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Visual attention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350959/mapping-of-drug-like-chemical-universe-with-reduced-complexity-molecular-frameworks
#1
Aleksejs Kontijevskis
The emergence of DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DEL) field in past decade has attracted attention of pharmaceutical industry as a powerful mechanism for the discovery of novel drug-like hits for various biological targets. Nuevolution Chemetics technology enables DNA encoded synthesis of billions of chemically diverse drug-like small molecule compounds, and the efficient screening and optimization of these, facilitating effective identification of drug candidates at an unprecedented speed and scale. Although many approaches have been developed by the cheminformatics community for the analysis and visualization of drug-like chemical space, most of them are restricted to the analysis of maximum few millions of compounds and cannot handle collections of 10(8)-10(12) compounds typical for DELs...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350800/neural-correlates-of-facial-expression-processing-during-a-detection-task-an-erp-study
#2
Luxi Sun, Jie Ren, Weijie He
Given finite attentional resources, how emotional aspects of stimuli are processed automatically is controversial. Present study examined the time-course for automatic processing of facial expression by assessing N170, and late positive potentials (LPPs) of event-related potentials (ERPs) using a modified rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Observers were required to confirm a certain house image and to detect whether a face image was presented at the end of a series of pictures. There were no significant main effects on emotional type for P1 amplitudes, whereas happy and fearful expressions elicited larger N170 amplitudes than neutral expressions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346293/comparison-of-experts-and-residents-performing-a-complex-procedure-in-a-temporal-bone-surgery-simulator
#3
Ioanna Ioannou, Yun Zhou, Sudanthi Wijewickrema, Patorn Piromchai, Bridget Copson, Gregor Kennedy, Stephen O'Leary
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of automated metrics from a virtual reality (VR) temporal bone surgery simulator to determine how the performance of experts and trainees differs when performing a complex otological procedure (mastoidectomy with posterior tympanotomy and cochleostomy). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Using the University of Melbourne VR temporal bone surgery simulator, seven ENT consultants and seven ENT residents performed two trials of the surgical approach to cochlear implantation on a virtual temporal bone...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345944/enhanced-integration-of-multisensory-body-information-by-proximity-to-habitual-action-space
#4
Harriet Dempsey-Jones, Ada Kritikos
Previous research suggests integration of visual and somatosensory inputs is enhanced within reaching (peripersonal) space. In such experiments, somatosensory inputs are presented on the body while visual inputs are moved relatively closer to, or further from the body. It is unclear, therefore, whether enhanced integration in "peripersonal space" is truly due to proximity of visual inputs to the body space, or, simply the distance between the inputs (which also affects integration). Using a modified induction of the rubber hand illusion, here we measured proprioceptive drift as an index of visuosomatosensory integration when distance between the two inputs was constrained, and absolute distance from the body was varied...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345563/chlamydial-eye-infections-current-perspectives
#5
Gita Satpathy, Himanshu Sekhar Behera, Nishat Hussain Ahmed
Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide. Improvement in socioeconomic and living conditions, availability of antibiotics, and introduction of National Trachoma Control Programmes reduced the prevalence in developed countries, but it persisted in resource-poor settings of Africa and Asia, including India. In 2016, as per the WHO report, trachoma is restricted to 42 countries, causing blindness/visual impairment in ~1...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344152/trait-based-food-cravings-are-encoded-by-regional-homogeneity-in-the-parahippocampal-gyrus
#6
Shuaiyu Chen, Debo Dong, Todd Jackson, Qian Zhuang, Hong Chen
Food cravings can reflect an intense trait-like emotional-motivational desire to eat palatable food, often resulting in the failure of weight loss efforts. Studies have linked trait-based food-cravings to increased risk of overeating. However, little is known about resting-state neural mechanisms that underlie food cravings. We investigated this issue using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity occurs in regions implicated in emotional memory and reward motivation associated with food cravings...
March 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343938/testosterone-influences-volitional-but-not-reflexive-orienting-of-attention-in-human-males
#7
Steve Hansen, Jim McAuliffe, Bernard Goldfarb, Justin M Carré
The impact of testosterone (T) on the exogenous (Experiment 1) and endogenous (Experiment 2) orienting of visual attention in males was examined. Sixteen male participants completed both an exogenous and an endogenous cuing task on two separate days. About 2-3h prior to testing, either a placebo or a dose of T was administered. The inhibition of return (IOR) phenomenon was observed during the exogenous cuing task, but IOR was not influenced by T. During the endogenous task, participants demonstrated the expected cuing effects on both days...
