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Medial prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471053/morphological-and-functional-evidence-of-increased-excitatory-signaling-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-during-ethanol-withdrawal
#1
Florence P Varodayan, Harpreet Sidhu, Max Kreifeldt, Marisa Roberto, Candice Contet
Excessive alcohol consumption in humans induces deficits in decision making and emotional processing, which indicates a dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present study aimed to determine the impact of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation on mouse medial PFC pyramidal neurons. Data were collected 6-8 days into withdrawal from 7 weeks of CIE exposure, a time point when mice exhibit behavioral symptoms of withdrawal. We found that spine maturity in prelimbic (PL) layer 2/3 neurons was increased, while dendritic spines in PL layer 5 neurons or infralimbic (IL) neurons were not affected...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468384/redirection-of-neuroblast-migration-from-the-rostral-migratory-stream-into-a-lesion-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-rats
#2
Jannis Gundelach, Michael Koch
Clinical treatment of structural brain damage today is largely limited to symptomatic approaches and the avoidance of secondary injury. However, neuronal precursor cells are constantly produced within specified regions of the mammalian brain throughout life. Here we evaluate the potential of the known chemoattractive properties of the glycoprotein laminin on neuroblasts to relocate the cells into damaged brain areas. Injection of a thin laminin tract, leading from the rostral migratory stream to an excitotoxic lesion within the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, enabled neuroblasts to migrate away from their physiological route towards the olfactory bulb into the lesion site...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466364/abnormalities-in-gray-matter-volume-in-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-and-their-relation-to-lifetime-depression-a-vbm-study
#3
Salvatore Aguilar-Ortiz, Pilar Salgado-Pineda, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Juan C Pascual, Daniel Vega, Joaquim Soler, Cristina Brunel, Ana Martin-Blanco, Angel Soto, Joan Ribas, Teresa Maristany, Salvador Sarró, Raymond Salvador, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Edith Pomarol-Clotet, Peter J McKenna
BACKGROUND: Structural imaging studies of borderline personality disorder (BPD) have found regions of reduced cortical volume, but these have varied considerably across studies. Reduced hippocampus and amygdala volume have also been a regular finding in studies using conventional volumetric measurement. How far comorbid major depression, which is common in BPD and can also affect in brain structure, influences the findings is not clear. METHODS: Seventy-six women with BPD and 76 matched controls were examined using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464530/difference-in-regional-neural-fluctuations-and-functional-connectivity-in-crohn-s-disease-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#4
Chunhui Bao, Peng Liu, Huirong Liu, Xiaoming Jin, Yin Shi, Luyi Wu, Xiaoqing Zeng, Jianye Zhang, Di Wang, Vince D Calhoun, Jie Tian, Huangan Wu
Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are shown to have abnormal changes in brain structures. This study aimed to further investigate whether these patients have abnormal brain activities and network connectivity. Sixty patients with CD and 40 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) were used to assess differences in spontaneous regional brain activity and functional connectivity...
February 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462464/determining-brain-mechanisms-that-underpin-analgesia-induced-by-the-use-of-pain-coping-skills
#5
Leonie J Cole, Kim L Bennell, Yasmin Ahamed, Christina Bryant, Francis Keefe, G Lorimer Moseley, Paul Hodges, Michael J Farrell
Objective: Cognitive behavioral therapies decrease pain and improve mood and function in people with osteoarthritis. This study assessed the effects of coping strategies on the central processing of knee pain in people with osteoarthritis of the knees. Methods: Mechanical pressure was applied to exacerbate knee pain in 28 people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Reports of pain intensity and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures of pain-related brain activity were recorded with and without the concurrent use of pain coping skills...
