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Medial prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050382/distinct-18f-av-1451-tau-pet-retention-patterns-in-early-and-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Michael Schöll, Rik Ossenkoppele, Olof Strandberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Jonas Jögi, Tomas Ohlsson, Ruben Smith, Oskar Hansson
Patients with Alzheimer's disease can present with different clinical phenotypes. Individuals with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (>65 years) typically present with medial temporal lobe neurodegeneration and predominantly amnestic symptomatology, while patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (<65 years) exhibit greater neocortical involvement associated with a clinical presentation including dyspraxia, executive dysfunction, or visuospatial impairment. We recruited 20 patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease, 21 with late-onset Alzheimer's disease, three with prodromal early-onset Alzheimer's disease and 13 with prodromal late-onset Alzheimer's disease, as well as 30 cognitively healthy elderly controls, that had undergone 18F-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography and structural magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease exhibit differential regional tau pathology and atrophy patterns...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045570/optogenetic-activation-of-the-infralimbic-cortex-suppresses-the-return-of-appetitive-pavlovian-conditioned-responding-following-extinction
#2
Franz R Villaruel, Franca Lacroix, Christian Sanio, Daniel W Sparks, C Andrew Chapman, Nadia Chaudhri
The infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL) is important for suppressing learned behavior after extinction, but whether this function extends to responses acquired through appetitive Pavlovian conditioning is unclear. We trained male, Long-Evans rats to associate a white-noise conditional stimulus (CS; 10 s; 14 presentations per session) with 10% liquid sucrose (0.2 mL per CS presentation), and recorded entries into the fluid port during the CS. The CS was presented without sucrose in subsequent extinction and test sessions...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042316/concurrent-repeated-exposure-to-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-and-cocaine-produce-locomotor-sensitization-with-minimal-effects-on-brain-monoamines
#3
REVIEW
Robert J Kohler, Shane A Perrine, Lisa E Baker
Synthetic cathinones, known as "bath salts" on the illicit drug market, pose a significant public health concern. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of several popular constituents of illicit bath salts, produces similar pharmacological actions to cocaine, albeit with greater potency and efficacy. The present study sought to characterize behavioral and neurochemical effects of repeated exposure to MDPV alone and in combination with cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one the following four treatments, administered once daily for seven days: 1 mg/kg MDPV, 5 mg/kg cocaine, 1 mg/kg MDPV +5 mg/kg cocaine, or saline...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041906/from-provocation-to-aggression-the-neural-network
#4
Jonathan Repple, Christina M Pawliczek, Bianca Voss, Steven Siegel, Frank Schneider, Nils Kohn, Ute Habel
BACKGROUND: In-vivo observations of neural processes during human aggressive behavior are difficult to obtain, limiting the number of studies in this area. To address this gap, the present study implemented a social reactive aggression paradigm in 29 healthy men, employing non-violent provocation in a two-player game to elicit aggressive behavior in fMRI settings. RESULTS: Participants responded more aggressively after high provocation reflected in taking more money from their opponents...
October 17, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040763/oxytocin-effects-on-self-referential-processing-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#5
Yi Liu, Bing Wu, Xuena Wang, Wenxin Li, Ting Zhang, Xinhuai Wu, Shihui Han
Oxytocin (OT) influences other-oriented mental processes (e.g., trust and empathy) and the underlying neural substrates. However, whether and how OT modulates self-oriented processes and the underlying brain activity remains unclear. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects design, we manipulated memory encoding and retrieval of trait adjectives related to the self, a friend and a celebrity in a self-referential task in male adults. Experiment 1 (N = 51) found that OT vs. placebo treatments reduced response times during encoding self-related trait adjectives but increased recognition scores of self-related information during memory retrieval...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034318/mediodorsal-thalamic-neurons-mirror-the-activity-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-responding-to-movement-and-reinforcement-during-a-dynamic-dnmtp-task
#6
Rikki L A Miller, Miranda J Francoeur, Brett M Gibson, Robert G Mair
The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034263/modeling-causal-relationships-among-brain-areas-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-during-resting-state-in-cocaine-users-utilizing-a-graph-theoretic-approach
#7
Suchismita Ray, Bharat B Biswal, Ashley Aya, Suril Gohel, Aradhana Srinagesh, Catherine Hanson, Stephen J Hanson
OBJECTIVE: While effective connectivity (EC, causal interaction) between brain areas has been investigated in chronic users of cocaine as they view cocaine pictures cues, no study has examined EC while they take part in a resting-state scan. This resting-state fMRI study aims to investigate the causal interaction among brain areas in the mesocorticolimbic system (MCLS), which is involved in reward and motivation, in cocaine users (vs. controls). METHOD: Twenty cocaine users and 17 healthy controls finished a structural and a resting-state scan...
