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Visual attention

Andrea M Byrne, Tal Schechter, Robyn Westmacott
We report the neuropsychological profile of a 6-year-old girl with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder associated with thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and malignancy. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males and is extremely rare in females, with no known research focused on cognitive and academic functioning in this population. Our patient was referred due to concerns about her memory and academic functioning. She had a history of progressive thrombocytopenia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at age 15 months...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
S A Nemkova
The article covers the problems of diagnosis and treatment of mental impairment in children with cerebral palsy. Mental disorders in cerebral palsy include cognitive impairment (disorders of perception, memory, attention, motor-visual coordination, intelligence and speech), border disorders (cerebral/asthenic, neurosis-like, psychopathic-like syndromes) and personality disorders (accentuation of character, mental infantilism). Diagnosis of mental disorders in patients with cerebral palsy is a challenging task, due to various combinations of them with physical, speech and sensory disorders, which requires a differentiated approach...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
L I Wasserman, T V Cherednikova, E L Wasserman, M V Wasserman, O Yu Shchelkova, E V Solovyova
AIM: To study the phenomena of visual-hemispatial neglect in healthy people and patients with brain diseases of different genesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 68 patients with exogenous organic brain diseases and 240 healthy adults of different age were included in the study. The digit cancellation test modified by the authors was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The validity of the modified digit cancellation test was approved and its age standards were obtained...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Claire O'Callaghan, Julie M Hall, Alessandro Tomassini, Alana J Muller, Ishan C Walpola, Ahmed A Moustafa, James M Shine, Simon J G Lewis
BACKGROUND: Models of hallucinations emphasize imbalance between sensory input and top-down influences over perception, as false perceptual inference can arise when top-down predictions are afforded too much precision (certainty) relative to sensory evidence. Visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with lower-level visual and attentional impairments, accompanied by overactivity in higher-order association brain networks. PD therefore provides an attractive framework to explore contributions of bottom-up versus top-down disturbances in hallucinations...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Poppy Sharp, David Melcher, Clayton Hickey
Constructing useful representations of our visual environment requires the ability to selectively pay attention to particular locations at specific moments. Whilst there has been much investigation on the influence of selective attention on spatial discrimination, less is known about its influence on temporal discrimination. In particular, little is known about how endogenous attention influences two fundamental and opposing temporal processes: segregation - the parsing of the visual scene over time into separate features, and integration - the binding together of related elements...
March 20, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Wenwen Zheng, Ting Luo, Chuan-Peng Hu, Kaiping Peng
A more babyfaced individual is perceived as more child-like and this impression from babyface, as known as babyface effect, has an impact on social life among various age groups. In this study, the influence of babyfaces on visual selective attention was tested by cognitive task, demonstrating that the female babyface and male mature face would draw participants' attention so that they take their eyes off more slowly. In Experiment 1, a detection task was applied to test the influence of babyfaces on visual selective attention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ashley Haubert, Matt Walsh, Rachel Boyd, Megan Morris, Megan Wiedbusch, Mike Krusmark, Glenn Gunzelmann
Cognitive fatigue emerges in wide-ranging tasks and domains, but traditional vigilance tasks provide a well-studied context in which to explore the mechanisms underlying it. Though a variety of experimental methodologies have been used to investigate cognitive fatigue in vigilance, relatively little research has utilized electroencephalography (EEG), specifically event-related potentials (ERPs), to explore the nature of cognitive fatigue, also known as the vigilance decrement. Moreover, much of the research that has been done on vigilance and ERPs uses non-traditional vigilance paradigms, limiting generalizability to the established body of behavioral results and corresponding theories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Tatsunori Watanabe, Kotaro Saito, Kazuto Ishida, Shigeo Tanabe, Mitsuya Horiba, Shogo Itamoto, Yoshino Ueki, Ikuo Wada, Ippei Nojima
Start hesitation in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs predominantly during distractive and conflictual situations. The aim of this study was to investigate how differently an auditory stimulus (AS) influences execution function and execution time during a cognitively demanding stepping task in PD patients as compared to healthy controls. PD patients and healthy controls stepped forward in response to a visual imperative stimulus of an arrow. We applied a Simon task that comprised congruent and incongruent conditions...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Masato Kasagi, Tomokazu Motegi, Kosuke Narita, Kazuyuki Fujihara, Yusuke Suzuki, Minami Tagawa, Koichi Ujita, Hirotaka Shimada, Masato Fukuda
BACKGROUND: Although recent studies have suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor binding affinity can be a more sensitive marker of age-related neuronal loss than regional gray matter (GM) volume, knowledge about the relationship between decreased GABAA receptor binding affinity and cognitive decline during normal aging is still limited. METHODS: Thirty-seven healthy elderly individuals (aged 50-77 years (mean, 64.5 ± 7.3 years); 15 males and 22 females) were enrolled in this study...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Hideaki Ikeda, Toru Aonishi
The motion detection mechanism of insects has been attracted attention of many researchers. Several motion-detection models have been proposed on the basis of insect visual system studies. Here, we examine two models, the Hassenstein-Reichardt (HR) model and the two-detector (2D) model. We analytically obtain the mean and variance of the stationary responses of the HR and the 2D models to white noise, and we derive the signal-to-fluctuation-noise ratio (SFNR) to evaluate encoding abilities of the two models...
