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Medial prefrontal cortex

Juliet Richetto, Renaud Massart, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Moshe Szyf, Marco A Riva, Urs Meyer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Using a well-established mouse model of prenatal viral-like immune activation, we examined whether this pathological association involves genome-wide DNA methylation differences at single nucleotide resolution. METHODS: Prenatal immune activation was induced by maternal treatment with the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in middle or late gestation...
August 12, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Dorit Ron
We previously reported that the kinase AKT is activated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents in response to excessive consumption of alcohol. One of the important downstream targets of AKT is the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin in Complex 1 (mTORC1), which was also activated by alcohol intake. mTORC1 controls dendritic protein translation, and we showed that the mTORC1-dependent translational machinery is activated in the NAc in response to alcohol intake. Importantly, systemic or intra-NAc inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 pathway attenuated alcohol-drinking behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Addiction Biology
Chao Dong, Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Chun Yang, Shigeyuki Chaki, Kenji Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Similar to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine, the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor antagonist, MGS0039 shows antidepressant effects. However, there are no reports comparing these two compounds in the social defeat stress model of depression. METHODS: We examined the effects of MGS0039 (1 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg) on depression-like behavior in susceptible mice, after repeated social defeat stress. Protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, phospho-TrkB (p-TrkB), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (GluA1) and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and dendritic spine density in selected brain regions were measured...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hang Xu, Yu Zhang, Fan Zhang, San-Na Yuan, Feng Shao, Weiwen Wang
Early stress is a significant risk factor for the onset of mood disorders such as depression during adulthood. Impairments in cognitive flexibility mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction are increasingly recognized as important etiological and pathological factors in the development of depression. Our previous study demonstrated that social defeat stress during early adolescence produced delayed deficits in cognitive flexibility in adult mice. The potential molecular mechanisms underlying these long-term consequences remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Tetsuya Iidaka
Humor perception is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human societies. In theories of humor perception, three factors, non-seriousness, social context, and incongruity, have been implicated in humor. In another theory, however, elaboration and reinterpretation of contexts are considered to play a role in eliciting humor. Although the neural correlates of humor appreciation have been investigated using neuroimaging methods, only a few studies have conducted such experiments under natural conditions. In the present study, two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, using a comedy movie as a stimulus, were conducted to investigate the neural correlates of humor under natural conditions...
October 18, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Xuemei Lei, Chuansheng Chen, Chunhui Chen, Qinghua He, Robert K Moyzis, Gui Xue, Qi Dong
Cooperativeness is an essential behavioral trait evolved to facilitate group living. Social and cognitive mechanisms involved in cooperation (e.g., motivation, reward encoding, action evaluation, and executive functions) are sub-served by the striatal-projected circuits, whose physical existence has been confirmed by animal studies, human postmortem studies, and in vivo human brain studies. The current study investigated the associations between Cooperativeness and fiber connectivities from the striatum to nine subcortical and cortical regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex, dorsal cingulate cortex, and rostral cingulate cortex...
2016: PloS One
Bin Zhang, Shijia Li, Chuanjun Zhuo, Meng Li, Adam Safron, Axel Genz, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu, Martin Walter
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric condition in which patients often have difficulties regulating their emotions. Prior studies have shown that attention bias towards negative emotion is linked to activation in regions of the default mode network (DMN) in MDD individuals. Furthermore, MDD patients showed increased resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the medial prefrontal cortex and other DMN structures. METHODS: Twenty-one MDD patients that currently experiencing depressive episodes and twenty-five healthy control participants performed the current emotional expectancy paradigm in a gradient-echo SENSE-SPIRAL fMRI...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Dohoung Kim, Huijeong Jeong, Juhyeong Lee, Jeong-Wook Ghim, Eun Sil Her, Seung-Hee Lee, Min Whan Jung
Inhibitory interneurons are thought to play crucial roles in diverse brain functions. However, roles of different inhibitory interneuron subtypes in working memory remain unclear. We found distinct activity patterns and stimulation effects of two major interneuron subtypes, parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SOM)-expressing interneurons, in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice performing a spatial working memory task. PV interneurons showed weak target-dependent delay-period activity and were strongly inhibited by reward...
