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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646751/an-attentional-drift-diffusion-model-over-binary-attribute-choice
#1
Geoffrey Fisher
In order to make good decisions, individuals need to identify and properly integrate information about various attributes associated with a choice. Since choices are often complex and made rapidly, they are typically affected by contextual variables that are thought to influence how much attention is paid to different attributes. I propose a modification of the attentional drift-diffusion model, the binary-attribute attentional drift diffusion model (baDDM), which describes the choice process over simple binary-attribute choices and how it is affected by fluctuations in visual attention...
June 21, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646712/prediction-of-vocational-participation-and-global-role-functioning-in-help-seeking-young-adults-from-neurocognitive-demographic-and-clinical-variables
#2
Alice J Cairns, David J Kavanagh, Frances Dark, Steven M McPhail
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate neurocognitive, demographic and clinical correlates of vocational participation among a sample of young help-seeking adults. METHODS: Young people (18-25 years) accessing an early intervention youth health service participated. The Global Functioning: Role scale and level of vocational participation, participant characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic background and family history of serious mental illness), distress, psychotic-like experiences, substance use, and mental health diagnoses were recorded...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646451/regulation-of-sustained-attention-false-alarm-responding-and-implementation-of-conditional-rules-by-prefrontal-gabaa-transmission-comparison-with-nmda-transmission
#3
Meagan L Auger, Juliet Meccia, Stan B Floresco
RATIONALE: Both prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABAA and NMDA transmission regulate attentional processes, yet how they may differentially regulate signal detection or other aspects of attention is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We examined PFC GABAA and NMDA receptor regulation of attention using a sustained attention task (SAT) permitting identification of distinct forms of impairments. As this task requires implementation of conditional rules, we also investigated how reducing PFC GABA transmission affected performance of visual and auditory conditional discriminations...
June 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645546/post-sepsis-cognitive-impairment-and-associated-risk-factors-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Allan J C Calsavara, Vandack Nobre, Tatiana Barichello, Antonio L Teixeira
INTRODUCTION: Post-sepsis cognitive impairment is one of the major sequelae observed in survivors of sepsis. This cognitive impairment can be global or may affect specific domains. A better understanding of these deficits and associated risk factors could influence the care of patients with sepsis. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review to investigate the presence of cognitive impairment and its associated risk factors among patients who survived sepsis. METHODS: The search was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to March 2017) and EMBASE (1988 to March 2017)...
June 20, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643206/right-visual-field-advantage-in-the-attentional-blink-asymmetry-in-attentional-gating-across-time-and-space
#5
Dafna Bergerbest, Orit Shilkrot, Michal Joseph, Moti Salti
When two targets are presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), recognition of the second target (T2) is usually reduced when presented 150-500 ms after the first target, demonstrating an attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have shown a left visual-field (LVF) advantage in T2 recognition, when T2 was embedded in one of two streams, demanding top-down attention for its recognition. Here, we explored the impact of bottom-up saliency on spatial asymmetry in the AB. When T2 was spatially shifted outside from the RSVP, creating an abrupt onset of T2, right T2s showed a right visual-field (RVF) advantage...
June 22, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643183/dopaminergic-therapies-for-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Eva Schaeffer, Daniela Berg
Apart from the typical motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease is characterized by a wide range of different non-motor symptoms, which are highly prevalent in all stages of the disease and have an incisive influence on quality of life. Moreover, their treatment continues to be challenging. In this review, we critically summarize the evidence for the impact of dopaminergic therapies on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. We performed a PubMed search to identify relevant clinical studies that investigated the response of non-motor symptoms to dopaminergic therapy...
