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Medial prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922130/the-nmda-receptor-glun2c-subunit-controls-cortical-excitatory-inhibitory-balance-neuronal-oscillations-and-cognitive-function
#1
Subhash C Gupta, Aparna Ravikrishnan, Jinxu Liu, Zhihao Mao, Ratnamala Pavuluri, Brandon G Hillman, Pauravi J Gandhi, Dustin J Stairs, Ming Li, Rajesh R Ugale, Daniel T Monaghan, Shashank M Dravid
Despite strong evidence for NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction as an underlying factor for cognitive disorders, the precise roles of various NMDAR subtypes remains unknown. The GluN2C-containing NMDARs exhibit unique biophysical properties and expression pattern, and lower expression of GluN2C subunit has been reported in postmortem brains from schizophrenia patients. We found that loss of GluN2C subunit leads to a shift in cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance towards greater inhibition. Specifically, pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of GluN2C knockout mice have reduced mEPSC frequency and dendritic spine density and a contrasting higher frequency of mIPSCs...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921216/neural-correlates-of-rumination-in-adolescents-with-remitted-major-depressive-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#2
Katie L Burkhouse, Rachel H Jacobs, Amy T Peters, Olu Ajilore, Edward R Watkins, Scott A Langenecker
The aim of the present study was to use fMRI to examine the neural correlates of engaging in rumination among a sample of remitted depressed adolescents, a population at high risk for future depressive relapse. A rumination induction task was used to assess differences in the patterns of neural activation during rumination versus a distraction condition among 26 adolescents in remission from major depressive disorder (rMDD) and in 15 healthy control adolescents. Self-report depression and rumination, as well as clinician-rated depression, were also assessed among all participants...
December 5, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919319/chemogenetic-inhibition-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-reverses-the-effects-of-rem-sleep-loss-on-sucrose-consumption
#3
Kristopher McEown, Yohko Takata, Yoan Cherasse, Nanae Nagata, Kosuke Aritake, Michael Lazarus
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep loss is associated with increased consumption of weight-promoting foods. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to mediate reward anticipation. However, the precise role of the PFC in mediating reward responses to highly palatable foods (HPF) after REM sleep deprivation is unclear. We selectively reduced REM sleep in mice over a 25-48 hr period and chemogenetically inhibited the medial PFC (mPFC) by using an altered glutamate-gated and ivermectin-gated chloride channel that facilitated neuronal inhibition through hyperpolarizing infected neurons...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918935/depressive-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-correlate-with-cortical-atrophy-over-time
#4
Alexandru Hanganu, Marie-Andrée Bruneau, Clotilde Degroot, Christophe Bedetti, Béatriz Mejia-Constain, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Sylvain Chouinard, Oury Monchi
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms are very common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a significant impact on the quality of life. METHODS: The present study analyzed the correlations between over-time changes in depressive symptoms and gray matter parameters of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in non-demented PD patients. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed, between increased scores for depression over time and lower cortical thickness over time in the right temporo-parietal junction, right occipital medial region, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right posterior cingulate region, left middle temporal as well as left supplementary motor area...
December 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918280/lateral-not-medial-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-punishment-and-aversive-instrumental-learning
#5
Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Gavan P McNally
Aversive outcomes punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in punishment learning and behavior, although the exact roles for different PFC regions in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the orbitofrontal (OFC), rostral agranular insular (RAIC), prelimbic (PL), and infralimbic (IL) cortex in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused mild punishment (punished lever) but continued pressing the other lever that did not cause punishment (unpunished lever)...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918278/pi3-kinase-cascade-has-a-differential-role-in-acquisition-and-extinction-of-conditioned-fear-memory-in-juvenile-and-adult-rats
#6
Ilana Slouzkey, Mouna Maroun
The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit, plays a crucial role in acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Extinction of aversive memories is mediated, at least in part, by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in adult rats. There is recent interest in the neural mechanisms that mediate fear and extinction in juvenile animals and whether these mechanisms are distinctive from those in adult animals. In the present study, we examined (1) changes in phosphorylation of Akt in the BLA and mPFC after fear conditioning and extinction in juvenile and adult rats and (2) the effect of BLA and mPFC localized inhibition of the PI3K following acquisition and extinction of contextual fear memory...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917578/threat-detection-and-attentional-bias-to-threat-in-women-recovered-from-anorexia-nervosa-neural-alterations-in-extrastriate-and-medial-prefrontal-cortices
#7
Lasse Bang, Øyvind Rø, Tor Endestad
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral studies have shown that anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with attentional bias to general threat cues. The neurobiological underpinnings of attentional bias to threat in AN are unknown. This study investigated the neural responses associated with threat-detection and attentional bias to threat in AN. METHODS: We measured neural responses to a dot-probe task, involving pairs of angry and neutral face stimuli, in 22 adult women recovered from AN and 21 comparison women...