February 16, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461983/corticosterone-impairs-flexible-adjustment-of-spatial-navigation-in-an-associative-place-reward-learning-task
#6
Silviu I Rusu, Jan V Lankelma, Jadin C Jackson, Laura A Van Mourik-Donga, Marian Joëls, Cyriel M A Pennartz
Cognitive challenges are often accompanied by a discharge of stress hormones, which in turn modulate multiple brain areas. Among these, the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal cortex are critically involved in high-order cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and decision-making. Previous studies assessing the effects of corticosterone on spatial memory found an increase or a decrease in performance depending on the timing of stress hormone discharge relative to the behavioral task. Most of these studies, however, made use of aversively motivated behaviors, whereas less is known about corticosteroid effects on flexible learning during reward-driven spatial navigation...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461650/sex-matters-females-in-proestrus-show-greater-diazepam-anxiolysis-and-bdnf-and-parvalbumin-positive-neurons-than-males
#7
Rebecca Ravenelle, Ariel K Berman, Jeffrey La, Briana Mason, Evans Asumadu, Chandra Yelleswarapu, S Tiffany Donaldson
In humans and animal models, sex differences are reported for anxiety-like behavior and response to anxiogenic stimuli. In the current work, we studied anxiety-like behavior and response to the prototypical anti-anxiety drug, diazepam. We used 6th generation outbred lines of adult Long Evans rats with high and low anxiety-like behavior phenotypes to investigate the impact of proestrus on the baseline and diazepam-induced behavior. At three doses of diazepam (0, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), we measured anxiogenic responses on the elevated plus maze of adult male and female rats...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460354/longitudinal-associations-between-family-aggression-externalizing-behavior-and-the-structure-and-function-of-the-amygdala
#8
Darby Saxbe, Hannah Lyden, Sarah I Gimbel, Matthew Sachs, Larissa B Del Piero, Gayla Margolin, Jonas T Kaplan
Using longitudinal data from 21 adolescents, we assessed family aggression (via mother, father, and youth report) in early adolescence, externalizing behavior in mid-adolescence, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in late adolescence. Amygdalae were manually traced, and used as seed regions for resting state analyses. Both family aggression and subsequent externalizing behavior predicted larger right amygdala volumes and stronger amygdala-frontolimbic/salience network connectivity and weaker amygdala-posterior cingulate connectivity...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458058/lithium-modulates-the-muscarinic-facilitation-of-synaptic-plasticity-and-theta-gamma-coupling-in-the-hippocampal-prefrontal-pathway
#9
Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar, João P Leite, Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rodrigo N Romcy-Pereira
Mood disorders are associated to functional unbalance in mesolimbic and frontal cortical circuits. As a commonly used mood stabilizer, lithium acts through multiple biochemical pathways, including those activated by muscarinic cholinergic receptors crucial for hippocampal-prefrontal communication. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of lithium on prefrontal cortex responses under cholinergic drive. Lithium-treated rats were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with a ventricular cannula for muscarinic activation, a recording electrode in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and a stimulating electrode in the intermediate hippocampal CA1...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457245/longitudinal-relationships-among-depressive-symptoms-cortisol-and-brain-atrophy-in-the-neocortex-and-the-hippocampus
#10
A Lebedeva, A Sundström, L Lindgren, A Stomby, D Aarsland, E Westman, B Winblad, T Olsson, L Nyberg
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with accelerated aging and age-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess the link between depressive symptoms, brain atrophy, and cortisol levels. METHOD: Participants from the Betula prospective cohort study (mean age = 59 years, SD = 13.4 years) underwent clinical, neuropsychological and brain 3T MRI assessments at baseline and a 4-year follow-up...
February 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454957/mixed-selectivity-encoding-and-action-selection-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-during-threat-assessment
#11
REVIEW
Itamar S Grunfeld, Ekaterina Likhtik
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulates expression of emotional behavior. The mPFC combines multivariate information from its inputs, and depending on the imminence of threat, activates downstream networks that either increase or decrease the expression of anxiety-related motor behavior and autonomic activation. Here, we selectively highlight how subcortical input to the mPFC from two example structures, the amygdala and ventral hippocampus, help shape mixed selectivity encoding and action selection during emotional processing...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454007/destruction-of-noradrenergic-terminals-increases-dopamine-concentration-and-reduces-dopamine-metabolism-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Rita Gálosi, Zoltán Petykó, Veronika Kállai, Attila Tóth, Tamás Ollmann, László Péczely, Anita Kovács, Beata Berta, László Lénárd
Effects of destroyed noradrenergic (NE) innervation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were examined on dopamine (DA) content and metabolism. 6-hydroxy-DOPA (6-OHDOPA) or 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA) in combination with a potent DA reuptake inhibitor GBR 12935 or 6-OHDA were injected bilaterally into the mPFC in separate groups of animals. In addition, GBR 12935 or vehicle was injected into the mPFC in two other groups of animals as control experiments. NE and DA concentrations from postmortem tissue of the mPFC were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453447/embryonic-stem-cell-transplants-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-in-a-rodent-model-of-autism
#13
Jennifer J Donegan, Angela M Boley, Daniel J Lodge
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by disruptions in three core behavioral domains: deficits in social interaction, impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior or thought. There are currently no drugs available for the treatment of the core symptoms of ASD and drugs that target comorbid symptoms often have serious adverse side effects, suggesting an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies. The neurobiology of autism is complex, but converging evidence suggests that ASD involves disruptions in the inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmitter system...
February 7, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452227/age-and-experience-dependent-changes-in-egr-1-expression-during-the-ontogeny-of-the-context-preexposure-facilitation-effect-cpfe
#14
P A Robinson-Drummer, T Chakraborty, N A Heroux, J B Rosen, M E Stanton
The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a variant of contextual fear conditioning in which acquisition of the contextual representation and association of the retrieved contextual memory with an immediate foots-hock are separated by 24hrs. During the CPFE, learning- related expression patterns of the early growth response -1 gene (Egr-1) vary based on training phase and brain sub-region in adult and adolescent rats (Asok, Schreiber, Jablonski, Rosen, & Stanton, 2013; Shreiber et al., 2014; Chakraborty, Asok, Stanton, & Rosen, 2016)...
