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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723907/auditory-and-visual-distractors-disrupt-multisensory-temporal-acuity-in-the-crossmodal-temporal-order-judgment-task
#1
Cassandra L Dean, Brady A Eggleston, Kyla David Gibney, Enimielen Aligbe, Marissa Blackwell, Leslie Dowell Kwakye
The ability to synthesize information across multiple senses is known as multisensory integration and is essential to our understanding of the world around us. Sensory stimuli that occur close in time are likely to be integrated, and the accuracy of this integration is dependent on our ability to precisely discriminate the relative timing of unisensory stimuli (crossmodal temporal acuity). Previous research has shown that multisensory integration is modulated by both bottom-up stimulus features, such as the temporal structure of unisensory stimuli, and top-down processes such as attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#2
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
July 19, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723095/facile-and-low-temperature-fabrication-of-thermochromic-cr2o3-vo2-smart-coatings-enhanced-solar-modulation-ability-high-luminous-transmittance-and-uv-shielding-function
#3
Tianci Chang, Xun Cao, Ning Li, Shiwei Long, Xiang Gao, Liv R Dedon, Guangyao Sun, Hongjie Luo, Ping Jin
In the pursuit of energy efficient materials, vanadium dioxide (VO2) based smart coatings have gained much attention in recent years. For smart window applications, VO2 thin films should be fabricated at low temperature to reduce the cost in commercial fabrication and solve compatibility problems. Meanwhile, thermochromic performance with high luminous transmittance and solar modulation ability as well as effective UV shielding function has become the most important developing strategy for ideal smart windows...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722537/attention-bias-to-threat-in-mothers-with-emotional-disorders-predicts-increased-offspring-anxiety-symptoms-a-joint-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analysis
#4
Allison M Waters, Elise M Candy, Steven G Candy
There is convincing evidence of the transmission of anxiety and depression from parents to children; however, mechanisms by which this vulnerability is passed on are unclear. Cognitive models and a small body of cross-sectional research suggest that parental attention biases (ABs) may be one mechanism involved in transmission. Longitudinal associations of maternal and offspring ABs with offspring symptoms have been scarcely studied. Forty-three mothers-child dyads were included. All children (7-12 years old) were diagnosis-free while 24 mothers had a lifetime emotional disorder (anxiety or depression) (high risk, HR) and 19 mothers had no psychiatric diagnoses (low risk, LR)...
July 19, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721740/clinical-features-and-subjective-physiological-responses-to-emotional-stimuli-in-the-presence-of-emotion-dysregulation-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Candan Taskiran, Serkan Karaismailoglu, Halime Tuna Cak Esen, Zeynep Tuzun, Aysen Erdem, Zeynep Dicle Balkanci, Anil Barak Dolgun, Sadriye Ebru Cengel Kultur
INTRODUCTION: Emotion dysregulation (ED) has long been recognized in clinical descriptions of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but a renewed interest in ED has advanced research on the overlap between the two entities. Autonomic reactivity (AR) is a neurobiological correlate of emotion regulation; however, the association between ADHD and AR remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the clinical differences, AR, and subjective emotional responses to visual emotional stimuli in ADHD children with and without ED...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721355/simultaneously-estimating-the-task-related-and-stimulus-evoked-components-of-hemodynamic-imaging-measurements
#6
Max Charles Herman, Mariana M B Cardoso, Bruss Lima, Yevgeniy B Sirotin, Aniruddha Das
Task-related hemodynamic responses contribute prominently to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings. They reflect behaviorally important brain states, such as arousal and attention, and can dominate stimulus-evoked responses, yet they remain poorly understood. To help characterize these responses, we present a method for parametrically estimating both stimulus-evoked and task-related components of hemodynamic responses from subjects engaged in temporally predictable tasks. The stimulus-evoked component is modeled by convolving a hemodynamic response function (HRF) kernel with spiking...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718177/saliency-maps-for-finding-changes-in-visual-scenes
#7
Heinrich René Liesefeld, Anna Marie Liesefeld, Hermann J Müller, Dragan Rangelov
Sudden changes in the environment reliably summon attention. This rapid change detection appears to operate in a similar fashion as pop-out in visual search, the phenomenon that very salient stimuli are directly attended, independently of the number of distracting objects. Pop-out is usually explained by the workings of saliency maps, i.e., map-like representations that code for the conspicuity at each location of the visual field. While past research emphasized similarities between pop-out search and change detection, our study highlights differences between the saliency computations in the two tasks: in contrast to pop-out search, saliency computation in change detection (i) operates independently across different stimulus properties (e...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718176/encouraging-top-down-attention-in-visual-search-a-developmental-perspective
