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Perceptual learning

Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Onur Güntürkün, Charlotte Koenen, Fabrizio Iovine, Alexis Garland, Roland Pusch
We are surrounded by an endless variation of objects. The ability to categorize these objects represents a core cognitive competence of humans and possibly all vertebrates. Research on category learning in nonhuman animals started with the seminal studies of Richard Herrnstein on the category "human" in pigeons. Since then, we have learned that pigeons are able to categorize a large number of stimulus sets, ranging from Cubist paintings to English orthography. Strangely, this prolific field has largely neglected to also study the avian neurobiology of categorization...
March 12, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Randi Starrfelt, Solja K Klargaard, Anders Petersen, Christian Gerlach
OBJECTIVE: Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face recognition experience...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Valentina Proietti, Marta Rigoldi, Emanuela Croci, Viola Macchi Cassia
During the first year of life face discrimination abilities narrow toward adult human faces of the most frequently encountered ethnic group/s. Earlier studies showed that perceptual learning under laboratory-training protocols can modulate this narrowing process. Here we investigated whether natural experience acquired in everyday settings with an older sibling's face can shape the trajectory of perceptual narrowing towards adult faces. Using an infant-controlled habituation procedure we measured discrimination of adult (Experiment 1) and child faces (Experiment 2) in 3- and 9- month-old infants with and without a child sibling...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Blai Ferrer-Uris, Albert Busquets, Rosa Angulo-Barroso
We assessed the effect of an acute intense exercise bout on the adaptation and consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task in children. We also sought to assess if exercise and learning task presentation order could affect task consolidation. Thirty-three children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) exercise before the learning task, (b) exercise after the learning task, and (c) only learning task. Baseline performance was assessed by practicing the learning task in a 0° rotation condition...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Diva Lugassy, Yafi Levanon, Raphael Pilo, Asaf Shelly, Gal Rosen, Avi Meirowitz, Tamar Brosh
Dentists must be skilled when using dental mirrors. Working with mirrors requires spatial perception, bimanual coordination, perceptual learning and fine motor skills. Many studies have attempted to determine the predictors of manual skills among pre-clinical students, but consensus has yet to be reached. We hypothesized that valid and reliable occupational therapy test performance regarding indirect vision would differ between dental students and junior dentists and would explain the variance in manual skill performance in pre-clinical courses...
2018: PloS One
Yasmeen Hamza, Areti Okalidou, George Kyriafinis, Astrid van Wieringen
OBJECTIVES: Sonority is the relative perceptual prominence/loudness of speech sounds of the same length, stress, and pitch. Children with cochlear implants (CIs), with restored audibility and relatively intact temporal processing, are expected to benefit from the perceptual prominence cues of highly sonorous sounds. Sonority also influences lexical access through the sonority-sequencing principle (SSP), a grammatical phonotactic rule, which facilitates the recognition and segmentation of syllables within speech...
March 6, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Travis Jones, Hillary Hadley, Andrea Cataldo, Erik Arnold, Tim Curran, James W Tanaka, Lisa S Scott
Perceptual expertise is marked by subordinate-level recognition of objects in the expert domain. In the present study, participants learned one family of full-color, artificial objects at the subordinate (species) level and another family at the basic (family) level. Discrimination of trained and untrained exemplars was tested before and after training across several image manipulations (full-color, greyscale, low spatial frequency (LSF), and high spatial frequency (HSF)) while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ken McRae, Daniel Nedjadrasul, Raymond Pau, Bethany Pui-Hei Lo, Lisa King
concepts typically are defined in terms of lacking physical or perceptual referents. We argue instead that they are not devoid of perceptual information because knowledge of real-world situations is an important component of learning and using many abstract concepts. Although the relationship between perceptual information and abstract concepts is less straightforward than for concrete concepts, situation-based perceptual knowledge is part of many abstract concepts. In Experiment 1, participants made lexical decisions to abstract words that were preceded by related and unrelated pictures of situations...
March 2, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Elise A Piazza, Rachel N Denison, Michael A Silver
Incoming sensory signals are often ambiguous and consistent with multiple perceptual interpretations. Information from one sensory modality can help to resolve ambiguity in another modality, but the mechanisms by which multisensory associations come to influence the contents of conscious perception are unclear. We asked whether and how novel statistical information about the coupling between sounds and images influences the early stages of awareness of visual stimuli. We exposed subjects to consistent, arbitrary pairings of sounds and images and then measured the impact of this recent passive statistical learning on subjects' initial conscious perception of a stimulus by employing binocular rivalry, a phenomenon in which incompatible images presented separately to the two eyes result in a perceptual alternation between the two images...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Yao Zhang, Jie Li, Ziwei Wang, Lun Zhao, Wei Wang, Danmin Miao
Perceptual expertise can be defined as enhanced abilities of discriminating, learning, and recognizing object of special categories. It is unclear whether the perceptual expertise effects occur at the preattentive stage. In the present study, visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) elicited by deviant orientation (90°/270° vs. 0°) for faces, houses, and arrows, respectively, was investigated. Compared with standard stimuli (0° orientation), the orientation changes elicited posterior vMMNs for all deviant stimuli...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Erwan Poivet, Narmin Tahirova, Zita Peterlin, Lu Xu, Dong-Jing Zou, Terry Acree, Stuart Firestein
Crucial for any hypothesis about odor coding is the classification and prediction of sensory qualities in chemical compounds. The relationship between perceptual quality and molecular structure has occupied olfactory scientists throughout the 20th century, but details of the mechanism remain elusive. Odor molecules are typically organic compounds of low molecular weight that may be aliphatic or aromatic, may be saturated or unsaturated, and may have diverse functional polar groups. However, many molecules conforming to these characteristics are odorless...
