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Medial prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244164/cortical-and-subcortical-brain-changes-in-children-and-adolescents-with-narcolepsy-type-1
#1
Manuela Tondelli, Fabio Pizza, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Giuseppe Plazzi, Stefano Meletti
Study Objectives: Neuroimaging studies on structural alterations in patients with type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) have shown controversial and heterogeneous results. The purpose of this study was to investigate microstructural brain changes in patients with NT1 close to disease onset. Methods: We examined cortical and subcortical grey matter volumes in 20 drug-naïve children and adolescents with NT1 compared with 19 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry, shape and volumetric analyses, and cortical thickness analysis were used...
December 13, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243121/neural-processing-of-food-and-monetary-rewards-is-modulated-by-metabolic-state
#2
Mushfa Yousuf, Marcus Heldmann, Martin Göttlich, Thomas F Münte, Nuria Doñamayor
In humans, food is considered a powerful primary reinforcer, whereas money is a secondary reinforcer, as it gains a value through learning experience. Here, we aimed to identify the neural regions supporting the processing of food-related reinforcers, relate it to the neural underpinnings of monetary reinforcers, and explore their modulation by metabolic state (hunger vs satiety). Twenty healthy male participants were tested in two experimental sessions, once hungry and once satiated, using functional magnetic resonance imaging...
December 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242822/abstinence-from-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-produces-discrete-changes-in-glutamatergic-synapses-onto-deep-layer-5-6-neurons-from-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices
#3
José I Pena-Bravo, Carmela M Reichel, Antonieta Lavin
Glutamatergic signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in drug addiction and relapse. The mPFC is functionally subdivided into dorsal (prelimbic, PL) and ventral (infralimbic, IL) regions, and evidence suggests a differential role of these two divisions in the control of drug seeking and taking; however, there is a dearth of information on the cocaine-induced adaptations in PL- and IL-mPFC synaptic glutamate transmission and their regulation of behavioral responses to cocaine-associated stimuli...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242119/pharmacological-modulation-of-ampa-receptor-phosphorylation-by-dopamine-and-muscarinic-receptor-agents-in-the-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#4
Bing Xue, Li-Min Mao, Dao-Zhong Jin, John Q Wang
Two key transmitters in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dopamine and acetylcholine, are believed to interact with each other to modulate local glutamatergic transmission, although molecular mechanisms underlying their crosstalk are poorly understood. Here we investigated effects of pharmacological manipulations of dopamine and muscarinic receptors on phosphorylation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in the adult rat mPFC in vivo. We found that an agonist selective for Gαs-coupled dopamine D1 receptors, SKF81297, increased AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit phosphorylation at a protein kinase A-sensitive site (S845), while SKF81297 had no effect on GluA1 phosphorylation at S831...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241651/distinct-roles-of-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-probdnf-in-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#5
Wei Sun, Xiaoliang Li, Lei An
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been investigated for its positive role in regulation of fear acquisition and memory. The precursor of BDNF, proBDNF, has been identified as different protein from its mature form. The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are functionally distinct in fear behavior. However, the role of PL and IL proBDNF in fear memory is unclear. Here, through the infusion of cleavage-resistant proBDNF and its antibody, we identified the dissociable roles of PL and IL proBDNF in fear expression and extinction memory as well as explored proBDNF's potential mechanism of action...
December 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241650/regional-gray-matter-volume-mediates-the-relationship-between-maternal-emotional-warmth-and-gratitude
#6
Junyi Yang, Dongtao Wei, Kangcheng Wang, Zili Yi, Jiang Qiu
Researchers have examined how parenting behavior influences individuals' brain structure and behavioral development, primarily among people who have experienced maltreatment. However, information relating to the anatomical structure associated with the parenting behavior in young healthy individuals who have not experienced maltreatment is scant. Gratitude is an important aspect of human sociality. Both the extent to which parenting behavior influences gratitude and the neural basis of the relationship between parenting behavior and gratitude are unclear...
December 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240804/different-involvement-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorso-lateral-striatum-in-automatic-and-controlled-processing-of-a-future-conditioned-stimulus
#7
Francisco Pérez-Díaz, Estrella Díaz, Natividad Sánchez, Juan Pedro Vargas, John M Pearce, Juan Carlos López
Recent studies support the idea that stimulus processing in latent inhibition can vary during the course of preexposure. Controlled attentional mechanisms are said to be important in the early stages of preexposure, while in later stages animals adopt automatic processing of the stimulus to be used for conditioning. Given this distinction, it is possible that both types of processing are governed by different neural systems, affecting differentially the retrieval of information about the stimulus. In the present study we tested if a lesion to the dorso-lateral striatum or to the medial prefrontal cortex has a selective effect on exposure to the future conditioned stimulus (CS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240023/immediate-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-obsession-induced-anxiety-in-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-pilot-study
#8
Doron Todder, Adi Gershi, Zvi Perry, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Levine, Keren Avirame
OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has immediate effects on brain activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of tDCS to regulate obsession-induced anxiety immediately after symptom provocation in patients with refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Twelve patients with refractory OCD received cathode, anode, and sham transcranial direct current stimulation over the medial prefrontal cortex conjugant to pharmacological treatment in a crossover design...
