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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919412/anti-nmda-a-nmdar-receptor-encephalitis-related-to-acute-consumption-of-metamphetamine-relevance-of-differential-diagnosis
#1
O Iriondo, J Zaldibar-Gerrikagoitia, T Rodríguez, J M García, L Aguilera
A 19-year-old male came to the Emergency Room of our hospital due to an episode of dystonic movements and disorientation 4 days after consuming methamphetamine, which evolved to a catatonic frank syndrome and eventually to status epilepticus. Definitive diagnosis was anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, an acute inflammation of the limbic area of autoimmune origin in which early diagnosis and treatment are key elements for the final outcome. In this case, initial normal tests and previous methamphetamine poisoning delayed diagnosis, because inhaled-methamphetamine poisoning causes similar clinical symptoms to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis...
December 2, 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346796/-prenatal-exposure-to-metamphetamine-%C3%A2-shabu%C3%A2
#2
Cristina Manzano Varo, M Ángeles López-Vílchez, Lucía Román Eyo, Jordi García García, Antonio Mur Sierra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172885/demographic-and-mental-history-related-data-predicted-occurrence-of-psychosis-in-metamphetamine-users
#3
Vahid Farnia, Jalal Shakeri, Faezeh Tatari, Toraj Ahmadi Juibari, Hafez Bajoghli, Senoobar Golshani, Sara Hookari, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
Methamphetamine use is increasing worldwide, and the occurrence of psychosis further complicates treatment. This holds also true for Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible predictors of metamphetamine-induced psychosis. 237 methamphetamine users (70.9% with psychosis; mean age: M=33.41 years) took part in the study. A psychiatric interview was performed covering socio-demographic and illness-related information. Male gender, low education, unemployment, being single, a history of mental disorders, and a higher number of previous hospitalizations predicted the occurrence of psychosis, while age and duration of metamphetamine use were excluded from the equation...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26259655/hplc-esi-ms-ms-of-brain-neurotransmitter-modulator-lobeline-and-related-piperidine-alkaloids-in-lobelia-inflata-l
#4
László Kursinszki, Éva Szőke
There is a renewed interest in lobelia alkaloids because of their activity on the central nervous system. Lobeline, the most active of them, a nicotinic receptor ligand and neurotransmitter transporter inhibitor, is a candidate pharmacotherapy for metamphetamine abuse. In the present work, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode was used for investigating the alkaloid profile in Lobelia inflata L. Chromatographic separations were achieved on a Gemini C6-phenyl reversed-phase column providing good peak shape and improved selectivity...
May 2015: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26208874/recovery-of-dopamine-transporters-with-methamphetamine-detoxification-is-not-linked-to-changes-in-dopamine-release
#5
Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang, Lisa Smith, Joanna S Fowler, Frank Telang, Jean Logan, Dardo Tomasi
Methamphetamine's widepread abuse and concerns that it might increase Parkinson's disease led us to assess if the reported loss of dopamine transporters (DAT) in methamphetamine abusers (MA) reflected damage to dopamine neurons. Using PET with [(11)C]cocaine to measure DAT, and with [(11)C]raclopride to measure dopamine release (assessed as changes in specific binding of [(11)C]raclopride between placebo and methylphenidate), which was used as a marker of dopamine neuronal function, we show that MA (n=16), tested during early detoxification, had lower DAT (20-30%) but overall normal DA release in striatum (except for a small decrease in left putamen), when compared to controls (n=15)...
November 1, 2015: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26042266/tricuspid-valve-endocarditis-associated-with-intravenous-nyoape-use-a-report-of-3-cases
#6
R Meel, F Peters, M R Essop
We report three cases of tricuspid valve infective endocarditis associated with intravenous nyoape use. Nyoape is a variable drug combination of an antiretroviral (efavirenz or ritonavir), heroin, metamphetamines and cannabis. Its use is becoming increasingly common among poor communities in South Africa. All our patients were young HIV-positive men from disadvantaged backgrounds. They all presented with tricuspid regurgitation and septic pulmonary emboli. They were treated with prolonged intravenous antibiotic courses, and one required referral for surgery...
December 2014: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26001917/the-impact-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-on-emergency-services
#7
REVIEW
Gordian W O Fulde, S Lesley Forster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Amphetamine-type stimulants now rank second worldwide in the table of most widely used recreational drugs. Many countries report increased availability and increased purity of the drugs.Surprisingly, while many authors in the last decade have described clinical issues and demographic patterns associated with amphetamine use, there is little published research quantifying the specifics of the impact of 'ICE' use on health resources.It is, therefore, timely to review the available literature on the impact of this group of drugs on emergency medical systems...
