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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924290/data-on-multicultural-education-and-diagnostic-information-profiling-culture-learning-styles-and-creativity
#1
Andino Maseleno, Glenn Hardaker, Noraisikin Sabani, Nabilah Suhaili
This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i) culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii) learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii) cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv) creativity skills and problem solving skills; v) motivation; and vi) students' background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916665/task-modulations-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-brain-functional-connectome-in-1615-fmri-datasets
#2
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Christine Lycke Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Karolina Kauppi, Francesco Bettella, Trine V Lagerberg, Akiah O Berg, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid S Melle, Torill Ueland, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: An abundance of experimental studies have motivated a range of models concerning the cognitive underpinnings of severe mental disorders, yet the conception that cognitive and brain dysfunction is confined to specific cognitive domains and contexts has limited ecological validity. Schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum disorders have been conceptualized as disorders of brain connectivity; yet little is known about the pervasiveness across cognitive tasks. METHOD: To address this outstanding issue of context specificity, we estimated functional network connectivity from fMRI data obtained during five cognitive tasks (0-back, 2-back, go/no-go, recognition of positive faces, negative faces) in 90 patients with schizophrenia, 97 patients with bipolar spectrum disorder, and 136 healthy controls, including 1615 fMRI datasets in total...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914402/stimulus-directed-attention-attenuates-lexically-guided-perceptual-learning
#3
Michael McAuliffe, Molly Babel
Studies on perceptual learning are motivated by phonetic variation that listeners encounter across speakers, items, and context. In this study, the authors investigate what control the listener has over the perceptual learning of ambiguous /s/ pronunciations through inducing changes in their attentional set. Listeners' attention is manipulated during a lexical decision exposure task such that their attention is directed at the word-level for comprehension-oriented listening or toward the signal for perception-oriented listening...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914374/the-effects-of-exposure-and-training-on-the-perception-of-time-compressed-speech-in-native-versus-nonnative-listeners
#4
Karen Banai, Yizhar Lavner
The present study investigated the effects of language experience on the perceptual learning induced by either brief exposure to or more intensive training with time-compressed speech. Native (n = 30) and nonnative (n = 30) listeners were each divided to three groups with different experiences with time-compressed speech: A trained group who trained on the semantic verification of time-compressed sentences for three sessions, an exposure group briefly exposed to 20 time-compressed sentences, and a group of naive listeners...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896709/learned-value-and-object-perception-accelerated-perception-or-biased-decisions
#5
Jason Rajsic, Harendri Perera, Jay Pratt
Learned value is known to bias visual search toward valued stimuli. However, some uncertainty exists regarding the stage of visual processing that is modulated by learned value. Here, we directly tested the effect of learned value on preattentive processing using temporal order judgments. Across four experiments, we imbued some stimuli with high value and some with low value, using a nonmonetary reward task. In Experiment 1, we replicated the value-driven distraction effect, validating our nonmonetary reward task...
November 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893268/domain-general-mechanisms-for-speech-segmentation-the-role-of-duration-information-in-language-learning
#6
Rebecca L A Frost, Padraic Monaghan, Tomoko Tatsumi
Speech segmentation is supported by multiple sources of information that may either inform language processing specifically, or serve learning more broadly. The Iambic/Trochaic Law (ITL), where increased duration indicates the end of a group and increased emphasis indicates the beginning of a group, has been proposed as a domain-general mechanism that also applies to language. However, language background has been suggested to modulate use of the ITL, meaning that these perceptual grouping preferences may instead be a consequence of language exposure...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891084/differential-effects-of-visual-acoustic-biofeedback-intervention-for-residual-speech-errors
#7
Tara McAllister Byun, Heather Campbell
Recent evidence suggests that the incorporation of visual biofeedback technologies may enhance response to treatment in individuals with residual speech errors. However, there is a need for controlled research systematically comparing biofeedback versus non-biofeedback intervention approaches. This study implemented a single-subject experimental design with a crossover component to investigate the relative efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback and traditional articulatory treatment for residual rhotic errors...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889814/an-fmri-study-of-training-voluntary-smooth-circular-eye-movements
#8
Raimund Kleiser, Cornelia Stadler, Sibylle Wimmer, Thomas Matyas, Rüdiger J Seitz
Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement...