August 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034115/impulse-control-disorder-and-response-inhibition-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-rare-case-of-totally-absent-functionality-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-review-of-literature
#8
Sara Palermo, Rosalba Morese, Maurizio Zibetti, Francesca Dematteis, Stefano Sirgiovanni, Mario Stanziano, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Leonardo Lopiano
This report illustrates a Parkinson's disease (PD) patient with impulse-control disorder (ICD) and selective impairment in response-inhibition abilities as revealed by the performance in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) anterior cingulate cortex - sensitive go-nogo task. In line with hypothesis on the role of response-inhibition disabilities in the arising of impulsivity in PD, the patient completely failed the go-nogo task. Moreover, fMRI acquisition revealed absent task-sensitive activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal, and orbitofrontal cortices for the contrast nogo versus go, which signifying that a hypo-function of this network could be associated with ICD...
November 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033796/laminar-and-cellular-distribution-of-monoamine-receptors-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#9
REVIEW
Noemí Santana, Francesc Artigas
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deeply involved in higher brain functions, many of which are altered in psychiatric conditions. The PFC exerts a top-down control of most cortical and subcortical areas through descending pathways and is densely innervated by axons emerging from the brainstem monoamine cell groups, namely, the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively), the ventral tegmental area and the locus coeruleus (LC). In turn, the activity of these cell groups is tightly controlled by afferent pathways arising from layer V PFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033027/anhedonia-following-early-life-adversity-involves-aberrant-interaction-of-reward-and-anxiety-circuits-and-is-reversed-by-partial-silencing-of-amygdala-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-gene
#10
Jessica L Bolton, Jenny Molet, Limor Regev, Yuncai Chen, Neggy Rismanchi, Elizabeth Haddad, Derek Z Yang, Andre Obenaus, Tallie Z Baram
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is an important dimensional entity linked to depression, schizophrenia, and other emotional disorders, but its origins and mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously identified anhedonia, manifest as decreased sucrose preference and social play, in adolescent male rats that experienced chronic early-life adversity/stress (CES). Here we probed the molecular, cellular, and circuit processes underlying CES-induced anhedonia and tested them mechanistically...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030432/protein-kinase-a-deregulation-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-impairs-working-memory-in-murine-oligophrenin1-deficiency
#11
Chun-Lei Zhang, Mattia Aime, Emilie Laheranne, Xander Houbaert, Hajer El Oussini, Christelle Martin, Marilyn Lepleux, Elisabeth Normand, Jamel Chelly, Etienne Herzog, Pierre Billuart, Yann Humeau
Classical and systems genetics have identified wide networks of genes associated with cognitive and neurodevelopmental diseases. In parallel to deciphering the role of each of these genes in neuronal or synaptic function, evaluating the response of neuronal and molecular networks to gene loss-of-function could reveal some pathophysiological mechanisms potentially accessible to non-genetic therapies. Loss of function of the Rho-GAP Oligophrenin-1 is associated with cognitive impairments in both human and mouse...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028974/temporal-dynamics-of-human-frontal-and-cingulate-neural-activity-during-conflict-and-cognitive-control
#12
Eleonora Bartoli, Christopher R Conner, Cihan M Kadipasaoglu, Sudha Yellapantula, Matthew J Rollo, Cameron S Carter, Nitin Tandon
Cognitive control refers to the ability to produce flexible, goal-oriented behavior in the face of changing task demands and conflicting response tendencies. A classic cognitive control experiment is the Stroop-color naming task, which requires participants to name the color in which a word is written while inhibiting the tendency to read the word. By comparing stimuli with conflicting word-color associations to congruent ones, control processes over response tendencies can be isolated. We assessed the spatial specificity and temporal dynamics in the theta and gamma bands for regions engaged in detecting and resolving conflict in a cohort of 13 patients using a combination of high-resolution surface and depth recordings...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028595/-loser-or-popular-neural-response-to-social-status-words-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Jennifer S Silk, Kyung Hwa Lee, Rebecca Kerestes, Julianne M Griffith, Ronald E Dahl, Cecile D Ladouceur
Concerns about social status are ubiquitous during adolescence, with information about social status often conveyed in text formats. Depressed adolescents may show alterations in the functioning of neural systems supporting processing of social status information. We examined whether depressed youth exhibited altered neural activation to social status words in temporal and prefrontal cortical regions thought to be involved in social cognitive processing, and whether this response was associated with development...
