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Perceptual learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230399/not-all-probabilities-are-equivalent-evidence-from-orientation-versus-spatial-probability-learning
#1
Syaheed B Jabar, Britt Anderson
Frequently targets are detected faster, probable locations searched earlier, and likely orientations estimated more precisely. Are these all consequences of a single, domain-general "attentional" effect? To examine this issue, participants were shown brief instances of spatial gratings, and were tasked to draw their location and orientation. Unknown to participants, either the location or orientation probability of these gratings were manipulated. While orientation probability affected the precision of orientation reports, spatial probability did not...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228249/a-computerised-test-of-perceptual-ability-for-learning-endoscopic-and-laparoscopic-surgery-and-other-image-guided-procedures-score-norms-for-picsor
#2
Patrick Henn, Anthony G Gallagher, Emmeline Nugent, Roddy Cowie, Neal E Seymour, Randy S Haluck, Hazem Hseino, Oscar Traynor, Paul C Neary
BACKGROUND: The aptitude to infer the shape of 3-D structures, such as internal organs from 2-D monitor displays, in image guided endoscopic and laparoscopic procedures varies. We sought both to validate a computer-generated task Pictorial Surface Orientation (PicSOr), which assesses this aptitude, and to identify norm referenced scores. METHODS: 400 subjects (339 surgeons and 61 controls) completed the PicSOr test. 50 subjects completed it again one year afterwards...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226815/multi-domain-feature-selection-in-auditory-mismatch-negativity-via-parafac-based-template-matching-approach
#3
Saeed Pouryazdian, Andrew Chang, Dan J Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor, Soosan Beheshti, Sridhar Krishnan, Saeed Pouryazdian, Andrew Chang, Dan J Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor, Soosan Beheshti, Sridhar Krishnan, Soosan Beheshti, Dan J Bosnyak, Laurel J Trainor, Sridhar Krishnan, Saeed Pouryazdian, Andrew Chang
MisMatch Negativity (MMN) is a small event-related potential (ERP) that provide an index of sensory learning and perceptual accuracy for the cognitive research. Group-level analysis plays an important role for detecting differences at group or condition level, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Tensor factorization has provided a framework for group-level analysis of ERPs by exploiting more information of brain responses in more domains simultaneously. A 4-way ERP tensor of time × frequency × channel × subjects/condition is generated and decomposed via PARAFAC...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220070/neural-correlates-of-mirror-visual-feedback-induced-performance-improvements-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#4
Viola Rjosk, Jöran Lepsien, Elisabeth Kaminski, Maike Hoff, Bernhard Sehm, Christopher J Steele, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is a promising approach to enhance motor performance without training in healthy adults as well as in patients with focal brain lesions. There is preliminary evidence that a functional modulation within and between primary motor cortices as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) might be one candidate mechanism mediating the observed behavioral effects. Recently, studies using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have indicated that MVF-induced functional changes might not be restricted to the primary motor cortex (M1) but also include higher order regions responsible for perceptual-motor coordination and visual attention...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219971/predicting-human-olfactory-perception-from-chemical-features-of-odor-molecules
#5
Andreas Keller, Richard C Gerkin, Yuanfang Guan, Amit Dhurandhar, Gabor Turu, Bence Szalai, Joel D Mainland, Yusuke Ihara, Chung Wen Yu, Russ Wolfinger, Celine Vens, Leander Schietgat, Kurt De Grave, Raquel Norel, Gustavo Stolovitzky, Guillermo A Cecchi, Leslie B Vosshall, Pablo Meyer
It is still not possible to predict whether a given molecule will have a perceived odor or what olfactory percept it will produce. We therefore organized the crowd-sourced DREAM Olfaction Prediction Challenge. Using a large olfactory psychophysical data set, teams developed machine-learning algorithms to predict sensory attributes of molecules based on their chemoinformatic features. The resulting models accurately predicted odor intensity and pleasantness and also successfully predicted 8 among 19 rated semantic descriptors ("garlic," "fish," "sweet," "fruit," "burnt," "spices," "flower," and "sour")...
