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Mandy Gollmann, Germaine Frimlova, Simone Just, Gesine Liebetrau, Dagmar Prasa, Anne Stürzebecher, Michael Deters
AIM OF THE STUDY: Poisoning due to substance abuse has changed significantly during the last few years. Therefore, developments of substance abuse reported to the Poisons Information Centre Erfurt were investigated and compared to other circumstances of human exposures during the last 15 years. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all cases of human exposures (intentional abuse, accidental and unknown circumstances, and suicide attempts) for the period 2002-2016 according to substance classes, reasons of exposures, symptom severity, age groups, and gender...
May 2, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Chaisiri Angkurawaranon, Wichuda Jiraporncharoen, Surinporn Likhitsathian, Kanittha Thaikla, Manop Kanato, Usaneya Perngparn, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Apinun Aramrattana
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. DESIGN AND METHODS: National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey...
February 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
K Uerpairojkit, R Anusorntanawat, A Sirisabya, M Chaichalothorn, S Charuluxananan
BACKGROUND: Placental transfer of ephedrine causes fetal effects when compared with phenylephrine. This study compared their drug effects on neonatal parameters after cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-fifty-four women undergoing elective cesarean delivery who needed intravenous vasopressor following spinal anesthesia were randomized into two groups. Group E received boluses of ephedrine 6mg, and Group P phenylephrine 100µg, titrated to maintain systolic blood pressure near baseline values...
November 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
José Navarro-Sánchez, Ana I Argente-García, Yolanda Moliner-Martínez, Daniel Roca-Sanjuán, Dmytro Antypov, Pilar Campíns-Falcó, Matthew J Rosseinsky, Carlos Martí-Gastaldo
We report the use of a chiral Cu(II) 3D metal-organic framework (MOF) based on the tripeptide Gly-l-His-Gly (GHG) for the enantioselective separation of metamphetamine and ephedrine. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that chiral recognition is linked to preferential binding of one of the enantiomers as a result of either stronger or additional H-bonds with the framework that lead to energetically more stable diastereomeric adducts. Solid-phase extraction of a racemic mixture by using Cu(GHG) as the extractive phase permits isolating >50% of the (+)-ephedrine enantiomer as target compound in only 4 min...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Narges Khanjani, Masoomeh Mousavi, Amirreza Dehghanian, Yunes Jahani, Hamid Soori
BACKGROUND: Traffic accidents and traffic-related injuries and mortality have become a major public health concern in Iran. This study aimed to examine the role of drug and alcohol use in motor vehicle accidents in Iran. METHODS: This case-crossover study was conducted on 441 drivers who survived a road traffic crash and were taken to the emergency department of Shahid Rajaee trauma hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran. Data were collected using checklists that included demographic characteristics and drug and alcohol use prior to driving...
August 18, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
O Iriondo, J Zaldibar-Gerrikagoitia, T Rodríguez, J M García, L Aguilera
A 19-year-old male came to the Emergency Room of our hospital due to an episode of dystonic movements and disorientation 4 days after consuming methamphetamine, which evolved to a catatonic frank syndrome and eventually to status epilepticus. Definitive diagnosis was anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, an acute inflammation of the limbic area of autoimmune origin in which early diagnosis and treatment are key elements for the final outcome. In this case, initial normal tests and previous methamphetamine poisoning delayed diagnosis, because inhaled-methamphetamine poisoning causes similar clinical symptoms to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis...
March 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Cristina Manzano Varo, M Ángeles López-Vílchez, Lucía Román Eyo, Jordi García García, Antonio Mur Sierra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Vahid Farnia, Jalal Shakeri, Faezeh Tatari, Toraj Ahmadi Juibari, Hafez Bajoghli, Senoobar Golshani, Sara Hookari, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
Methamphetamine use is increasing worldwide, and the occurrence of psychosis further complicates treatment. This holds also true for Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible predictors of metamphetamine-induced psychosis. 237 methamphetamine users (70.9% with psychosis; mean age: M=33.41 years) took part in the study. A psychiatric interview was performed covering socio-demographic and illness-related information. Male gender, low education, unemployment, being single, a history of mental disorders, and a higher number of previous hospitalizations predicted the occurrence of psychosis, while age and duration of metamphetamine use were excluded from the equation...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
László Kursinszki, Éva Szőke
There is a renewed interest in lobelia alkaloids because of their activity on the central nervous system. Lobeline, the most active of them, a nicotinic receptor ligand and neurotransmitter transporter inhibitor, is a candidate pharmacotherapy for metamphetamine abuse. In the present work, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode was used for investigating the alkaloid profile in Lobelia inflata L. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a Gemini C6-phenyl reversed-phase column providing good peak shape and improved selectivity...
May 2015: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang, Lisa Smith, Joanna S Fowler, Frank Telang, Jean Logan, Dardo Tomasi
Methamphetamine's widepread abuse and concerns that it might increase Parkinson's disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [(11)C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [(11)C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as a marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15)...