December 12, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239776/differential-release-of-dopamine-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-evoked-by-low-versus-high-frequency-medial-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation
#9
Daniel F Hill, Kate L Parent, Christopher W Atcherley, Stephen L Cowen, Michael L Heien
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coordinates goal-directed behaviors, which may be mediated through mPFC regulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, frequency-specific oscillatory activity between the frontal cortex and downstream structures may facilitate inter-region communication. Although high-frequency (e.g., 60 Hz) mPFC stimulation is known to increase basal dopamine levels in the NAc, little is known about how phasic dopamine release is affected by mPFC stimulation...
November 15, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234834/contributions-of-prolonged-contingent-and-non-contingent-cocaine-exposure-to-escalation-of-cocaine-intake-and-glutamatergic-gene-expression
#10
Kyle L Ploense, Philip Vieira, Lana Bubalo, Gema Olivarria, Amanda E Carr, Karen K Szumlinski, Tod E Kippin
Similar to the pattern observed in people with substance abuse disorders, laboratory animals will exhibit escalation of cocaine intake when the drug is available over prolonged periods of time. Here, we investigated the contribution of behavioral contingency of cocaine administration on escalation of cocaine intake and gene expression in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in adult male rats. Rats were allowed to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) under either limited cocaine-(1 h/day), prolonged cocaine-(6 h/day), or limited cocaine-(1 h/day) plus yoked cocaine-access (5 h/day); a control group received access to saline (1 h/day)...
December 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234739/effects-of-cross-rearing-with-social-peers-on-myelination-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Manabu Makinodan, Kazuki Okumura, Daisuke Ikawa, Yasunori Yamashita, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Michihiro Toritsuka, Sohei Kimoto, Takahira Yamauchi, Takashi Komori, Yoshinori Kayashima, Hiroki Yoshino, Akio Wanaka, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, poor communication skills, and repetitive/restrictive behaviors. Recent studies have indicated that early rehabilitative intervention can alleviate the symptoms of individuals with ASD. However, it remains unknown whether rehabilitative intervention can restore brain structures such as myelin, which generally shows abnormalities in individuals with ASD. Therefore, in the present study, we used a mouse model of ASD (BTBR mice) that demonstrated asocial behaviors and hypomyelination in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to investigate whether interaction with social peers (C57BL/6J mice) has an effect on myelination...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232484/juvenile-social-experience-and-differential-age-related-changes-in-the-dendritic-morphologies-of-subareas-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats
#12
B T Himmler, R Mychasiuk, A Nakahashi, S M Himmler, S M Pellis, B Kolb
Juvenile social interactions have been shown to influence the dendritic complexity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, social play induces pruning of the cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas interacting with multiple partners, whether those interactions involve play or not, increases the complexity of cells in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies suggest that these changes differ in their stability during adulthood. In the present study, rats were reared in groups of either four (quads) or two (pairs) and the brains of the rats from each rearing condition were then harvested at 60 days (i...
December 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228119/rostro-caudal-connectional-heterogeneity-of-the-dorsal-part-of-the-macaque-prefrontal-area-46
#13
Elena Borra, Carolina Giulia Ferroni, Marzio Gerbella, Valentina Giorgetti, Chiara Mangiaracina, Stefano Rozzi, Giuseppe Luppino
Based on neural tracer injections we found evidence for 3 connectionally distinct sectors of the dorsal part of the macaque prefrontal area 46 (46d), located at different rostro-caudal levels. Specifically, a rostral sector displayed an almost exclusive and extensive intraprefrontal connectivity and extraprefrontal connections limited to superior temporal areas and the caudal cingulate area 31. Conversely, both a middle and a caudal sector were characterized by robust, topographically organized connections with parietal and frontal sensorimotor areas...