July 2015: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24941367/molecular-heterosis-in-metamphetamine-abusers
#8
Ladislav Hosák, Jiří Horáček, Martin Beránek, Eva Cermáková
Objective. The aim of our study was to assess whether the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genetic background of patients dependent on metamphetamine is related to their non-abstinence in a 1-year follow-up. Methods. We examined COMT gene Val158Met polymorphism and 1-year abstinence in a group of 31 (women N=8) Czech Caucasian metamphetamine abusers (average age, 23.8±4.0years). Results. Non-abstinence was significantly (P=0.046, Fisher's exact test) associated with the heterozygous Val/Met genotype. Conclusion...
2007: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23511940/towards-evidence-based-emergency-medicine-best-bets-from-the-manchester-royal-infirmary-bet-1-what-prognostic-factors-can-predict-outcomes-of-methamphetamine-body-stuffers
#9
REVIEW
Adam Kelly
A short-cut review was carried out to establish which clinical parameters are useful in predicting outcome in patients who present having body packed metamphetamine. Eleven papers were found using the reported searches, of which one presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of that best paper are tabulated. It is concluded that there is a greater likelihood of severe outcomes if the presenting pulse is greater than 120 or the presenting temperature is greater than 38°C...
April 2013: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22916213/role-of-the-dopaminergic-system-in-the-acquisition-expression-and-reinstatement-of-mdma-induced-conditioned-place-preference-in-adolescent-mice
#10
Antonio Vidal-Infer, Concepción Roger-Sánchez, Manuel Daza-Losada, María A Aguilar, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
BACKGROUND: The rewarding effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA) have been demonstrated in conditioned place preference (CPP) procedures, but the involvement of the dopaminergic system in MDMA-induced CPP and reinstatement is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the effects of the DA D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg), the DA D2 antagonist Haloperidol (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), the D2 antagonist Raclopride (0.3 and 0...
2012: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20501197/effects-of-high-kci-isoproterenol-naf-and-forskolin-on-noradrenaline-release-from-cerebral-cortical-slices-of-adult-and-senescent-rats
#11
S B Qi, Y Kitamura, Y Nomura
Perfusion of isoproterenol (100 ?M), 10mM NaF or 100 ?M forskolin significantly enhanced release of l-[(3)H]noradrenaline (NA) compared to the spontaneous release from cerebral cortical slices of adult rats. Isoproterenol-induced release was reduced by propranolol (100 ?M). In the Ca(2) + free medium and in the Ca(2+) free medium containing 2.0 mM EGTA, the release enhanced by isoproterenol, NaF or forskolin was not different from that in the normal medium. In contrast, the marked reduction in 30 mM KCI-evoked release was observed in both Ca(2+) -deficient media...
1988: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19526922/-current-situation-and-trends-in-the-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-distribution-among-injecting-drug-users-in-the-czech-republic
#12
L Krekulová, V Rehák, O Strunecký, V Nēmecek
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To map the current distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Czech Republic and to compare the results with the previously reported data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of 766 injecting drug users (IDUs) tested in the Remedis hepatology centre, Prague, in 2005 - 2007, 459 (60%) were anti-HCV positive, with viral replication detected by PCR in 326 (71%) of seropositives. PCR products from a randomly selected representative sample of 222 patients were analyzed by sequencing the NS5B region to determine HCV genotypes...
April 2009: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19300605/role-of-endocannabinoids-in-regulating-drug-dependence
#13
Daniela Parolaro, Daniela Vigano, Natalia Realini, Tiziana Rubino
This review will discuss the latest knowledge of how the endocannabinoid system might be involved in treating addiction to the most common illicit drugs. Experimental models are providing increasing evidence for the pharmacological management of endocannabinoid signaling not only to block the direct reinforcing effects of cannabis, opioids, nicotine and ethanol, but also for preventing relapse to the various drugs of abuse, including opioids, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol and metamphetamine. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system can be manipulated by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, that might constitute a new generation of compounds for treating addiction across different classes of abused drugs...
December 2007: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19151802/-driving-under-the-influence-of-amphetamine-and-metamphetamine
#14
Kjersti Lia, Olav Spigset, Lars Slørdal
BACKGROUND: The CNS stimulatory agents amphetamine and methamphetamine are often detected in blood samples from apprehended subjects driving under the influence of drugs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant literature was identified through searches in PubMed and Google Scholar. The current state of knowledge regarding effects of amphetamines on traffic behaviour is reviewed and discussed. RESULTS: Limited epidemiological data and a small number of experimental studies using low doses of amphetamines are available...