#8
Regan Lookadoo, Yingying Yang, Edward C Merrill
Four experiments are reported in which 60 younger children (7-8 years old), 60 older children (10-11 years old), and 60 young adults (18-25 years old) performed a conjunctive visual search task (15 per group in each experiment). The number of distractors of each feature type was unbalanced across displays to evaluate participants' ability to restrict search to the smaller subset of features. The use of top-down attention processes to restrict search was encouraged by providing external aids for identifying and maintaining attention on the smaller set...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718088/how-well-do-network-models-predict-observations-on-the-importance-of-predictability-in-network-models
#9
Jonas M B Haslbeck, Lourens J Waldorp
Network models are an increasingly popular way to abstract complex psychological phenomena. While studying the structure of network models has led to many important insights, little attention has been paid to how well they predict observations. This is despite the fact that predictability is crucial for judging the practical relevance of edges: for instance in clinical practice, predictability of a symptom indicates whether an intervention on that symptom through the symptom network is promising. We close this methodological gap by introducing nodewise predictability, which quantifies how well a given node can be predicted by all other nodes it is connected to in the network...
July 17, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717820/differences-between-endogenous-attention-to-spatial-locations-and-sensory-modalities
#10
J Vibell, C Klinge, M Zampini, A C Nobre, C Spence
Vibell et al. (J Cogn Neurosci 19:109-120, 2007) reported that endogenously attending to a sensory modality (vision or touch) modulated perceptual processing, in part, by the relative speeding-up of neural activation (i.e., as a result of prior entry). However, it was unclear whether it was the fine temporal discrimination required by the temporal-order judgment task that was used, or rather, the type of attentional modulation (spatial locations or sensory modalities) that was responsible for the shift in latencies that they observed...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716967/contextual-and-developmental-differences-in-the-neural-architecture-of-cognitive-control
#11
Raluca Petrican, Cheryl L Grady
Since both development and context impact functional brain architecture, the neural connectivity signature of a cognitive or affective predisposition may similarly vary across different ages and circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of age and cognitive versus social-affective context on the stable and time-varying neural architecture of inhibition, the putative core cognitive control component, in a subsample (N= 359 [22-36 yrs], 174 men) of the Human Connectome Project. Among younger individuals, a neural signature of superior inhibition emerged in both stable and dynamic connectivity analyses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716235/psychosis-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-soft-signs-to-the-hard-science
#12
REVIEW
Abhishek Lenka, Priyantha Herath, Rita Christopher, Pramod Kumar Pal
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may develop a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms during the course of illness. Psychosis is one such commonly observed non-motor symptoms of PD. Although several studies based on neuroimaging, genetics, retinal imaging, and neuropsychological evaluations have explored the pathogenesis of psychosis in PD; exact neural correlates are yet to be understood. Identification of factors related to psychosis in PD is important, as psychosis has been reported to be associated with higher rates of mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placements...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715958/vision-and-action
#13
Mary M Hayhoe
Investigation of natural behavior has contributed a number of insights to our understanding of visual guidance of actions by highlighting the importance of behavioral goals and focusing attention on how vision and action play out in time. In this context, humans make continuous sequences of sensory-motor decisions to satisfy current behavioral goals, and the role of vision is to provide the relevant information for making good decisions in order to achieve those goals. This conceptualization of visually guided actions as a sequence of sensory-motor decisions has been formalized within the framework of statistical decision theory, which structures the problem and provides the context for much recent progress in vision and action...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715694/associative-cueing-of-attention-through-implicit-feature-location-binding
#14
Giovanna Girardi, Daniele Nico
In order to assess associative learning between two task-irrelevant features in cueing spatial attention, we devised a task in which participants have to make an identity comparison between two sequential visual stimuli. Unbeknownst to them, location of the second stimulus could be predicted by the colour of the first or a concurrent sound. Albeit unnecessary to perform the identity-matching judgment the predictive features thus provided an arbitrary association favouring the spatial anticipation of the second stimulus...
