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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150414/constraints-on-statistical-learning-across-species
#1
REVIEW
Chiara Santolin, Jenny R Saffran
Both human and nonhuman organisms are sensitive to statistical regularities in sensory inputs that support functions including communication, visual processing, and sequence learning. One of the issues faced by comparative research in this field is the lack of a comprehensive theory to explain the relevance of statistical learning across distinct ecological niches. In the current review we interpret cross-species research on statistical learning based on the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that characterize the human and nonhuman models under investigation...
November 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145671/distinct-cerebellar-contributions-to-cognitive-perceptual-dynamics-during-natural-viewing
#2
Vinh Thai Nguyen, Saurabh Sonkusare, Jane Stadler, Xintao Hu, Michael Breakspear, Christine Cong Guo
The crucial role of the cerebellum in motor learning and coordination is very well known. Considerable interest has recently shifted toward its contribution to nonmotor tasks, such as working memory, emotion, and language. However, the cognitive role and functional subdivisions of the cerebellum, particularly in dynamic, ecologically realistic contexts, are not yet established. By analyzing functional neuroimaging data acquired while participants viewed a short dramatic movie, we found that posterior and inferior cerebellar regions are reliably engaged in dynamic perceptual and affective processes with no explicit motor component...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140258/does-effort-and-reward-at-work-predict-changes-in-cognitive-function-first-longitudinal-results-from-the-representative-german-socio-economic-panel
#3
Natalie Riedel, Johannes Siegrist, Natalia Wege, Adrian Loerbroks, Peter Angerer, Jian Li
It has been suggested that work characteristics, such as mental demands, job control, and occupational complexity, are prospectively related to cognitive function. However, current evidence on links between psychosocial working conditions and cognitive change over time is inconsistent. In this study, we applied the effort-reward imbalance model that allows to build on previous research on mental demands and to introduce reward-based learning as a principle with beneficial effect on cognitive function. We aimed to investigate whether high effort, high reward, and low over-commitment in 2006 were associated with positive changes in cognitive function in terms of perceptual speed and word fluency (2006-2012), and whether the co-manifestation of high effort and high reward would yield the strongest association...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133424/dopamine-reward-prediction-error-signal-codes-the-temporal-evaluation-of-a-perceptual-decision-report
#4
Stefania Sarno, Victor de Lafuente, Ranulfo Romo, Néstor Parga
Learning to associate unambiguous sensory cues with rewarded choices is known to be mediated by dopamine (DA) neurons. However, little is known about how these neurons behave when choices rely on uncertain reward-predicting stimuli. To study this issue we reanalyzed DA recordings from monkeys engaged in the detection of weak tactile stimuli delivered at random times and formulated a reinforcement learning model based on belief states. Specifically, we investigated how the firing activity of DA neurons should behave if they were coding the error in the prediction of the total future reward when animals made decisions relying on uncertain sensory and temporal information...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129731/individual-differences-in-visual-science-what-can-be-learned-and-what-is-good-experimental-practice
#5
John D Mollon, Jenny M Bosten, David H Peterzell, Michael A Webster
We all pass out our lives in private perceptual worlds. The differences in our sensory and perceptual experiences often go unnoticed until there emerges a variation (such as 'The Dress') that is large enough to generate different descriptions in the coarse coinage of our shared language. In this essay, we illustrate how individual differences contribute to a richer understanding of visual perception, but we also indicate some potential pitfalls that face the investigator who ventures into the field.
November 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126650/plasticity-in-the-auditory-system
#6
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Over the last 30 years a wide range of manipulations of auditory input and experience have been shown to result in plasticity in auditory cortical and subcortical structures. The time course of plasticity ranges from very rapid stimulus-specific adaptation to longer-term changes associated with, for example, partial hearing loss or perceptual learning. Evidence for plasticity as a consequence of these and a range of other manipulations of auditory input and/or its significance is reviewed, with an emphasis on plasticity in adults and in the auditory cortex...