November 26, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886250/shared-somatosensory-and-motor-functions-in-musicians
#9
Moe Hosoda, Shinichi Furuya
Skilled individuals are characterized by fine-tuned perceptual and motor functions. Here, we tested the idea that the sensory and motor functions of highly-trained individuals are coupled. We assessed the relationships among multifaceted somatosensory and motor functions of expert pianists. The results demonstrated a positive covariation between the acuity of weight discrimination and the precision of force control during piano keystrokes among the pianists but not among the non-musicians. However, neither the age of starting musical training nor the total amount of life-long piano practice was correlated with these sensory-motor functions in the pianists...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883902/circuit-mechanisms-of-sensorimotor-learning
#10
REVIEW
Hiroshi Makino, Eun Jung Hwang, Nathan G Hedrick, Takaki Komiyama
The relationship between the brain and the environment is flexible, forming the foundation for our ability to learn. Here we review the current state of our understanding of the modifications in the sensorimotor pathway related to sensorimotor learning. We divide the process into three hierarchical levels with distinct goals: (1) sensory perceptual learning, (2) sensorimotor associative learning, and (3) motor skill learning. Perceptual learning optimizes the representations of important sensory stimuli. Associative learning and the initial phase of motor skill learning are ensured by feedback-based mechanisms that permit trial-and-error learning...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881955/response-commentary-perceptual-learning-in-autism-over-specificity-and-possible-remedies
#11
COMMENT
Hila Harris, David Israeli, Nancy J Minshew, Yoram S Bonneh, David J Heeger, Marlene Behrmann, Dov Sagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874058/perceptual-learning-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-artificial-vision
#12
Nathaniel J Killian, Milena Vurro, Sarah B Keith, Margee J Kyada, John S Pezaris
Visual perceptual grouping, the process of forming global percepts from discrete elements, is experience-dependent. Here we show that the learning time course in an animal model of artificial vision is predicted primarily from the density of visual elements. Three naïve adult non-human primates were tasked with recognizing the letters of the Roman alphabet presented at variable size and visualized through patterns of discrete visual elements, specifically, simulated phosphenes mimicking a thalamic visual prosthesis...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873189/learning-multiple-rules-simultaneously-affixes-are-more-salient-than-reduplications
#13
Judit Gervain, Ansgar D Endress
Language learners encounter numerous opportunities to learn regularities, but need to decide which of these regularities to learn, because some are not productive in their native language. Here, we present an account of rule learning based on perceptual and memory primitives (Endress, Dehaene-Lambertz, & Mehler, Cognition, 105(3), 577-614, 2007; Endress, Nespor, & Mehler, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(8), 348-353, 2009), suggesting that learners preferentially learn regularities that are more salient to them, and that the pattern of salience reflects the frequency of language features across languages...
November 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872378/abstraction-and-generalization-in-statistical-learning-implications-for-the-relationship-between-semantic-types-and-episodic-tokens
#14
REVIEW
Gerry T M Altmann
Statistical approaches to emergent knowledge have tended to focus on the process by which experience of individual episodes accumulates into generalizable experience across episodes. However, there is a seemingly opposite, but equally critical, process that such experience affords: the process by which, from a space of types (e.g. onions-a semantic class that develops through exposure to individual episodes involving individual onions), we can perceive or create, on-the-fly, a specific token (a specific onion, perhaps one that is chopped) in the absence of any prior perceptual experience with that specific token...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866990/longitudinal-auditory-learning-facilitates-auditory-cognition-as-revealed-by-microstate-analysis
#15
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Katarina L Matthes, Martin Meyer
The current study investigates cognitive processes as reflected in late auditory-evoked potentials as a function of longitudinal auditory learning. A normal hearing adult sample (n=15) performed an active oddball task at three consecutive time points (TPs) arranged at two week intervals, and during which EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised of syllables consisting of a natural fricative (/sh/,/s/,/f/) embedded between two /a/ sounds, as well as morphed transitions of the two syllables that served as deviants...
November 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859217/feeling-one-s-way-in-the-world-making-a-life
#16
Margaret M Browning
This paper argues for the psychoanalytic relevance of the works of James Gibson and Susanne Langer in explicating the early development of the human child and makes use of this combined formulation of development to think about psychoanalytic theory and practice. From the insights of James Gibson's ecological psychology we can appreciate the embodiment and embeddedness of the child's growing mind within both her physical and social environments. Making use of Susanne Langer's concept of feeling to redefine ecological psychology's perceptual counterpart to action allows us to understand the child's seamless transition into active participation in her culture, as she learns to project her animalian capacity to feel into intersubjectively defined forms of behavior and experience with others...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849243/moyamoya-disease-impact-on-the-performance-of-oral-and-written-language
#17
Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica, Camila da Costa Ribeiro, Plínio Marcos Duarte Pinto Ferraz, Maria de Lourdes Merighi Tabaquim
Moyamoya disease is an unusual form of occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder that affects the arteries of the central nervous system, causing acquired language alterations and learning difficulties. The study aim was to describe the oral/written language and cognitive skills in a seven-year-and-seven-month-old girl diagnosed with Moyamoya disease. The assessment consisted of interviews with her parents and application of the following instruments: Observation of Communicative Behavior, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Academic Performance Test, Profile of Phonological Awareness, Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, Special Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test...
September 2016: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846639/intermittent-regime-of-brain-activity-at-the-early-bias-guided-stage-of-perceptual-learning
#18
Andrey R Nikolaev, Sergei Gepshtein, Cees van Leeuwen
Perceptual learning improves visual performance. Among the plausible mechanisms of learning, reduction of perceptual bias has been studied the least. Perceptual bias may compensate for lack of stimulus information, but excessive reliance on bias diminishes visual discriminability. We investigated the time course of bias in a perceptual grouping task and studied the associated cortical dynamics in spontaneous and evoked EEG. Participants reported the perceived orientation of dot groupings in ambiguous dot lattices...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846219/pharmacological-fingerprints-of-contextual-uncertainty
#19
Louise Marshall, Christoph Mathys, Diane Ruge, Archy O de Berker, Peter Dayan, Klaas E Stephan, Sven Bestmann
Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845541/how-the-baby-learns-to-see-donald-o-hebb-award-lecture-canadian-society-for-brain-behaviour-and-cognitive-science-ottawa-june-2015
#20
Daphne Maurer
Hebb's (1949) book The Organisation of Behaviour presented a novel hypothesis about how the baby learns to see. This article summarizes the results of my research program that evaluated Hebb's hypothesis: first, by studying infants' eye movements and initial perceptual abilities and second, by studying the effect of visual deprivation (e.g., congenital cataracts) on later perceptual development. Collectively, the results support Hebb's hypothesis that the baby does indeed learn to see. Early visual experience not only drives the baby's initial scanning of objects, but also sets up the neural architecture that will come to underlie adults' perception...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
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