February 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449430/a-critical-role-for-the-nucleus-reuniens-in-long-term-but-not-short-term-associative-recognition-memory-formation
#15
G R I Barker, E C Warburton
Recognition memory for single items requires the perirhinal cortex (PRH), while recognition of an item and its associated location, requires a functional interaction between the PRH, hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). While the precise mechanisms through which these interactions are effected are unknown, the nucleus reuniens (NRe) has bidirectional connections with each regions and hence may play a role in recognition memory. Here we investigated, in male rats, whether specific manipulations of NRe function affected performance of recognition memory for single items, object location or object-in-place associations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448234/gene-expression-changes-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-adolescent-alcohol-preferring-p-rats-following-binge-like-alcohol-drinking
#16
Jeanette N McClintick, William J McBride, Richard L Bell, Zheng-Ming Ding, Yunlong Liu, Xiaoling Xuei, Howard J Edenberg
Binge drinking of alcohol during adolescence is a serious public health concern with long-term consequences, including decreased hippocampal and prefrontal cortex volume and deficits in memory. We used RNA sequencing to assess the effects of adolescent binge drinking on gene expression in these regions. Male adolescent alcohol-preferring (P) rats were exposed to repeated binge drinking (three 1-h sessions/day during the dark/cycle, 5 days/week for 3 weeks starting at 28 days of age; ethanol intakes of 2.5-3 g/kg/session)...
September 14, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446965/associations-between-coherent-neural-activity-in-the-brain-s-value-system-during-antismoking-messages-and-reductions-in-smoking
#17
Nicole Cooper, Steven Tompson, Matthew B O'Donnell, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett, Emily B Falk
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and illness. One common strategy for reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking and other health risk behaviors is the use of graphic warning labels (GWLs). This has led to widespread interest from the perspective of health psychology in understanding the mechanisms of GWL effectiveness. Here we investigated differences in how the brain responds to negative, graphic warning label-inspired antismoking ads and neutral control ads, and we probed how this response related to future behavior...
February 15, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445767/serotonin-differentially-regulates-l5-pyramidal-cell-classes-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats-and-mice
#18
Mary C Elliott, Peter M Tanaka, Ryan W Schwark, Rodrigo Andrade
The prefrontal cortex receives a dense serotonergic innervation that plays an important role in its regulation. However, how serotonin regulates different pyramidal and interneuron cell classes in this area is incompletely understood. Previous work in rats has shown that serotonin differentially regulates two classes of pyramidal cells in layer 5. It excites one class by activating 5-HT 2A receptors, whereas it more subtly modulates the integrative properties of the other by co-activating 5-HT 1A and 5-HT 2A receptors...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445337/cocaine-induced-changes-in-low-dimensional-attractors-of-local-field-potentials-in-optogenetic-mice
#19
Sorinel A Oprisan, Julia Imperatore, Jessica Helms, Tamas Tompa, Antonieta Lavin
Optogenetically evoked local field potential (LFP) recorded from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of mice during basal conditions and following a systemic cocaine administration were analyzed. Blue light stimuli were delivered to mPFC through a fiber optic every 2 s and each trial was repeated 100 times. As in the previous study, we used a surrogate data method to check that nonlinearity was present in the experimental LFPs and only used the last 1.5 s of steady activity to measure the LFPs phase resetting induced by the brief 10 ms light stimulus...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444427/an-excitatory-neural-assembly-encodes-short-term-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#20
Yonglu Tian, Chaojuan Yang, Yaxuan Cui, Feng Su, Yongjie Wang, Yangzhen Wang, Peijiang Yuan, Shujiang Shang, Hao Li, Jizong Zhao, Desheng Zhu, Shiming Tang, Peng Cao, Yunbo Liu, Xunli Wang, Liecheng Wang, Wenbo Zeng, Haifei Jiang, Fei Zhao, Minhua Luo, Wei Xiong, Zilong Qiu, Xiang-Yao Li, Chen Zhang
Short-term memory (STM) is crucial for animals to hold information for a small period of time. Persistent or recurrent neural activity, together with neural oscillations, is known to encode the STM at the cellular level. However, the coding mechanisms at the microcircuitry level remain a mystery. Here, we performed two-photon imaging on behaving mice to monitor the activity of neuronal microcircuitry. We discovered a neuronal subpopulation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that exhibited emergent properties in a context-dependent manner underlying a STM-like behavior paradigm...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
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