July 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715265/using-eye-tracking-to-explore-consumers-visual-behavior-according-to-their-shopping-motivation-in-mobile-environments
#15
Yoon Min Hwang, Kun Chang Lee
Despite a strong shift to mobile shopping trends, many in-depth questions about mobile shoppers' visual behaviors in mobile shopping environments remain unaddressed. This study aims to answer two challenging research questions (RQs): (a) how much does shopping motivation like goal orientation and recreation influence mobile shoppers' visual behavior toward displays of shopping information on a mobile shopping screen and (b) how much of mobile shoppers' visual behavior influences their purchase intention for the products displayed on a mobile shopping screen? An eye-tracking approach is adopted to answer the RQs empirically...
July 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714891/structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-of-visual-hallucinations-in-lewy-body-disease-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
REVIEW
Stefania Pezzoli, Annachiara Cagnin, Oliver Bandmann, Annalena Venneri
Patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) frequently experience visual hallucinations (VH), well-formed images perceived without the presence of real stimuli. The structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying VH in LBD are still unclear. The present review summarises the current literature on the neural correlates of VH in LBD, namely Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Following a systematic literature search, 56 neuroimaging studies of VH in PD and DLB were critically reviewed and evaluated for quality assessment...
July 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714802/binocular-vision-disorders-and-visual-attention-associations-with-balance-and-mobility-in-older-adults
#17
Mohammed M Althomali, Susan J Leat
Understanding which aspects of vision are related to falls is important. We examine the associations between tests of balance, mobility, fear of falling (FES-1) and aspects of vision in 72 adults aged 70+. Balance and mobility were examined using the One Legged Stance test (OLST), the Sit to Stand test (STST) and the 5 Meter Walking test (5MWT). Visual measures included visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, binocular vision (BV) measurements, Useful field of View (UFV) and Attended Field of View (AFOV)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714584/oscillations-during-observations-dynamic-oscillatory-networks-serving-visuospatial-attention
#18
Alex I Wiesman, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Amy L Proskovec, Timothy J McDermott, Tony W Wilson
The dynamic allocation of neural resources to discrete features within a visual scene enables us to react quickly and accurately to salient environmental circumstances. A network of bilateral cortical regions is known to subserve such visuospatial attention functions; however the oscillatory and functional connectivity dynamics of information coding within this network are not fully understood. Particularly, the coding of information within prototypical attention-network hubs and the subsecond functional connections formed between these hubs have not been adequately characterized...
July 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714214/climate-related-environmental-variation-in-a-visual-signalling-device-the-male-and-female-dewlap-in-anolis-sagrei-lizards
#19
Tess Driessens, Simon Baeckens, Manuela Balzarolo, Bieke Vanhooydonck, Katleen Huyghe, Raoul Van Damme
Animals communicate using a variety of signals that differ dramatically among and within species. The astonishing dewlap diversity in anoles has attracted considerable attention in this respect. Yet, the evolutionary processes behind it remain elusive and have mostly been explored for males only. Here, we considered Anolis sagrei males and females to study signal divergence among populations. First, we assessed the degree of variation in dewlap design (size, pattern, colour) and displays by comparing 17 populations distributed across the Caribbean...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713861/behavioural-clusters-and-predictors-of-performance-during-recovery-from-stroke
#20
L E Ramsey, J S Siegel, C E Lang, M Strube, G L Shulman, M Corbetta
We examined the patterns and variability of recovery post-stroke in multiple behavioral domains. A large cohort of first time stroke patients with heterogeneous lesions was studied prospectively and longitudinally at 1-2 weeks, 3 months and one year post-injury with structural MRI to measure lesion anatomy and in-depth neuropsychological assessment. Impairment was described at all timepoints by a few clusters of correlated deficits. The time course and magnitude of recovery was similar across domains, with change scores largely proportional to the initial deficit and most recovery occurring within the first three months...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
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