March 23, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343109/a-visual-analysis-of-gender-bias-in-contemporary-anatomy-textbooks
#8
Rhiannon Parker, Theresa Larkin, Jon Cockburn
Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age...
March 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342422/synergistic-desalination-of-potash-brine-impacted-groundwater-using-a-dual-adsorbent
#9
Nick P Gibb, James J Dynes, Wonjae Chang
The impact of saline mining effluent has been a significant environmental concern. Natural and modified clay-mineral adsorbents have been receiving increasing attention for salinity reduction of brine-impacted water, especially for natural resource extraction sites and surrounding environments. In this study, a dual-adsorbent treatment based on the sequential application of calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH) and acid-treated zeolite was developed, evaluated and characterized for the desalination of potash brine-impacted groundwater...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342160/dogs-demonstrate-perspective-taking-based-on-geometrical-gaze-following-in-a-guesser-knower-task
#10
Amélie Catala, Britta Mang, Lisa Wallis, Ludwig Huber
Currently, there is still no consensus about whether animals can ascribe mental states (Theory of Mind) to themselves and others. Showing animals can respond to cues that indicate whether another has visual access to a target or not, and that they are able to use this information as a basis for whom to rely on as an informant, is an important step forward in this direction. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) with human informants are an ideal model, because they show high sensitivity towards human eye contact, they have proven able to assess the attentional state of humans in food-stealing or food-begging contexts, and they follow human gaze behind a barrier when searching for food...
March 24, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341312/evaluation-of-methods-for-the-assessment-of-attention-while-driving
#11
Katja Kircher, Christer Ahlstrom
The ability to assess the current attentional state of the driver is important for many aspects of driving, not least in the field of partial automation for transfer of control between vehicle and driver. Knowledge about the driver's attentional state is also necessary for the assessment of the effects of additional tasks on attention. The objective of this paper is to evaluate different methods that can be used to assess attention, first theoretically, and then empirically in a controlled field study and in the laboratory...
March 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341131/neural-evidence-that-inhibition-is-linked-to-the-affective-devaluation-of-distractors-that-match-the-contents-of-working-memory
#12
David De Vito, Naseem Al-Aidroos, Mark J Fenske
Stimuli appearing as visual distractors subsequently receive more negative affective evaluations than novel items or prior targets of attention. Leading accounts question whether this distractor devaluation effect occurs through evaluative codes that become associated with distractors as a mere artefact of attention-task instructions, or through affective consequences of attentional inhibition when applied to prevent distractor interference. Here we test opposing predictions arising from the evaluative-coding and devaluation-by-inhibition hypotheses using an electrophysiological marker of attentional inhibition in a task that requires participants to avoid interference from abstract-shape distractors presented while maintaining a uniquely-colored stimulus in memory...
March 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339486/a-top-down-manner-based-dcnn-architecture-for-semantic-image-segmentation
#13
Kai Qiao, Jian Chen, Linyuan Wang, Lei Zeng, Bin Yan
Given their powerful feature representation for recognition, deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have been driving rapid advances in high-level computer vision tasks. However, their performance in semantic image segmentation is still not satisfactory. Based on the analysis of visual mechanism, we conclude that DCNNs in a bottom-up manner are not enough, because semantic image segmentation task requires not only recognition but also visual attention capability. In the study, superpixels containing visual attention information are introduced in a top-down manner, and an extensible architecture is proposed to improve the segmentation results of current DCNN-based methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339185/red-emission-b-n-s-co-doped-carbon-dots-for-colorimetric-and-fluorescent-dual-mode-detection-of-fe3-ions-in-complex-biological-fluids-and-living-cells
#14
Yinghua Liu, Wenxiu Duan, Wei Song, Juanjuan Liu, Cuiling Ren, Jiang Wu, Dan Liu, Hongli Chen
Colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode detection methods have gained much attention in recent years, however, it is still desirable to develop new colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode nanosensors with more simple preparation procedure, low cost and excellent biocompatibility. Herein, a colorimetric and fluorescent nanosensor based on B, N, S-co-doped carbon dots (BNS-CDs) were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal treatment of 2, 5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid and 4-aminophenylboronic acid hydrochloride. Using this nanosensor, a highly sensitive assay of Fe3+ in the range of 0...
