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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017817/towards-a-better-understanding-on-the-role-of-prediction-error-on-memory-processes-from-bench-to-clinic
#1
María C Krawczyk, Rodrigo S Fernández, María E Pedreira, Mariano M Boccia
psychology defines Prediction Error (PE) as a mismatch between expected and current events. It represents a unifier concept within the memory field, as it is the driving force of memory acquisition and updating. Prediction error induces updating of consolidated memories in strength or content by memory reconsolidation. This process has two different neurobiological phases, which involves the destabilization (labilization) of a consolidated memory followed by its restabilization. The aim of this work is to emphasize the functional role of PE on the neurobiology of learning and memory, integrating and discussing different research areas: behavioural, neurobiological, computational and clinical psychiatry...
December 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006997/guidelines-for-biological-treatment-of-substance-use-and-related-disorders-part-1-alcoholism-first-revision
#2
Michael Soyka, Henry R Kranzler, Victor Hesselbrock, Siegfried Kasper, Jochen Mutschler, Hans-Jürgen Möller
These practice guidelines for the biological treatment of alcohol use disorders are an update of the first edition, published in 2008, which was developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). For this 2016 revision, we performed a systematic review (MEDLINE/PUBMED database, Cochrane Library) of all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of alcoholism and extracted data from national guidelines. The Task Force evaluated the identified literature with respect to the strength of evidence for the efficacy of each medication and subsequently categorised it into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5)...
December 23, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990322/recent-advances-and-controversies-in-peripartum-depression
#3
Jennifer L Payne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update readers on recent controversies and findings on the underlying biology and clinical management of peripartum depression. RECENT FINDINGS: Topics discussed include the discovery and replication of two epigenetic biomarkers of peripartum depression, two well controlled studies that do NOT find associations between in utero antidepressant exposure and cardiac defects and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and ongoing controversy on whether antidepressant use during pregnancy prevents peripartum depression and whether or not hormonal treatments have a place in the management of postpartum depression...
September 2016: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986430/computational-approaches-to-schizophrenia-a-perspective-on-negative-symptoms
#4
REVIEW
Lorenz Deserno, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous spectrum disorder often associated with detrimental negative symptoms. In recent years, computational approaches to psychiatry have attracted growing attention. Negative symptoms have shown some overlap with general cognitive impairments and were also linked to impaired motivational processing in brain circuits implementing reward prediction. In this review, we outline how computational approaches may help to provide a better understanding of negative symptoms in terms of the potentially underlying behavioural and biological mechanisms...
December 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798176/behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-reduced-updating-of-alternative-options-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-during-flexible-decision-making
#5
Andrea M F Reiter, Lorenz Deserno, Thomas Kallert, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
: Addicted individuals continue substance use despite the knowledge of harmful consequences and often report having no choice but to consume. Computational psychiatry accounts have linked this clinical observation to difficulties in making flexible and goal-directed decisions in dynamic environments via consideration of potential alternative choices. To probe this in alcohol-dependent patients (n = 43) versus healthy volunteers (n = 35), human participants performed an anticorrelated decision-making task during functional neuroimaging...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785752/training-psychiatry-residents-in-psychotherapy-the-role-of-manualized-treatments
#6
REVIEW
Joshua Pagano, Brandon N Kyle, Toni L Johnson, Sy Atezaz Saeed
Evidence-based treatment and manualized psychotherapy have a recent but rich history. As interest and research have progressed, defining the role of treatment manuals in resident training and clinical practice has become more important. Although there is not a universal definition of treatment manual, most clinicians and researchers agree that treatment manuals are an essential piece of evidence-based therapy, and that despite several limitations, they offer advantages in training residents in psychotherapy...