March 5, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Magdalena Ewa Król
We investigated the effect of auditory noise added to speech on patterns of looking at faces in 40 toddlers. We hypothesised that noise would increase the difficulty of processing speech, making children allocate more attention to the mouth of the speaker to gain visual speech cues from mouth movements. We also hypothesised that this shift would cause a decrease in fixation time to the eyes, potentially decreasing the ability to monitor gaze. We found that adding noise increased the number of fixations to the mouth area, at the price of a decreased number of fixations to the eyes...
2018: PloS One
Piotr Styrkowiec, Anna Chrzanowska
Multiple object tracking (MOT) requires visually attending to dynamically moving targets and distractors. This cognitive ability is based on perceptual-attentional processes that are also involved in goal-directed movements. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that MOT affects the motor performance of aiming movements. Therefore, the participants performed pointing movements using their fingers or a computer mouse that controlled the movements of a cursor directed at the targets in the MOT task. The precision of the pointing movements was measured, and it was predicted that a higher number of targets and distractors in the MOT task would result in a lower pointing precision...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Psychology
Xiu-Xiu Zhang, Yi-Zhen Song, Fang Fang, Zhi-Yong Wu
On-site rapid monitoring of nitrite as an assessment indicator of the environment, food, and physiological systems has drawn extensive attention. Here, electrokinetic stacking (ES) was combined with colorimetric reaction on a paper-based device (PAD) to achieve colorless nitrite detection with smartphone. In this paper, nitrite was stacked on the paper fluidic channel as a narrow band by electrokinetic stacking. Then, Griess reagent was introduced to visualize the stacking band. Under optimal conditions, the sensitivity of nitrite was 160-fold increased within 5 min...
March 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Satoshi Nobusako, Ayami Sakai, Taeko Tsujimoto, Takashi Shuto, Yuki Nishi, Daiki Asano, Emi Furukawa, Takuro Zama, Michihiro Osumi, Sotaro Shimada, Shu Morioka, Akio Nakai
The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Stefano Lasaponara, Marianna D'Onofrio, Mario Pinto, Alessio Dragone, Dario Menicagli, Domenica Bueti, Marzia De Lucia, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Fabrizio Doricchi
Studies with Event Related Potentials (ERPs) have highlighted deficits in the early phases of orienting to left visual targets in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect (N+). However, brain responses associated with preparatory orienting of attention, with target novelty and with the detection of a match/mismatch between expected and actual targets (contextual updating), have not been explored in N+. Here in a study in healthy humans and brain damaged patients of both sexes we demonstrate that frontal activity that reflects supra-modal mechanisms of attentional orienting (ADAN) is entirely spared in N+...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Allison M Waters, Yuan Cao, Rachel Kershaw, Georg M Kerbler, David H K Shum, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Michelle G Craske, Brendan P Bradley, Karin Mogg, Daniel S Pine, Ross Cunnington
Prior research indicates that positive search training (PST) may be a promising home-based computerised treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. It explicitly trains anxious individuals in adaptive, goal-directed attention-search strategies to search for positive and calm information and ignore goal-irrelevant negative cues. Although PST reduces anxiety symptoms, its neural effects are unknown. The main aim of this study was to examine changes in neural activation associated with changes in attention processing of positive and negative stimuli from pre- to post-treatment with PST in children with anxiety disorders...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Bo-Cheng Kuo, Szu-Hung Lin, Yei-Yu Yeh
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) allows individuals to briefly maintain information over time for guiding behaviours. Because the contents of VSTM can be neutral or emotional, top-down influence in VSTM may vary with the affective codes of maintained representations. Here we investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the functional interplay of top-down attention with affective codes in VSTM using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were instructed to remember both threatening and neutral objects in a cued VSTM task...
February 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Natascia De Lucia, Silvio Peluso, Alessandro Roca, Cinzia Valeria Russo, Marco Massarelli, Giovanna De Michele, Luigi Di Maio, Elena Salvatore, Giuseppe De Michele
Objective: In visuo-constructional tasks, patients may reproduce drawings near-to or superimposed on a model, showing the so-called "Closing-in" (CI), often ascribed to a defect in inhibitory control. CI has been described in neurological conditions, but no studies have explored CI in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder often involving the frontal cortical-subcortical circuits. We searched for the occurrence of CI in HD patients and systematically investigated its correlates to find a clinical marker of the frontal/executive dysfunctions in the early examination of HD patients...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Vincent Sitzmann, Ana Serrano, Amy Pavel, Maneesh Agrawala, Diego Gutierrez, Belen Masia, Gordon Wetzstein
Understanding how people explore immersive virtual environments is crucial for many applications, such as designing virtual reality (VR) content, developing new compression algorithms, or learning computational models of saliency or visual attention. Whereas a body of recent work has focused on modeling saliency in desktop viewing conditions, VR is very different from these conditions in that viewing behavior is governed by stereoscopic vision and by the complex interaction of head orientation, gaze, and other kinematic constraints...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Arantzazu Zabala, Monika Salgueiro, Oihane Sáez-Atxukarro, Javier Ballesteros, Guillermo Ruiz-Irastorza, Rafael Segarra
OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. Its most prevalent manifestation is neuropsychiatric SLE (NP-SLE), which is characterized by increased involvement of the nervous system, with relevant symptoms, such as marked cognitive deficits, which are directly involved in subsequent functional disability. The objective of this study is to identify and compare the profile of cognitive deficits in patients with NP-SLE and patients with non-neuropsychiatric SLE (nonNP-SLE) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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