June 22, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643053/incidence-natural-course-and-characteristics-of-postlaparoscopic-shoulder-pain
#7
Dong Hee Lee, Taejong Song, Kye Hyun Kim, Kyo Won Lee
BACKGROUND: To determine the incidence, natural course, and specific characteristics of postlaparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP). METHODS: The prospective study included 105 patients undergoing laparoscopy for benign gynecologic diseases. The intensity of pain, and the identification of the pain site, was assessed 24- and 48-h after surgery, using a visual analogue scale. The description and intensity of PLSP, its aggravating and relieving factors, and the response to analgesics were assessed over a 1-week period using a self-reported questionnaire...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642613/protecting-visual-short-term-memory-during-maintenance-attentional-modulation-of-target-and-distractor-representations
#8
Marlies E Vissers, Rasa Gulbinaite, Tijl van den Bos, Heleen A Slagter
In the presence of distraction, attentional filtering is a key predictor of efficient information storage in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Yet, the role of attention in distractor filtering, and the extent to which attentional filtering continues to protect information during post-perceptual stages of VSTM, remains largely unknown. In the current study, we investigated the role of spatial attention in distractor filtering during VSTM encoding and maintenance. Participants performed a change detection task with varying distractor load...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641496/guanfacine-attenuates-adverse-effects-of-dronabinol-thc-on-working-memory-in-adolescent-onset-heavy-cannabis-users-a-pilot-study
#9
David S Mathai, Manuela Holst, Christopher Rodgman, Colin N Haile, Jake Keller, Mariyah Z Hussain, Thomas R Kosten, Thomas F Newton, Christopher D Verrico
The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639800/working-memory-capacity-and-the-antisaccade-task-a-microanalytic-macroanalytic-investigation-of-individual-differences-in-goal-activation-and-maintenance
#10
Matt E Meier, Bridget A Smeekens, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil, Michael J Kane
The association between working memory capacity (WMC) and the antisaccade task, which requires subjects to move their eyes and attention away from a strong visual cue, supports the claim that WMC is partially an attentional construct (Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle, 2001; Unsworth, Schrock, & Engle, 2004). Specifically, the WMC-antisaccade relation suggests that WMC helps maintain and execute task goals despite interference from habitual actions. Related work has recently shown that mind wandering (McVay & Kane, 2009, 2012a, 2012b) and reaction time (RT) variability (Unsworth, 2015) are also related to WMC and they partially explain WMC's prediction of cognitive abilities...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639449/-optic-properties-of-myopic-correction-by-orthokeratology-contact-lenses-a-case-report
#11
M Mýlková, F Pluháček
INTRODUCTION: Orthokeratology lenses present a special type of hard contact lenses, which is used especially for myopic correction. The lenses are applied during the night, when thanks to their special shape cause temporally (reversible) change of the cornea shape. During the day, there is not necessary to wear any other refractive correction. Due to the wearing regimen, there is, comparing to the classical contact lenses, higher risk of health complications. For their safe use, it is necessary to pay attention to the application of lenses of adequate parameters, follow up the care and hygiene precautions, regular controls and early treatment of possible problems...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638974/categorical-templates-are-more-useful-when-features-are-consistent-evidence-from-eye-movements-during-search-for-societally-important-vehicles
#12
Michael C Hout, Arryn Robbins, Hayward J Godwin, Gemma Fitzsimmons, Collin Scarince
Unlike in laboratory visual search tasks-wherein participants are typically presented with a pictorial representation of the item they are asked to seek out-in real-world searches, the observer rarely has veridical knowledge of the visual features that define their target. During categorical search, observers look for any instance of a categorically defined target (e.g., helping a family member look for their mobile phone). In these circumstances, people may not have information about noncritical features (e...