December 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225975/correlation-between-traits-of-emotion-based-impulsivity-and-intrinsic-default-mode-network-activity
#14
Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Şükrü B Demiral, Yi Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Negative urgency (NU) and positive urgency (PU) are implicated in several high-risk behaviors, such as eating disorders, substance use disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury behavior. The current study aimed to explore the possible link between trait of urgency and brain activity at rest. We assessed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in 85 healthy volunteers. Trait urgency measures were related to ALFF in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225570/flexible-and-stable-value-coding-areas-in-caudate-head-and-tail-receive-anatomically-distinct-cortical-and-subcortical-inputs
#15
Whitney S Griggs, Hyoung F Kim, Ali Ghazizadeh, M Gabriela Costello, Kathryn M Wall, Okihide Hikosaka
Anatomically distinct areas within the basal ganglia encode flexible- and stable-value memories for visual objects (Hikosaka et al., 2014), but an important question remains: do they receive inputs from the same or different brain areas or neurons? To answer this question, we first located flexible and stable value-coding areas in the caudate head (CDh) and caudate tail (CDt) of two rhesus macaque monkeys, and then injected different retrograde tracers into these areas of each monkey. We found that CDh and CDt received different inputs from several cortical and subcortical areas including temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, amygdala, claustrum and thalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225045/post-reexposure-administration-of-riluzole-attenuates-the-reconsolidation-of-conditioned-fear-memory-in-rats
#16
Kie Akagi, Misa Yamada, Akiyoshi Saitoh, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
Recently, we demonstrated that riluzole, which has been shown to block the glutamatergic system, facilitates fear extinction in rats. Here, we undertook experiments on contextual fear conditioning to clarify the actions of riluzole on the reconsolidation of fear memory in rats. We used the fast-acting benzodiazepine midazolam as a reconsolidation-inhibiting control drug. We demonstrated that riluzole (3 mg/kg) and midazolam (1 mg/kg) impaired the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Results from spontaneous recovery experiments also suggested that riluzole attenuated reconsolidation...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224779/combined-social-and-spatial-coding-in-a-descending-projection-from-the-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Malavika Murugan, Hee Jae Jang, Michelle Park, Ellia M Miller, Julia Cox, Joshua P Taliaferro, Nathan F Parker, Varun Bhave, Hong Hur, Yupu Liang, Alexander R Nectow, Jonathan W Pillow, Ilana B Witten
Social behaviors are crucial to all mammals. Although the prelimbic cortex (PL, part of medial prefrontal cortex) has been implicated in social behavior, it is not clear which neurons are relevant or how they contribute. We found that PL contains anatomically and molecularly distinct subpopulations that target three downstream regions that have been implicated in social behavior: the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and ventral tegmental area. Activation of NAc-projecting PL neurons (PL-NAc), but not the other subpopulations, decreased the preference for a social target...
November 22, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223742/network-analysis-reveals-disrupted-functional-brain-circuitry-in-drug-naive-social-anxiety-disorder
#18
REVIEW
Xun Yang, Jin Liu, Yajing Meng, Mingrui Xia, Zaixu Cui, Xi Wu, Xinyu Hu, Wei Zhang, Gaolang Gong, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Yong He
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and disabling condition characterized by excessive fear and avoidance of public scrutiny. Neuroimaging studies have suggested that the emotional and behavior deficits in SAD are associated with abnormalities in regional brain function and functional connectivity. However, little is known about whether intrinsic functional brain networks in patients with SAD are topologically disrupted. Here, we collected resting-state fMRI data from 33 drug-naive patients with SAD and 32 healthy controls (HC), constructed functional networks with 34 predefined regions based on previous meta-analytic research with task-based fMRI in SAD, and performed network-based statistic and graph-theory analyses...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221833/giving-others-the-option-of-choice-an-fmri-study-on-low-cost-cooperation
#19
Imke L J Lemmers-Jansen, Lydia Krabbendam, David M Amodio, Niels J Van Doesum, Dick J Veltman, Paul A M Van Lange
Successful social relationships require a consideration of a partner's thoughts and intentions. This aspect of social life is captured in the social mindfulness paradigm (SoMi task), in which participants make decisions that either limit or preserve options for their interaction partner's subsequent choice. Here we investigated the neural correlates of spontaneous socially mindful and unmindful behaviours. Functional magnetic resonance data were acquired from 47 healthy adolescents and young adults (age 16-27) as they completed the SoMi task...
December 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221830/distinguishable-memory-retrieval-networks-for-collaboratively-and-non-collaboratively-learned-information
#20
Flora Vanlangendonck, Atsuko Takashima, Roel M Willems, Peter Hagoort
Learning often occurs in communicative and collaborative settings, yet almost all research into the neural basis of memory relies on participants encoding and retrieving information on their own. We investigated whether learning linguistic labels in a collaborative context at least partly relies on cognitively and neurally distinct representations, as compared to learning in an individual context. Healthy human participants learned labels for sets of abstract shapes in three different tasks. They came up with labels with another person in a collaborative communication task (collaborative condition), by themselves (individual condition), or were given pre-determined unrelated labels to learn by themselves (arbitrary condition)...
December 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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