October 27, 2016: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683966/sport-psychiatry-and-psychotherapeutic-intervention-circa-2016
#7
Mark A Stillman, Tyler Brown, Eva C Ritvo, Ira D Glick
The focus of this paper is to provide an update on the use of psychotherapy as a treatment in sport psychiatry, and the use of this approach to address common psychiatric issues encountered with this population. Specifically, family therapy, individual therapy, and group psychotherapy prescribed alone, or in combination with medication, will be examined as methods to manage issues/disorders often associated with athletes. These include obsessive-compulsive rituals and perfectionism, and aggressive and risky behaviours, such as gambling, infidelity, substance use, and suicidal ideation, narcissism, and aggression in the context of individual and team competitive sports...
August 12, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623121/-advocacy-for-the-establishment-of-a-comprehensive-strategy-to-reduce-the-burden-of-schizophrenic-disorders
#8
D Leguay
This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention...
October 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485931/-psychosocial-therapies-in-severe-mental-illness-outlook-on-the-update-of-the-dgppn-s3-guideline
#9
Uta Gühne, Thomas Becker, Steffi Riedel-Heller
The Psychiatry Enquête turned 40 years old last year. The S3 guideline "Psychosocial therapies for severe mental illness" is considered to be the last milestone of the reform to date. This paper highlights new impulses resulting from the S3 guideline for psychiatric care and provides an outlook on the update, expected in 2017. Many of the interventions reported in the S3 guideline are now supported by a broader evidence base.
August 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463033/psychiatric-medication-preferences-of-sports-psychiatrists
#10
Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado
OBJECTIVES: When prescribing psychiatric medications to athletes, it is important to consider issues that are especially important for this population, including side effects, safety concerns, and anti-doping policies. Only one report, from 2000, describes the prescribing preferences of psychiatrists who work with athletes. This manuscript aims to update the findings from that report, so as to help inform prescribing practices of primary care physicians, psychiatrists, and other clinicians who work with athletes...
July 26, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401940/clinical-trial-network-for-the-promotion-of-clinical-research-for-rare-diseases-in-japan-muscular-dystrophy-clinical-trial-network
#11
Reiko Shimizu, Katsuhisa Ogata, Akemi Tamaura, En Kimura, Maki Ohata, Eri Takeshita, Harumasa Nakamura, Shin'ichi Takeda, Hirofumi Komaki
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most commonly inherited neuromuscular disease. Therapeutic agents for the treatment of rare disease, namely "orphan drugs", have recently drawn the attention of researchers and pharmaceutical companies. To ensure the successful conduction of clinical trials to evaluate novel treatments for patients with rare diseases, an appropriate infrastructure is needed. One of the effective solutions for the lack of infrastructure is to establish a network of rare diseases...
July 11, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379966/developing-a-digital-medicine-system-in-psychiatry-ingestion-detection-rate-and-latency-period
#12
Deborah Profit, Shashank Rohatagi, Cathy Zhao, Ainslie Hatch, John P Docherty, Timothy S Peters-Strickland
BACKGROUND: A digital medicine system (DMS) has been developed to measure and report adherence to an atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, in psychiatric patients. The DMS consists of 3 components: ingestible sensor embedded in a medication tablet, wearable sensor, and secure mobile and cloud-based applications. An umbrella study protocol was designed to rapidly assess the technical performance and safety of the DMS in multiple substudies to guide the technology development. METHODS: Two sequential substudies enrolled 30 and 29 healthy volunteers between March-April 2014 and February-March 2015, respectively, to assess detection accuracy of the ingestible sensor by the DMS and the latency period between ingestion and detection of the ingestion by the wearable sensor or the cloud-based server...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351587/hesitation-wounds-and-sharp-force-injuries-in-forensic-pathology-and-psychiatry-multidisciplinary-review-of-the-literature-and-study-of-two-cases
#13
Maria-Valeria Karakasi, Evangelos Nastoulis, Stylianos Kapetanakis, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Grigorios Kyropoulos, Pavlos Pavlidis
The aim of this paper was to showcase the significant diagnostic value of hesitation wounds in terms of forensic, psychiatric, and medicolegal interest. A number of studies were reviewed to update and summarize the relevant literature on the incidence, distribution, character, and function of hesitation wounds as well as the sociodemographic variables and psychopathology of the inducers. This study also investigates their importance as a forensic criterion in the distinction between suicide and homicide as well as a psychiatric diagnostic tool in suicide prevention...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239388/teaching-by-teleconference-a-model-for-distance-medical-education-across-two-continents
#14
Adeline Boatin, Joseph Ngonzi, Leslie Bradford, Blair Wylie, Annekathryn Goodman
INTRODUCTION: In Uganda, an estimated 120 obstetrician/gynecologists serve a population of 30 million people demonstrating the need to train additional skilled clinician leaders in reproductive health. In 2012, a partnership was formed with the Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH) in southwest Uganda and the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, USA, in part to increase access to specialist training. This report presents an update in the development of a teaching conference between the institutions...