October 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123403/effects-of-short-term-piano-training-on-measures-of-finger-tapping-somatosensory-perception-and-motor-related-brain-activity-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
Ana Alves-Pinto, Stefan Ehrlich, Gordon Cheng, Varvara Turova, Tobias Blumenstein, Renée Lampe
Playing a musical instrument demands the integration of sensory and perceptual information with motor processes in order to produce a harmonic musical piece. The diversity of brain mechanisms involved and the joyful character of playing an instrument make musical instrument training a potential vehicle for neurorehabilitation of motor skills in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). This clinical condition is characterized by motor impairments that can affect, among others, manual function, and limit severely the execution of basic daily activities...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121588/infants-sensitivity-to-vowel-harmony-and-its-role-in-segmenting-speech
#8
Toben H Mintz, Rachel L Walker, Ashlee Welday, Celeste Kidd
A critical part of infants' ability to acquire any language involves segmenting continuous speech input into discrete word forms. Certain properties of words could provide infants with reliable cues to word boundaries. Here we investigate the potential utility of vowel harmony (VH), a phonological property whereby vowels within a word systematically exhibit similarity ("harmony") for some aspect of the way they are pronounced. We present evidence that infants with no experience of VH in their native language nevertheless actively use these patterns to generate hypotheses about where words begin and end in the speech stream...
November 6, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120714/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-assess-neuroadaptation-to-multifocal-intraocular-lenses
#9
Andreia M Rosa, Ângela C Miranda, Miguel M Patrício, Colm McAlinden, Fátima L Silva, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Joaquim N Murta
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess neuroadaptation to multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). SETTING: Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. DESIGN: Prospective case study. METHODS: Patients with bilateral diffractive IOL implantation after cataract surgery had functional MRI at postoperative intervals of 3 weeks and 6 months. A nonintervention control group was included as proof of concept...
October 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107970/motor-expertise-facilitates-the-accuracy-of-state-extrapolation-in-perception
#10
Nicolas Ludolph, Jannis Plöger, Martin A Giese, Winfried Ilg
Predicting the behavior of objects in the environment is an important requirement to overcome latencies in the sensorimotor system and realize precise actions in rapid situations. Internal forward models that were acquired during motor training might not only be used for efficiently controlling fast motor behavior but also to facilitate extrapolation performance in purely perceptual tasks. In this study, we investigated whether preceding virtual cart-pole balancing training facilitates the ability to extrapolate the virtual pole motion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107851/are-wisc-iq-scores-in-children-with-mathematical-learning-disabilities-underestimated-the-influence-of-a-specialized-intervention-on-test-performance
#11
Katharina Lambert, Birgit Spinath
BACKGROUND: Intelligence measures play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Probably as a result of math-related material in IQ tests, children with MLD often display reduced IQ scores. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of math remediation extend to IQ scores. AIMS: The present study investigated the impact of a special remediation program compared to a control group receiving private tutoring (PT) on the WISC IQ scores of children with MLD...
October 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107704/perceptual-training-enhances-temporal-acuity-for-multisensory-speech
#12
Matthew A De Niear, Pranjal B Gupta, Sarah H Baum, Mark T Wallace
The temporal relationship between auditory and visual cues is a fundamental feature in the determination of whether these signals will be integrated. The window of perceived simultaneity (TBW) is a construct that describes the epoch of time during which asynchronous auditory and visual stimuli are likely to be perceptually bound. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the capacity for perceptual training to enhance temporal acuity for audiovisual stimuli (i.e., narrow the TBW). These studies, however, have only examined multisensory perceptual learning that develops in response to feedback that is provided when making judgments on simple, low-level audiovisual stimuli (i...
October 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107547/camkii%C3%AE-expression-defines-two-functionally-distinct-populations-of-granule-cells-involved-in-different-types-of-odor-behavior
#13
Sarah Malvaut, Simona Gribaudo, Delphine Hardy, Linda Suzanne David, Laura Daroles, Simon Labrecque, Marie-Anne Lebel-Cormier, Zayna Chaker, Daniel Coté, Paul De Koninck, Martin Holzenberger, Alain Trembleau, Isabelle Caille, Armen Saghatelyan
Granule cells (GCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) play an important role in odor information processing. Although they have been classified into various neurochemical subtypes, the functional roles of these subtypes remain unknown. We used in vivo two-photon Ca(2+) imaging combined with cell-type-specific identification of GCs in the mouse OB to examine whether functionally distinct GC subtypes exist in the bulbar network. We showed that half of GCs express Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα(+)) and that these neurons are preferentially activated by olfactory stimulation...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106999/functional-connectivity-in-the-dorsal-stream-and-between-bilateral-auditory-related-cortical-areas-differentially-contribute-to-speech-decoding-depending-on-spectro-temporal-signal-integrity-and-performance
#14
Stefan Elmer, Jürg Kühnis, Piyush Rauch, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Lutz Jäncke
Speech processing relies on the interdependence between auditory perception, sensorimotor integration, and verbal memory functions. Functional and structural connectivity between bilateral auditory-related cortical areas (ARCAs) facilitates spectro-temporal analyses, whereas the dynamic interplay between ARCAs and Broca's area (i.e., dorsal pathway) contributes to verbal memory functions, articulation, and sound-to-motor mapping. However, it remains unclear whether these two neural circuits are preferentially driven by spectral or temporal acoustic information, and whether their recruitment is predictive of speech perception performance and learning...