February 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219776/deactivation-in-the-posterior-mid-cingulate-cortex-reflects-perceptual-transitions-during-binocular-rivalry-evidence-from-simultaneous-eeg-fmri
#6
Abhrajeet Roy, Keith Jamison, Sheng He, Steve Engel, Bin He
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon in which perception spontaneously shifts between two different images that are dichoptically presented to the viewer. By elucidating the cortical networks responsible for these stochastic fluctuations in perception, we can potentially learn much about the neural correlates of visual awareness. We obtained concurrent EEG-fMRI data for a group of 20 healthy human subjects during the continuous presentation of dichoptic visual stimuli. The two eyes' images were tagged with different temporal frequencies so that eye specific steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) signals could be extracted from the EEG data for direct comparison with changes in fMRI BOLD activity associated with binocular rivalry...
February 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#7
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211489/sleep-supports-the-slow-abstraction-of-gist-from-visual-perceptual-memories
#8
Nicolas D Lutz, Susanne Diekelmann, Patricia Hinse-Stern, Jan Born, Karsten Rauss
Sleep benefits the consolidation of individual episodic memories. In the long run, however, it may be more efficient to retain the abstract gist of single, related memories, which can be generalized to similar instances in the future. While episodic memory is enhanced after one night of sleep, effective gist abstraction is thought to require multiple nights. We tested this hypothesis using a visual Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, examining gist abstraction and episodic-like memory consolidation after 20 min, after 10 hours, as well as after one year of retention...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203635/grounded-understanding-of-abstract-concepts-the-case-of-stem-learning
#9
REVIEW
Justin C Hayes, David J M Kraemer
Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202716/pattern-separation-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-the-aged-canine
#10
Shikha Snigdha, Michael A Yassa, Christina deRivera, Norton W Milgram, Carl W Cotman
The pattern separation task has recently emerged as a behavioral model of hippocampus function and has been used in several pharmaceutical trials. The canine is a useful model to evaluate a multitude of hippocampal-dependent cognitive tasks that parallel those in humans. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the suitability of pattern separation task(s) for detecting age-related changes in canines. We also assessed the dogs' ability to show pattern separation and discrimination reversal, which provides a novel extension of the pattern separation learning literature...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195521/a-computational-model-of-perceptual-and-mnemonic-deficits-in-medial-temporal-lobe-amnesia
#11
Patrick S Sadil, Rosemary A Cowell
Damage to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has long been known to impair declarative memory, and recent evidence suggests that it also impairs visual perception. A theory termed the representational-hierarchical account explains such impairments by assuming that MTL stores conjunctive representations of items and events, and that individuals with MTL damage must rely upon representations of simple visual features in posterior visual cortex, which are inadequate to support memory and perception under certain circumstances...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193692/goal-directed-and-habit-like-modulations-of-stimulus-processing-during-reinforcement-learning
#12
David Luque, Tom Beesley, Richard Morris, Bradley N Jack, Oren Griffiths, Thomas Whitford, Mike E Le Pelley
Recent research has shown that perceptual processing of stimuli previously associated with high-value rewards is automatically prioritized, even when rewards are no longer available. It has been hypothesized that such reward-related modulation of stimulus salience is conceptually similar to an 'attentional habit'. Recording event-related potentials in humans during a reinforcement learning task, we show strong evidence in favor of this hypothesis. Resistance to outcome devaluation (the defining feature of a habit) was shown by the stimulus-locked P1 component, reflecting activity in the extrastriate visual cortex...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188104/observing-and-participating-in-social-interactions-action-perception-and-action-control-across-the-autistic-spectrum
#13
REVIEW
Dimitris Bolis, Leonhard Schilbach
Autism is a developmental condition, characterized by difficulties of social interaction and communication, as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although several important conceptions have shed light on specific facets, there is still no consensus about a universal yet specific theory in terms of its underlying mechanisms. While some theories have exclusively focused on sensory aspects, others have emphasized social difficulties. However, sensory and social processes in autism might be interconnected to a higher degree than what has been traditionally thought...