December 4, 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913157/further-evidence-of-alerted-default-network-connectivity-and-association-with-theory-of-mind-ability-in-schizophrenia
#8
Omar Mothersill, Noreen Tangney, Derek W Morris, Hazel McCarthy, Thomas Frodl, Michael Gill, Aiden Corvin, Gary Donohoe
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has repeatedly shown evidence of altered functional connectivity of large-scale networks in schizophrenia. The relationship between these connectivity changes and behaviour (e.g. symptoms, neuropsychological performance) remains unclear. METHODS: Functional connectivity in 27 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 25 age and gender matched healthy controls was examined using rs-fMRI...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912894/self-generation-and-positivity-effects-following-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-reality-monitoring-task-in-older-adults
#9
Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Rocco Palumbo, Beth Fairfield
Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911319/autotaxin-is-related-to-metabolic-dysfunction-and-predicts-alzheimer-s-disease-outcomes
#10
Kelsey E McLimans, Auriel A Willette
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with neuropathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2, also called autotaxin, is produced by beige adipose tissue, regulates metabolism, and is higher in AD prefrontal cortex (PFC). Autotaxin may be a novel biomarker of dysmetabolism and AD. METHODS: We studied Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants who were cognitively normal (CN; n = 86) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 135) or AD (n = 66)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903639/automated-classification-of-pain-perception-using-high-density-electroencephalography-data
#11
Gaurav Misra, Wei-En Wang, Derek B Archer, Arnab Roy, Stephen A Coombes
Translating brief millisecond-long pain-eliciting stimuli to the subjective perception of pain is associated with changes in theta, alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations over sensorimotor cortex. However, when a pain-eliciting stimulus continues for minutes, regions beyond the sensorimotor cortex such as the prefrontal cortex are also engaged. Abnormalities in prefrontal cortex have been associated with chronic pain states, but conventional millisecond-long EEG paradigms do not engage prefrontal regions. In the current study we collected high-density EEG data during an experimental paradigm in which subjects experienced a 4 second low or high intensity pain-eliciting stimulus...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902832/association-of-irritability-and-anxiety-with-the-neural-mechanisms-of-implicit-face-emotion-processing-in-youths-with-psychopathology
#12
Joel Stoddard, Wan-Ling Tseng, Pilyoung Kim, Gang Chen, Jennifer Yi, Laura Donahue, Melissa A Brotman, Kenneth E Towbin, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
Importance: Psychiatric comorbidity complicates clinical care and confounds efforts to elucidate the pathophysiology of commonly occurring symptoms in youths. To our knowledge, few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of 2 continuously distributed traits on brain-behavior relationships in children with psychopathology. Objective: To determine shared and unique effects of 2 major dimensions of child psychopathology, irritability and anxiety, on neural responses to facial emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
November 30, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899884/the-inverse-relationship-between-the-microstructural-variability-of-amygdala-prefrontal-pathways-and-trait-anxiety-is-moderated-by-sex
#13
M Justin Kim, Annemarie C Brown, Alison M Mattek, Samantha J Chavez, James M Taylor, Amy L Palmer, Yu-Chien Wu, Paul J Whalen
Anxiety impacts the quality of everyday life and may facilitate the development of affective disorders, possibly through concurrent alterations in neural circuitry. Findings from multimodal neuroimaging studies suggest that trait-anxious individuals may have a reduced capacity for efficient communication between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC). A diffusion-weighted imaging protocol with 61 directions was used to identify lateral and medial amygdala-vPFC white matter pathways. The structural integrity of both pathways was inversely correlated with self-reported levels of trait anxiety...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898427/cocaine-withdrawal-reduces-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-ergic-transmission-and-gephyrin-expression-at-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-cocaine-conditioned-place-preference-rats-which-shows-increased-cocaine-seeking
#14
Wenqiong Yang, Hongsheng He, Yan Pan, Falan Duan, Dan Zhao, Bo Hu, Qingzhen Zhou, Wanhong Liu
AIMS: Chronic cocaine abuse decreases the inhibitory synaptic transmission via unknown mechanisms, while pharmacologically augmenting gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) transmission attenuates cocaine craving. Here, we propose that prolonged cocaine withdrawal downregulates GABAergic transmission and its important regulator gephyrin in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in cocaine-conditioned place-preference (CPP) rats. METHODS: CPP test, patch clamp, and Western blot analysis are engaged to test this proposal...