November 2015: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166759/converging-findings-from-linkage-and-association-analyses-on-susceptibility-genes-for-smoking-and-other-addictions
#15
J Yang, M D Li
Experimental approaches to genetic studies of complex traits evolve with technological advances. How do discoveries using different approaches advance our knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying complex diseases/traits? Do most of the findings of newer techniques, such as genome-wide association study (GWAS), provide more information than older ones, for example, genome-wide linkage study? In this review, we address these issues by developing a nicotine dependence (ND) genetic susceptibility map based on the results obtained by the approaches commonly used in recent years, namely, genome-wide linkage, candidate gene association, GWAS and targeted sequencing...
August 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27129863/potentially-inappropriate-psychotropic-prescription-at-discharge-is-associated-with-lower-functioning-in-the-elderly-psychiatric-inpatients-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Guillaume Fond, Claire Fajula, Daniel Dassa, Lore Brunel, Christophe Lançon, Laurent Boyer
OBJECTIVE: The objectives are to determine the rate of potentially inappropriate psychotropic (PIP) prescription at discharge in the elderly psychiatric inpatients and to determine whether PIP is associated with lowered functioning outcomes. METHODS: Sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment data for all inpatients aged ≥ 65 years consecutively hospitalized during 1 year in 13 psychiatry departments was analyzed. PIP+/PIP- groups were defined according to the French-updated Beers criteria...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996600/nonepileptic-seizures-an-updated-review
#17
REVIEW
David L Perez, W Curt LaFrance
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a functional neurological disorder/conversion disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management, and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions, and outcome studies...
June 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26890227/the-wikiguidelines-smartphone-application-bridging-the-gaps-in-availability-of-evidence-based-smartphone-mental-health-applications
#18
Melvyn W B Zhang, Roger C M Ho, Roger S Mcintyre
Over the past decade, there have been massive advances in technology. These advances in technology have significantly transformed various aspects of healthcare. The advent of E-health and its influence on healthcare practice also implies that there is a paradigm shift in the way healthcare professionals work. Conventionally, healthcare professionals would have to refer to books and journals for updates in treatment algorithms, but with the advent of technology, they could access this information via the web or via various smartphone applications on the go...
July 27, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26800994/the-biological-treatment-of-paraphilic-disorders-an-updated-review
#19
REVIEW
Brian J Holoyda, Denise C Kellaher
Paraphilic disorders are characterized by atypical sexual interests, fantasies, and behaviors that are subjectively distressing to patients or pose a risk of harm to others. By their very nature, some paraphilic disorders may predispose an individual to commit sexual offenses. The biological treatment of paraphilic disorders, then, is of paramount importance for psychiatry and society at large. Three categories of pharmacologic agents commonly used to treat paraphilic disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, synthetic steroidal analogs, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs...
February 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26707496/update-of-inpatient-treatment-for-refractory-chronic-daily-headache
#20
REVIEW
Tzu-Hsien Lai, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a group of headache disorders, in which headaches occur daily or near-daily (>15 days per month) and last for more than 3 months. Important CDH subtypes include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, hemicrania continua, and new daily persistent headache. Other headaches with shorter durations (<4 h/day) are usually not included in CDH. Common comorbidities of CDH are medication overuse headache and various psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety...
January 2016: Current Pain and Headache Reports
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