October 30, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104705/three-kinds-of-nonconceptual-seeing-as
#15
Christopher Gauker
It is commonly supposed that perceptual representations in some way embed concepts and that this embedding accounts for the phenomenon of seeing-as. But there are good reasons, which will be reviewed here, to doubt that perceptions embed concepts. The alternative is to suppose that perceptions are marks in a perceptual similarity space that map into locations in an objective quality space. From this point of view, there are at least three sorts of seeing-as. First, in cases of ambiguity resolution (such as the duck-rabbit), the schematicity of the figure leaves us with a choice as to where in perceptual similarity space to place a mark (closer to the marks that represent rabbits or closer to the marks that represent ducks)...
2017: Review of Philosophy and Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102852/how-do-student-nurses-learn-to-care-an-analysis-of-pre-registration-adult-nursing-practice-assessment-documents
#16
Kate Young, Rosemary Godbold, Pat Wood
There is international concern about the quality of nursing in resource constrained, high technology health care settings. This paper reports findings from a research study which explored the experiences and views of those involved in the education and learning of 'caring' with adult pre-registration students. A novel dataset of 39 practice assessment documents (PADs) were randomly sampled and analysed across both bachelors and masters programmes from September 2014-July 2015. Using an appreciative enquiry approach, the Caring Behaviours Inventory aided analysis of qualitative text from both mentors and students within the PADs to identify how student nurses learn to care and to establish whether there were any differences between Masters and Bachelors students...
October 6, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101022/lsd-modulates-effective-connectivity-and-neural-adaptation-mechanisms-in-an-auditory-oddball-paradigm
#17
REVIEW
Christopher Timmermann, Meg J Spriggs, Mendel Kaelen, Robert Leech, David J Nutt, Rosalyn J Moran, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
Under the predictive coding framework, perceptual learning and inference are dependent on the interaction between top-down predictions and bottom-up sensory signals both between and within regions in a network. However, how such feedback and feedforward connections are modulated in the state induced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is poorly understood. In this study, an auditory oddball paradigm was presented to healthy participants (16 males, 4 female) under LSD and placebo, and brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
October 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094646/perceiving-sophisticated-minds-influences-perceptual-individuation
#18
Steven M Almaraz, Kurt Hugenberg, Steven G Young
In six studies, we investigated how ascribing humanlike versus animallike minds to targets influences how easily targets are individuated. Across the studies, participants learned to discriminate among a variety of "aliens" (actually Greebles). Our initial study showed that participants' ability to learn to individuate targets was related to beliefs that targets had sophisticated minds. Investigating the directionality of this relationship, we found that learning to better recognize the targets did not affect perceptions of mind (Study 2)...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094372/a-model-based-approach-to-the-wisdom-of-the-crowd-in-category-learning
#19
Irina Danileiko, Michael D Lee
We apply the "wisdom of the crowd" idea to human category learning, using a simple approach that combines people's categorization decisions by taking the majority decision. We first show that the aggregated crowd category learning behavior found by this method performs well, learning categories more quickly than most or all individuals for 28 previously collected datasets. We then extend the approach so that it does not require people to categorize every stimulus. We do this using a model-based method that predicts the categorization behavior people would produce for new stimuli, based on their behavior with observed stimuli, and uses the majority of these predicted decisions...
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093696/a-neurocomputational-approach-to-trained-and-transitive-relations-in-equivalence-classes
#20
Ángel E Tovar, Gert Westermann
A stimulus class can be composed of perceptually different but functionally equivalent stimuli. The relations between the stimuli that are grouped in a class can be learned or derived from other stimulus relations. If stimulus A is equivalent to B, and B is equivalent to C, then the equivalence between A and C can be derived without explicit training. In this work we propose, with a neurocomputational model, a basic learning mechanism for the formation of equivalence. We also describe how the relatedness between the members of an equivalence class is developed for both trained and derived stimulus relations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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