June 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638353/the-effects-of-spatial-endogenous-pre-cueing-across-eccentricities
#13
Jing Feng, Ian Spence
Frequently, we use expectations about likely locations of a target to guide the allocation of our attention. Despite the importance of this attentional process in everyday tasks, examination of pre-cueing effects on attention, particularly endogenous pre-cueing effects, has been relatively little explored outside an eccentricity of 20°. Given the visual field has functional subdivisions that attentional processes can differ significantly among the foveal, perifoveal, and more peripheral areas, how endogenous pre-cues that carry spatial information of targets influence our allocation of attention across a large visual field (especially in the more peripheral areas) remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638329/the-contribution-of-cognitive-factors-to-individual-differences-in-understanding-noise-vocoded-speech-in-young-and-older-adults
#14
Stephanie Rosemann, Carsten Gießing, Jale Özyurt, Rebecca Carroll, Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Noise-vocoded speech is commonly used to simulate the sensation after cochlear implantation as it consists of spectrally degraded speech. High individual variability exists in learning to understand both noise-vocoded speech and speech perceived through a cochlear implant (CI). This variability is partly ascribed to differing cognitive abilities like working memory, verbal skills or attention. Although clinically highly relevant, up to now, no consensus has been achieved about which cognitive factors exactly predict the intelligibility of speech in noise-vocoded situations in healthy subjects or in patients after cochlear implantation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637052/subtle-eye-movement-metrics-reveal-task-relevant-representations-prior-to-visual-search
#15
Anouk M van Loon, Katya Olmos-Solis, Christian N L Olivers
Visual search is thought to be guided by an active visual working memory (VWM) representation of the task-relevant features, referred to as the search template. In three experiments using a probe technique, we investigated which eye movement metrics reveal which search template is activated prior to the search, and distinguish it from future relevant or no longer relevant VWM content. Participants memorized a target color for a subsequent search task, while being instructed to keep central fixation. Before the search display appeared, we briefly presented two task-irrelevant colored probe stimuli to the left and right from fixation, one of which could match the current target template...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636664/looking-at-paintings-in-the-vincent-van-gogh-museum-eye-movement-patterns-of-children-and-adults
#16
Francesco Walker, Berno Bucker, Nicola C Anderson, Daniel Schreij, Jan Theeuwes
In the present study, we examined the eye movement behaviour of children and adults looking at five Van Gogh paintings in the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. The goal of the study was to determine the role of top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the first stages of participants' aesthetic experience. Bottom-up processes were quantified by determining a salience map for each painting. Top-down processing was manipulated by first allowing participants to view the paintings freely, then providing background information about each painting, and then allowing them to view the paintings a second time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634784/attentional-weights-in-vision-as-products-of-spatial-and-nonspatial-components
#17
Maria Nordfang, Camilla Staugaard, Claus Bundesen
The relationship between visual attentional selection of items in particular spatial locations and selection by nonspatial criteria was investigated in a partial report experiment with report of letters (as many as possible) from brief postmasked exposures of circular arrays of letters and digits. The data were fitted by mathematical models based on Bundesen's (Psychological Review, 97, 523-547, 1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). Both attentional weights of targets (letters) and attentional weights of distractors (digits) showed strong variations across the eight possible target locations, but for each of the ten participants, the ratio of the weight of a distractor at a given location to the weight of a target at the same location was approximately constant...
June 20, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634461/sensitivity-to-acceleration-in-the-human-early-visual-system
#18
Ryohei Nakayama, Isamu Motoyoshi
It is widely believed that the human visual system is insensitive to acceleration in moving stimuli. This notion is supported by evidence that detection sensitivity for velocity modulation in moving stimuli is a lowpass function of the velocity modulation's temporal frequency. However, the lowpass function might be a mixture of detection by attention-based tracking and low-level mechanisms sensitive to acceleration. To revisit the issue of acceleration perception in relation to attentive tracking, we measured detection sensitivities for velocity modulations at various temporal frequencies (0...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634448/from-behavioral-facilitation-to-inhibition-the-neuronal-correlates-of-the-orienting-and-reorienting-of-auditory-attention
#19
Faith M Hanlon, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Juan R Bustillo, Christopher C Abbott, Andrew R Mayer
Successful adaptive behavior relies on the ability to automatically (bottom-up) orient attention to different locations in the environment. This results in a biphasic pattern in which reaction times (RT) are faster for stimuli that occur in the same spatial location (valid) for the first few hundred milliseconds, which is termed facilitation. This is followed by faster RT for stimuli that appear in novel locations (invalid) after longer delays, termed inhibition of return. The neuronal areas and networks involved in the transition between states of facilitation and inhibition remain poorly understood, especially for auditory stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634446/are-distal-and-proximal-visual-cues-equally-important-during-spatial-learning-in-mice-a-pilot-study-of-overshadowing-in-the-spatial-domain
#20
Marie Hébert, Jan Bulla, Denis Vivien, Véronique Agin
Animals use distal and proximal visual cues to accurately navigate in their environment, with the possibility of the occurrence of associative mechanisms such as cue competition as previously reported in honey-bees, rats, birds and humans. In this pilot study, we investigated one of the most common forms of cue competition, namely the overshadowing effect, between visual landmarks during spatial learning in mice. To this end, C57BL/6J × Sv129 mice were given a two-trial place recognition task in a T-maze, based on a novelty free-choice exploration paradigm previously developed to study spatial memory in rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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