model for acceptable prosodic patterns in the language...
December 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Amit Yashar, Rachel N Denison
Training can modify the visual system to produce a substantial improvement on perceptual tasks and therefore has applications for treating visual deficits. Visual perceptual learning (VPL) is often specific to the trained feature, which gives insight into processes underlying brain plasticity, but limits VPL's effectiveness in rehabilitation. Under what circumstances VPL transfers to untrained stimuli is poorly understood. Here we report a qualitatively new phenomenon: intrinsic variation in the representation of features determines the transfer of VPL...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Sean Müller, Ann-Maree Vallence, Carolee Winstein
A framework is presented of how theoretical predictions can be tested across the expert athlete to disabled patient skill continuum. Common-coding theory is used as the exemplar to discuss sensory and motor system contributions to perceptual-motor behavior. Behavioral and neural studies investigating expert athletes and patients recovering from cerebral stroke are reviewed. They provide evidence of bi-directional contributions of visual and motor systems to perceptual-motor behavior. Majority of this research is focused on perceptual-motor performance or learning, with less on transfer...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
Yael Zaltz, Eitan Globerson, Noam Amir
The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniel B Vatterott, Michael C Mozer, Shaun P Vecera
Distraction impairs performance of many important, everyday tasks. Attentional control limits distraction by preferentially selecting important items for limited-capacity cognitive operations. Research in attentional control has typically investigated the degree to which selection of items is stimulus-driven versus goal-driven. Recent work finds that when observers initially learn a task, the selection is based on stimulus-driven factors, but through experience, goal-driven factors have an increasing influence...
December 11, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Yael Zaltz, Daphne Ari-Even Roth, Liat Kishon-Rabin
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of external feedback in auditory perceptual learning of school-age children as compared with that of adults. Method: Forty-eight children (7-9 years of age) and 64 adults (20-35 years of age) conducted a training session using an auditory frequency discrimination (difference limen for frequency) task, with external feedback (EF) provided for half of them. Results: Data supported the following findings: (a) Children learned the difference limen for frequency task only when EF was provided...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Paul S Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang, Tobias Egner
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a central role in the prioritization of sensory input based on task-relevance. Such top-down control of perception is of fundamental importance in goal-directed behavior, but can also be costly when deployed excessively, necessitating a mechanism that regulates control engagement to align it with changing environmental demands. We have recently introduced the "flexible control model," which explains this regulation as resulting from a self-adjusting reinforcement-learning mechanism that infers latent statistical structure in dynamic task environments to predict forthcoming states...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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