January 15, 2009: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19086447/-case-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-due-to-amphetamine-abuse
#15
Takeshi Hara, Ryosuke Fujii, Shinsuke Ohno, Yoshiyuki Tomita, Akira Tsunoda, Chikashi Maruki, Shigeo Kurokawa
We report a case of intracranial hemorrhage due to amphetamine abuse in a young adult. A 34-year-old, confused woman was transferred to our emergency room with right hemiparesis and aphasia. CT at admission demonstrated intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal and parietal lobes, associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. MRA shortly after admission revealed no intracerebral vascular anomaly. Cerebral angiography following admission showed irregularity of the vessel wall in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries...
December 2008: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19060737/carbon-monoxide-toxicity
#16
REVIEW
G Patrick Kealey
Inhalation injury consists of a multitude of insults, the first of which is the toxic gases inhaled during the combustion of organic and inorganic substances. Significant morbidity and mortality in patients with burn injury occur due to the varying effects of these gases. This section of the compendium initially addresses two classically described inhaled gases: carbon monoxide and cyanide, followed by a discussion of a gas associated with illicit drug use: metamphetamine. Understanding the varying effects of the toxic gases at the scene of injury may facilitate the development of specific treatment regimens for inhalation injury...
January 2009: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18812013/s100b-overexpressing-mutant-mice-exhibit-prolonged-behavioural-and-biochemical-responses-towards-repeated-intermittent-binge-treatments-with-mdma
#17
Anna M S Kindlundh-Högberg, Xiaoqun Zhang, Per Svenningsson
The recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') enhances serotonin and dopamine transmission. Repeated binge treatment with MDMA (5 mg/kg, 3 times daily, 3 h apart, once per week for 4 wk) was found to increase gene expression of S100B, a neurotrophic factor that modulates neuronal plasticity. Mutant mice overexpressing S100B were investigated to better understand how increased S100B expression may influence MDMA-induced biochemical and behavioural responses. In open-field behaviour, the later MDMA binges decreased rearing and thigmotaxis in S100B mutant mice compared to wild-type mice...
March 2009: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18500382/pharmacology-of-stimulants-prohibited-by-the-world-anti-doping-agency-wada
#18
REVIEW
J R Docherty
This review examines the pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Stimulants that increase alertness/reduce fatigue or activate the cardiovascular system can include drugs like ephedrine available in many over-the-counter medicines. Others such as amphetamines, cocaine and hallucinogenic drugs, available on prescription or illegally, can modify mood. A total of 62 stimulants (61 chemical entities) are listed in the WADA List, prohibited in competition. Athletes may have stimulants in their body for one of three main reasons: inadvertent consumption in a propriety medicine; deliberate consumption for misuse as a recreational drug and deliberate consumption to enhance performance...
June 2008: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18419818/extensive-neuroadaptive-changes-in-cortical-gene-transcript-expressions-of-the-glutamate-system-in-response-to-repeated-intermittent-mdma-administration-in-adolescent-rats
#19
Anna M S Kindlundh-Högberg, Anna Blomqvist, Rana Malki, Helgi B Schiöth
BACKGROUND: Many studies have focused on the implication of the serotonin and dopamine systems in neuroadaptive responses to the recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA). Less attention has been given to the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate known to be implicated in schizophrenia and drug addiction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of repeated intermittent MDMA administration upon gene-transcript expression of the glutamate transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2-1, EAAT2-2), the glutamate receptor subunits of AMPA (GluR1, GluR2, GluR3), the glutamate receptor subunits of NMDA (NR1, NR2A and NR2B), as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1, mGluR2, mGluR3, mGluR5) in six different brain regions...
2008: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18266935/involvement-of-dopamine-receptors-and-beta-arrestin-in-metamphetamine-induced-inclusions-formation-in-pc12-cells
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Francesco Fornai, Paola Lenzi, Loredana Capobianco, Luisa Iacovelli, Pamela Scarselli, Gloria Lazzeri, Antonio De Blasi
Exposure of PC12 cells to metamphetamine (MA) induces the formation of multilamellar structures (whorls) resembling autophagic granules that subsequently develop as intracellular inclusions. These inclusions stain for a variety of antigens belonging to the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Since MA-induced intracellular bodies require the presence of dopamine in the present study we analyzed the role of dopamine (DA) receptors in producing neuronal inclusions. Moreover, we investigated potential signaling pathways which could lead to ubiquitination in the presence of MA...
June 2008: Journal of Neurochemistry
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