October 12, 2016: Neuron
Lauren P Shapiro, Ryan G Parsons, Anthony J Koleske, Shannon L Gourley
The prevalence of depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and drug and alcohol use disorders peaks during adolescence. Further, up to 50% of "adult" mental health disorders emerge in adolescence. During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes dramatic structural reorganization, in which dendritic spines and synapses are refined, pruned, and stabilized. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes should help to identify factors that influence the development of psychiatric illness...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Wenchao Qiu, Yuan Gao, Chuanyong Yu, Ailiang Miao, Lu Tang, Shuyang Huang, Zheng Hu, Jing Xiang, Xiaoshan Wang
Purpose: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. However, little is known about the brain structural changes in this type of epilepsy, especially in the default mode network (DMN) regions. This study aims at using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique to quantify structural abnormalities of DMN nodes in CAE patients. Method: DTI data were acquired in 14 CAE patients (aged 8.64 ± 2.59 years, seven females and seven males) and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Leticia Ramírez-Lugo, Ana Peñas-Rincón, Sandybel Ángeles-Durán, Francisco Sotres-Bayon
: The ability to select an appropriate behavioral response guided by previous emotional experiences is critical for survival. Although much is known about brain mechanisms underlying emotional associations, little is known about how these associations guide behavior when several choices are available. To address this, we performed local pharmacological inactivations of several cortical regions before retrieval of an aversive memory in choice-based versus no-choice-based conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tasks in rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Naomi Onisawa, Hiroyuki Manabe, Kensaku Mori
During slow-wave sleep, inter-areal communications via coordinated slow oscillatory activities occur in the large-scale networks of the mammalian neocortex. Because olfactory cortex (OC) areas, which belong to paleocortex, show characteristic sharp-wave activity during slow-wave sleep, we examined whether OC sharp-waves in freely behaving rats occur in temporal coordination with up- and down-states of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) slow oscillation. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the OC and OFC showed that during the down-state in the OFC, the OC also exhibited down-state with greatly reduced neuronal activity and suppression of sharp-wave generation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Tracie A Paine, Nathan Swedlow, Lucien Swetschinski
INTRODUCTION: Decreased sociability is a symptom of psychiatric conditions including autism-spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Both of these conditions are associated with decreases in GABA function, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA); structures that are components of the social brain. Here, we determined if decreasing GABA transmission within either the PFC or the BLA decreases social behavior. METHODS: Rats were implanted with cannulae aimed at either the medial PFC or the BLA and then were tested on up to 4 behavioral tests following bilateral infusions of 0...
October 9, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Xu Ling-Zhi, Xu De-Feng, Han Ying, Liu Li-Jing, Sun Cheng-Yu, Deng Jia-Hui, Zhang Ruo-Xi, Yuan Ming, Zhang Su-Zhen, Li Zhi-Meng, Xu Yi, Li Jin-Sheng, Xie Su-Hua, Li Su-Xia, Zhang Hong-Yan, Lu Lin
BACKGROUND: Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides (MOs) have been reported to exert neuroprotective and antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test (FST) in mice. However, the mechanisms that underlie the antidepressant-like effects of MOs are unclear. METHODS: Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and FST were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of MOs and resilience to stress in rats. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was microinjected in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to explore the role of GSK-3β in the antidepressant-like effects of MOs...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
R Abend, I Jalon, G Gurevitch, R Sar-El, T Shechner, D S Pine, T Hendler, Y Bar-Haim
Research associates processes of fear conditioning and extinction with treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Manipulation of these processes may therefore be beneficial for such treatment. The current study examines the effects of electrical brain stimulation on fear extinction processes in healthy humans in order to assess its potential relevance for treatment enhancement. Forty-five participants underwent a 3-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Electrical stimulation targeting the medial prefrontal cortex was applied during the extinction-learning phase (Day 2)...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Lydia Romund, Sabrina Golde, Robert C Lorenz, Diana Raufelder, Patricia Pelz, Tobias Gleich, Andreas Heinz, Anne Beck
The formation of a coherent and unified self-concept represents a key developmental stage during adolescence. Imaging studies on self-referential processing in adolescents are rare, and it is not clear whether neural structures involved in self-reflection are also involved in reflections of familiar others. In the current study, 41 adolescents were asked to make judgments about trait adjectives during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): they had to indicate whether the word describes themselves, their friends, their teachers or politicians...
October 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Weiqing Liu, Dong Wang, Wenjuan Hong, Yi Yu, Jinsong Tang, Jicai Wang, Fang Liu, Xiufeng Xu, Liwen Tan, Xiaogang Chen
Although N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists-induced hypoglutamate rodent models are the most well-established models for preclinical studies of schizophrenia-related deficits, they also evoke a wide spectrum of psychotomimetic side effects. It is significant to increase the specificity of hypoglutamate rodent models. In this study, the recognition memory was evaluated in rats by object recognition test (ORT), sensorimotor gating was evaluated by prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI), and locomotor activity was measured using open field test...
October 7, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Alexander Frizell Santillo, Karl Lundblad, Markus Nilsson, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Erik Blennow Nordström, Susanna Vestberg, Olof Lindberg, Christer Nilsson
Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico-anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information-based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
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