March 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338738/task-related-functional-connectivity-analysis-of-emotion-discrimination-in-a-family-study-of-schizophrenia
#15
Vina M Goghari, Nicole Sanford, Michael J Spilka, Todd S Woodward
Poor emotion recognition is a core deficit in schizophrenia and is associated with poor functional outcome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) multivariate analysis methods were used to elucidate the neural underpinnings of face and emotion processing associated with both genetic liability and disease-specific effects. Schizophrenia patients, relatives, and controls completed a task that included 4 facial emotion discrimination conditions and an age discrimination condition during fMRI. Three functional networks were derived from the data: the first involved in visual attention and response generation, the second a default mode network (DMN), and a third involved in face and emotion processing...
February 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337155/impact-of-different-e-cigarette-generation-and-models-on-cognitive-performances-craving-and-gesture-a-randomized-cross-over-trial-cogecig
#16
Pasquale Caponnetto, Marilena Maglia, Maria Concetta Cannella, Lucio Inguscio, Mariachiara Buonocore, Claudio Scoglio, Riccardo Polosa, Valeria Vinci
Introduction: Most electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) are designed to look like traditional cigarettes and simulate the visual, sensory, and behavioral aspects of smoking traditional cigarettes. This research aimed to explore whether different e-cigarette models and smokers' usual classic cigarettes can impact on cognitive performances, craving and gesture. Methods: The study is randomized cross-over trial designed to compare cognitive performances, craving, and gesture in subjects who used first generation electronic cigarettes, second generation electronic cigarettes with their usual cigarettes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336568/cholinergic-but-not-dopaminergic-or-noradrenergic-enhancement-sharpens-visual-spatial-perception-in-humans
#17
Caterina Gratton, Sahar Yousef, Esther Aarts, Deanna L Wallace, Mark D'Esposito, Michael A Silver
The neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) modulates spatial integration in visual cortex by altering the balance of inputs that generate neuronal receptive fields. These cholinergic effects may provide a neurobiological mechanism underlying the modulation of visual representations by visual spatial attention. However, the consequences of cholinergic enhancement on visuospatial perception in humans are unknown. We conducted two experiments to test whether enhancing cholinergic signaling selectively alters perceptual measures of visuospatial interactions in human subjects...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336341/visuospatial-information-processing-load-and-the-ratio-between-parietal-cue-and-target-p3-amplitudes-in-the-attentional-network-test
#18
Dimitri M Abramov, Monique Pontes, Adailton T Pontes, Carlos A Mourao-Junior, Juliana Vieira, Carla Quero Cunha, Tiago Tamborino, Paulo R Galhanone, Leonardo C deAzevedo, Vladimir V Lazarev
In ERP studies of cognitive processes during attentional tasks, the cue signals containing information about the target can increase the amplitude of the parietal cue P3 in relation to the 'neutral' temporal cue, and reduce the subsequent target P3 when this information is valid, i.e. corresponds to the target's attributes. The present study compared the cue-to-target P3 ratios in neutral and visuospatial cueing, in order to estimate the contribution of valid visuospatial information from the cue to target stages of the task performance, in terms of cognitive load...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335966/a-concentration-dependent-multicolor-conversion-strategy-for-ultrasensitive-colorimetric-immunoassay-with-the-naked-eye
#19
Yingshuai Liu, Zeying Zhang, Jie Yu, Jin Xie, Chang Ming Li
Colorimetric immunoassays have been attracting more attention for use in practical applications, especially in point-of-care diagnostics. In comparison with a single color immunoassay, the dose-dependent multicolor strategy greatly improves the detection resolution and accuracy of visual inspection. In the current study, a concentration-dependent multicolor conversion strategy was developed based on gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-mediated copper deposition for signal amplification and Prussian blue for color generation...
April 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335872/cognitive-impairment-in-euthymic-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Liana R Elias, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Antônio M O Vale, Cristiano A Köhler, Hanne L Kjærstad, Brendon Stubbs, Lars V Kessing, Eduard Vieta, Michael Maes, Benjamin I Goldstein, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating neurocognition in euthymic youths with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases from inception up until March 23, 2016, for original peer-reviewed articles that investigated neurocognition in euthymic youths with BD compared to HCs. Effect sizes (ES) for individual tests were extracted...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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