September 23, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026986/inter-individual-differences-in-decision-making-flexible-and-goal-directed-behaviors-novel-insights-within-the-prefronto-striatal-networks
#14
Aurélie Fitoussi, Prisca Renault, Catherine Le Moine, Etienne Coutureau, Martine Cador, Françoise Dellu-Hagedorn
Inflexible behavior is a hallmark of several decision-making-related disorders such as ADHD and addiction. As in humans, a subset of healthy rats makes poor decisions and prefers immediate larger rewards despite suffering large losses in a rat gambling task (RGT). They also display a combination of traits reminiscent of addiction, notably inflexible behavior and perseverative responses. The goal of the present work was twofold: (1) to elucidate if behavioral inflexibility of poor decision-makers could be related to a lower quality of goal-directed behavior (action-outcome associations); (2) to uncover the neural basis of inter-individual differences in goal-directed behavior...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025324/the-effects-of-head-cooling-on-brain-function-during-passive-hyperthermia-an-fmri-study
#15
Yan Xue, Li Li, Shaowen Qian, Kai Liu, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Bo Li, Qingjun Jiang, Zhuanzhuan Wu, Lexia Du, Gang Sun
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of head-cooling on resting-state spontaneous brain activity during passive hyperthermia. METHODS: An environmental heat exposure was simulated on 16 healthy men under a normal control condition (NC) at 25°C and two hot conditions at 50°C with (HHC) and without (HOT) keeping the head cool, respectively. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data were acquired under each condition and the values of amplitude low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and z functional connectivity (zFC) were computed to examine regional activity and functional integration, respectively...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024676/perinatal-fluoxetine-prevents-the-effect-of-pre-gestational-maternal-stress-on-5-ht-in-the-pfc-but-maternal-stress-has-enduring-effects-on-mpfc-synaptic-structure-in-offspring
#16
Mary Gemmel, Nikolaos Kokras, Christina Dalla, Jodi L Pawluski
Maternal affective disorders are frequently treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs); with up to 10% of women being prescribed these medications during pregnancy. Infant development depends on the early serotonergic environment, which is altered by perinatal SSRIs, raising concern about how these medications affect neural outcomes. While clinical and preclinical research suggests an impact of SSRIs on the developing brain, more research is needed to determine the effects on neuroplasticity, the serotonergic system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neural regions mediating behavior...
October 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024667/parallel-but-dissociable-processing-in-discrete-corticostriatal-inputs-encodes-skill-learning
#17
David A Kupferschmidt, Konrad Juczewski, Guohong Cui, Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Changes in cortical and striatal function underlie the transition from novel actions to refined motor skills. How discrete, anatomically defined corticostriatal projections function in vivo to encode skill learning remains unclear. Using novel fiber photometry approaches to assess real-time activity of associative inputs from medial prefrontal cortex to dorsomedial striatum and sensorimotor inputs from motor cortex to dorsolateral striatum, we show that associative and sensorimotor inputs co-engage early in action learning and disengage in a dissociable manner as actions are refined...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022091/maternal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-stress-differentially-modulate-spine-density-and-dendritic-morphology-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#18
Marion Rincel, Amandine L Lépinay, Yoottana Janthakhin, Gwenaëlle Soudain, Sophie Yvon, Stéphanie Da Silva, Corinne Joffre, Agnès Aubert, Alexandra Séré, Sophie Layé, Vassilia Theodorou, Guillaume Ferreira, Muriel Darnaudéry
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key area for the regulation of numerous brain functions including stress response and cognitive processes. This brain area is also particularly affected by adversity during early life. Using an animal model in rats, we recently demonstrated that maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) prevents maternal separation (MS)-induced gene expression alterations in the developing PFC and attenuates several long-term deleterious behavioral effects of MS. In the present study, we ask whether maternal HFD could protect mPFC neurons of pups exposed to early life stress by examining dendritic morphology and spine density in juvenile [postnatal day (PND) 21] and adult rats submitted to MS...
October 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#19
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020419/cortical-gaba-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-of-psychosis-relationship-to-negative-prodromal-symptoms
#20
Gemma Modinos, Fatma Simsek, Jamie Horder, Matthijs Bossong, Ilaria Bonoldi, Matilda Azis, Jesus Perez, Matthew Broome, David J Lythgoe, James M Stone, Oliver D Howes, Declan G Murphy, Anthony A Grace, Paul Allen, Philip McGuire
Background: Whilst robust preclinical and postmortem evidence suggests that altered GABAergic function is central to the development of psychosis, little is known about whether it is altered in subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis, or its relationship to prodromal symptoms. Methods: Twenty-one anti-psychotic naïve UHR individuals and 20 healthy volunteers underwent proton magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. GABA levels were obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) using MEGA-PRESS, and expressed as peak-area ratios relative to the synchronously-acquired creatine signal...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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