November 30, 2016: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895571/neural-mechanisms-of-positive-mood-induced-modulation-of-reality-monitoring
#15
Karuna Subramaniam, Jeevit Gill, Patrick Slattery, Aditi Shastri, Daniel H Mathalon, Srikantan Nagarajan, Sophia Vinogradov
This study investigates the neural mechanisms of mood induced modulation of cognition, specifically, on reality monitoring abilities. Reality monitoring is the ability to accurately distinguish the source of self-generated information from externally-presented contextual information. When participants were in a positive mood, compared to a neutral mood, they significantly improved their source memory identification abilities, particularly for self-generated information. However, being in a negative mood had no effect on reality monitoring abilities...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894368/effects-of-behavioural-activation-on-the-neural-basis-of-other-perspective-self-referential-processing-in-subthreshold-depression-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#16
S Shiota, Y Okamoto, G Okada, K Takagaki, M Takamura, A Mori, S Yokoyama, Y Nishiyama, R Jinnin, R I Hashimoto, S Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890744/gene-expression-of-pro-opiomelanocortin-and-melanocortin-receptors-is-regulated-in-the-hypothalamus-and-mesocorticolimbic-system-following-nicotine-administration
#17
Damla E Tapinc, Rabia Ilgin, Egemen Kaya, Oguz Gozen, Muzeyyen Ugur, Ersin O Koylu, Lutfiye Kanit, Aysegul Keser, Burcu Balkan
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and their receptors have been shown to play important roles in natural and drug-induced reward and reinforcement. Reward process may involve the regulation of POMC gene expression and the gene expression of POMC-derived peptide receptors. The present study investigated the alterations observed in the transcript levels of POMC, melanocortin 3 (MC3R), melanocortin 4 (MC4R) and mu-opioid receptors (MOR) in the hypothalamus and mesocorticolimbic system during nicotine exposure...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890541/the-expression-of-plasticity-related-genes-in-an-acute-model-of-stress-is-modulated-by-chronic-desipramine-in-a-time-dependent-manner-within-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Nicoletta Nava, Giulia Treccani, Heidi Kaastrup Müller, Maurizio Popoli, Gregers Wegener, Betina Elfving
It is well established that stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Stress-induced alteration of synaptic plasticity has been hypothesized to underlie the morphological changes observed by neuroimaging in psychiatric patients in key regions such as hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). We have recently shown that a single acute stress exposure produces significant short-term alterations of structural plasticity within medial PFC. These alterations were partially prevented by previous treatment with chronic desipramine (DMI)...
November 24, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890323/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-generates-pre-stimulus-theta-coherence-desynchronization-a-schema-instantiation-hypothesis
#19
Asaf Gilboa, Morris Moscovitch
The ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in monitoring of memory veracity, and more recently also in memory schema functions. In our model of strategic retrieval the two are related. We have proposed that the vmPFC has two schema-dependent functions: (i) to establish context-relevant templates against which the output of memory systems can be compared; (ii) to mediate automatic decision monitoring processes to ensure that only those responses that meet the criterion are enacted...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888020/neural-correlates-of-affective-empathy-and-reinforcement-learning-in-boys-with-conduct-problems-fmri-evidence-from-a-gambling-task
#20
Christina Schwenck, Angela Ciaramidaro, Marina Selivanova, Jennifer Tournay, Christine M Freitag, Michael Siniatchkin
BACKGROUND: Conduct problems (CP) comprise abnormal behaviors associated with aberrant aspects of affective empathy as well as learning. However, behavioral measures for affective empathy are challenging, and previous results concerning learning in patients with CP are inconsistent. METHODS: Nineteen boys with CP and 24 typically developing (TD) boys aged 11-17 years (M=14.34, SD=1.93) participated in the study. An ultimatum-game was applied in order to elicit the feeling of like or dislike towards the opponent for a subsequent gambling task, which was played by the opponents (OTHER-condition) and by the participants themselves (SELF-condition)...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
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