February 2018: Science Advances
Adélaïde de Heering, Olivier Collignon, Régine Kolinsky
Mirror invariance refers to a predisposition of humans, including infants and animals, which urge them to consider mirrored images as corresponding to the same object. Yet in order to learn to read a written system that incorporates mirrored letters (e.g., <b> vs. <d> in the Latin alphabet), humans learn to break this perceptual bias. Here we examined the role visual experience and input modality play in the emergence of this bias. To this end, we tested congenital blind (CB) participants in two same-different tactile comparison tasks including pairs of mirrored and non-mirrored Braille letters as well as embossed unfamiliar geometric shapes and Latin letters, and compared their results to those of age-matched sighted participants involved in similar but visually-presented tasks...
January 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Elinor Tzvi, Leon J Bauhaus, Till U Kessler, Matthias Liebrand, Malte Wöstmann, Ulrike M Krämer
Cross-frequency coupling is suggested to serve transfer of information between wide-spread neuronal assemblies and has been shown to underlie many cognitive functions including learning and memory. In previous work, we found that alpha (8 - 13 Hz) - gamma (30 - 48 Hz) phase amplitude coupling (αγPAC) is decreased during sequence learning in bilateral frontal cortex and right parietal cortex. We interpreted this to reflect decreased demands for visuo-motor mapping once the sequence has been encoded. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test by adding a "simple" condition to the standard serial reaction time task (SRTT) with minimal needs for visuo-motor mapping...
February 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Mark Vergeer, Naoki Kogo, Andrey R Nikolaev, Nihan Alp, Veerle Loozen, Brenda Schraepen, Johan Wagemans
Shape perception is intrinsically holistic: combinations of features give rise to configurations with emergent properties that are different from the sum of the parts. The current study investigated neural markers of holistic shape representations learned by means of categorization training. We used the EEG frequency tagging technique, where two parts of a shape stimulus were 'tagged' by modifying their contrast at different temporal frequencies. Signals from both parts are integrated and, as a result, emergent frequency components (so-called, intermodulation responses, IMs), caused by nonlinear interaction of two frequency signals, are observed in the EEG spectrum...
February 20, 2018: Vision Research
Lingxi Lu, Xiaohan Bao, Jing Chen, Tianshu Qu, Xihong Wu, Liang Li
Under a noisy "cocktail-party" listening condition with multiple people talking, listeners can use various perceptual/cognitive unmasking cues to improve recognition of the target speech against informational speech-on-speech masking. One potential unmasking cue is the emotion expressed in a speech voice, by means of certain acoustical features. However, it was unclear whether emotionally conditioning a target-speech voice that has none of the typical acoustical features of emotions (i.e., an emotionally neutral voice) can be used by listeners for enhancing target-speech recognition under speech-on-speech masking conditions...
February 22, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Jeffrey M Rogers, Greg Savage, Marcus A Stoodley
Displacement of the cerebellar tonsils in Chiari type I malformation (CMI) can affect functions controlled by the cerebellum and brainstem. While playing an integral role in the control of movement, the cerebellum also has widespread cortical connections, influencing a range of cognitive process. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the relationship between cognition and CMI, assessing evidence for general or domain-specific cognitive change. The search protocol examined the AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases...
February 21, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Marco Barilari, Adélaïde de Heering, Virginie Crollen, Olivier Collignon, Roberto Bottini
Across cultures and languages, people find similarities between the products of different senses in mysterious ways. By studying what is called cross-modal correspondences, cognitive psychologists discovered that lemons are fast rather than slow, boulders are sour, and red is heavier than yellow. Are these cross-modal correspondences established via sensory perception or can they be learned merely through language? We contribute to this debate by demonstrating that early blind people who lack the perceptual experience of color also think that red is heavier than yellow but to a lesser extent than sighted do...
January 2018: I-Perception
Marcello Maniglia, Aaron R Seitz
A hallmark of modern Perceptual Learning (PL) is the extent to which learning is specific to the trained stimuli. Such specificity to orientation, spatial location and even eye of training has been used as psychophysical evidence of the neural basis of learning. This argument that specificity of PL implies regionalization of brain plasticity implicitly assumes that examination of a singular locus of PL is an appropriate approach to understand learning. However, recent research shows that learning effects once thought to be specific depend on subtleties of the training paradigm and that within even a simple training procedure there are multiple aspects of the task and stimuli that are learned simultaneously...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Valentina Proietti, Sarah Laurence, Claire M Matthew, Xiaomei Zhou, Catherine J Mondloch
Adults' ability to recognize individual faces is shaped by experience. Young adults recognize own-age and own-race faces more accurately than other-age and other-race faces. The own-age and own-race biases have been attributed to differential perceptual experience and to differences in how in-group vs. out-group faces are processed, with in-group faces being processed at the individual level and out-group faces being processed at the categorical level. To examine this social categorization hypothesis, young adults studied young and older faces in Experiment 1 and own- and other-race faces in Experiment 2...
February 15, 2018: Vision Research
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