January 23, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186119/corrigendum-neuronal-basis-of-perceptual-learning-in-striate-cortex
#14
Zhen Ren, Jiawei Zhou, Zhimo Yao, Zhengchun Wang, Nini Yuan, Guangwei Xu, Xuan Wang, Bing Zhang, Robert F Hess, Yifeng Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178266/accuracy-maximization-analysis-for-sensory-perceptual-tasks-computational-improvements-filter-robustness-and-coding-advantages-for-scaled-additive-noise
#15
Johannes Burge, Priyank Jaini
Accuracy Maximization Analysis (AMA) is a recently developed Bayesian ideal observer method for task-specific dimensionality reduction. Given a training set of proximal stimuli (e.g. retinal images), a response noise model, and a cost function, AMA returns the filters (i.e. receptive fields) that extract the most useful stimulus features for estimating a user-specified latent variable from those stimuli. Here, we first contribute two technical advances that significantly reduce AMA's compute time: we derive gradients of cost functions for which two popular estimators are appropriate, and we implement a stochastic gradient descent (AMA-SGD) routine for filter learning...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177183/learning-by-experience-visceral-pain-related-neural-and-behavioral-responses-in-a-classical-conditioning-paradigm
#16
A Icenhour, F Labrenz, C Ritter, N Theysohn, M Forsting, U Bingel, S Elsenbruch
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating mechanisms underlying nocebo responses in pain have mainly focused on negative expectations induced by verbal suggestions. Herein, we addressed neural and behavioral correlates of nocebo responses induced by classical conditioning in a visceral pain model. METHODS: In two independent studies, a total of 40 healthy volunteers underwent classical conditioning, consisting of repeated pairings of one visual cue (CS(High) ) with rectal distensions of high intensity, while a second cue (CS(Low) ) was always followed by low-intensity distensions...
February 8, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174545/categorization-of-natural-whistled-vowels-by-na%C3%A3-ve-listeners-of-different-language-background
#17
Julien Meyer, Laure Dentel, Fanny Meunier
Whistled speech in a non-tonal language consists of the natural emulation of vocalic and consonantal qualities in a simple modulated whistled signal. This special speech register represents a natural telecommunication system that enables high levels of sentence intelligibility by trained speakers and is not directly intelligible to naïve listeners. Yet, it is easily learned by speakers of the language that is being whistled, as attested by the current efforts of the revitalization of whistled Spanish in the Canary Islands...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171826/face-recognition-impairment-in-small-for-gestational-age-and-preterm-children
#18
T Perez-Roche, I Altemir, G Giménez, E Prieto, I González, J López Pisón, V Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Infants born prematurely or with low birth weight are at increased risk of visual perceptual impairment. Face recognition is a high-order visual ability important for social development, which has been rarely assessed in premature or low birth weight children. AIMS: To evaluate the influence of prematurity and low birth weight on face recognition skills. METHODS: Seventy-seven children were evaluated as part of a prospective cohort study...
February 4, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169155/the-visual-kinetic-depth-effect-is-altered-with-parkinson-s-disease
#19
K D White, F M Skidmore, J Hammond, K M Heilman
BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have visual-perceptual disorders. The goal of this study was to learn if they can develop a three dimensional (3D) percept that depends on the kinetic depth effect; that is, the viewer's ability to spatially integrate over time images that are moving along many trajectories. METHODS: Sixteen patients with PD and 12 healthy matched controls were presented with stimuli that were comprised of a circular region of randomly placed dots that moved as orthographic projections of a sphere...
January 6, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163663/micropower-mixed-signal-vlsi-independent-component-analysis-for-gradient-flow-acoustic-source-separation
#20
Milutin Stanaćević, Shuo Li, Gert Cauwenberghs
A parallel micro-power mixed-signal VLSI implementation of independent component analysis (ICA) with reconfigurable outer-product learning rules is presented. With the gradient sensing of the acoustic field over a miniature microphone array as a pre-processing method, the proposed ICA implementation can separate and localize up to 3 sources in mild reverberant environment. The ICA processor is implemented in 0.5 µm CMOS technology and occupies 3 mm × 3 mm area. At 16 kHz sampling rate, ASIC consumes 195 µW power from a 3 V supply...
July 2016: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems. I, Regular Papers
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