November 1, 2015: NeuroImage
R Meel, F Peters, M R Essop
We report three cases of tricuspid valve infective endocarditis associated with intravenous nyoape use. Nyoape is a variable drug combination of an antiretroviral (efavirenz or ritonavir), heroin, metamphetamines and cannabis. Its use is becoming increasingly common among poor communities in South Africa. All our patients were young HIV-positive men from disadvantaged backgrounds. They all presented with tricuspid regurgitation and septic pulmonary emboli. They were treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotic courses, and one required referral for surgery...
December 2014: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Gordian W O Fulde, S Lesley Forster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Amphetamine-type stimulants now rank second worldwide in the table of most widely used recreational drugs. Many countries report increased availability and increased purity of the drugs.Surprisingly, while many authors in the last decade have described clinical issues and demographic patterns associated with amphetamine use, there is little published research quantifying the specifics of the impact of 'ICE' use on health resources.It is, therefore, timely to review the available literature on the impact of this group of drugs on emergency medical systems...
July 2015: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Ladislav Hosák, Jiří Horáček, Martin Beránek, Eva Cermáková
Objective. The aim of our study was to assess whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genetic background of patients dependent on metamphetamine is related to their non-abstinence in a 1-year follow-up. Methods. We examined COMT gene Val158Met polymorphism and 1-year abstinence in a group of 31 (women N=8) Czech Caucasian metamphetamine abusers (average age, 23.8±4.0years). Results. Non-abstinence was significantly (P=0.046, Fisher's exact test) associated with the heterozygous Val/Met genotype. Conclusion...
2007: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Adam Kelly
A short-cut review was carried out to establish which clinical parameters are useful in predicting outcome in patients who present having body packed metamphetamine. Eleven papers were found using the reported searches, of which one presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of that best paper are tabulated. It is concluded that there is a greater likelihood of severe outcomes if the presenting pulse is greater than 120 or the presenting temperature is greater than 38°C...
April 2013: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Antonio Vidal-Infer, Concepción Roger-Sánchez, Manuel Daza-Losada, María A Aguilar, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
BACKGROUND: The rewarding effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA) have been demonstrated in conditioned place preference (CPP) procedures, but the involvement of the dopaminergic system in MDMA-induced CPP and reinstatement is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the effects of the DA D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg), the DA D2 antagonist Haloperidol (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), the D2 antagonist Raclopride (0.3 and 0...
2012: PloS One
S B Qi, Y Kitamura, Y Nomura
Perfusion of isoproterenol (100 ?M), 10mM NaF or 100 ?M forskolin significantly enhanced release of l-[(3)H]noradrenaline (NA) compared to the spontaneous release from cerebral cortical slices of adult rats. Isoproterenol-induced release was reduced by propranolol (100 ?M). In the Ca(2) + free medium and in the Ca(2+) free medium containing 2.0 mM EGTA, the release enhanced by isoproterenol, NaF or forskolin was not different from that in the normal medium. In contrast, the marked reduction in 30 mM KCI-evoked release was observed in both Ca(2+) -deficient media...
1988: Neurochemistry International
L Krekulová, V Rehák, O Strunecký, V Nēmecek
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To map the current distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Czech Republic and to compare the results with the previously reported data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of 766 injecting drug users (IDUs) tested in the Remedis hepatology centre, Prague, in 2005 - 2007, 459 (60%) were anti-HCV positive, with viral replication detected by PCR in 326 (71%) of seropositives. PCR products from a randomly selected representative sample of 222 patients were analyzed by sequencing the NS5B region to determine HCV genotypes...
April 2009: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Daniela Parolaro, Daniela Vigano, Natalia Realini, Tiziana Rubino
This review will discuss the latest knowledge of how the endocannabinoid system might be involved in treating addiction to the most common illicit drugs. Experimental models are providing increasing evidence for the pharmacological management of endocannabinoid signaling not only to block the direct reinforcing effects of cannabis, opioids, nicotine and ethanol, but also for preventing relapse to the various drugs of abuse, including opioids, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol and metamphetamine. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system can be manipulated by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, that might constitute a new generation of compounds for treating addiction across different classes of abused drugs...
December 2007: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Kjersti Lia, Olav Spigset, Lars Slørdal
BACKGROUND: The CNS stimulatory agents amphetamine and methamphetamine are often detected in blood samples from apprehended subjects driving under the influence of drugs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant literature was identified through searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. The current state of knowledge regarding effects of amphetamines on traffic behaviour is reviewed and discussed. RESULTS: Limited epidemiological data and a small number of experimental studies using low doses of amphetamines are available...
January 15, 2009: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Takeshi Hara, Ryosuke Fujii, Shinsuke Ohno, Yoshiyuki Tomita, Akira Tsunoda, Chikashi Maruki, Shigeo Kurokawa
We report a case of intracranial hemorrhage due to amphetamine abuse in a young adult. A 34-year-old, confused woman was transferred to our emergency room with right hemiparesis and aphasia. CT at admission demonstrated intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal and parietal lobes, associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. MRA shortly after admission revealed no intracerebral vascular anomaly. Cerebral angiography following admission showed irregularity of the vessel wall in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries...
December 2008: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
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