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Review articles in psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221900/mental-health-disorders-associated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#1
Declan J Bolton, Lucy J Robertson
Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220477/parent-child-learning-interactions-a-review-of-the-literature-on-scaffolding
#2
Roni Mermelshtine
BACKGROUND: Scaffolding can be observed during learning-based interactions, when interventions by parents are adjusted according to children's observed abilities, with the main goal of enabling the child to work independently (Wood et al., 1976, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17, 89). Such contingent instruction behaviours occur from infancy, and are said to be relevant for children's development of executive function, language acquisition, and cognitive and academic abilities...
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214074/subspecialty-training-and-certification-in-geriatric-psychiatry-a-25-year-overview
#3
Dorthea Juul, Christopher C Colenda, Jeffrey M Lyness, Laura B Dunn, Rita Hargrave, Larry R Faulkner
: The Institute of Medicine estimated that by 2030, from 10.1 to 14.4 million Americans aged 65 years or older will have mental health or substance use disorders. This article reviews the history and current status of training, certification, and practice in geriatric psychiatry against the backdrop of this "silver tsunami." The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) administered the first subspecialty examination in geriatric psychiatry in 1991, and through 2015 3,329 certificates were awarded...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195838/the-use-of-zonisamide-for-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-a-systematic-review
#4
Massimiliano Buoli, Silvia Grassi, Valentina Ciappolino, Marta Serati, Alfredo C Altamura
OBJECTIVE: Traditional pharmacotherapy has undoubtedly improved the outcome of patients with psychiatric disorders, but partial efficacy or poor tolerability persists in a number of these subjects. Among different compounds, zonisamide has been used to address unmet needs of standard pharmacotherapy. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review about the use of zonisamide for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. METHODS: A research in the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of the use of zonisamide in psychiatric disorders or associated conditions (obesity and smoking cessation)...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178918/global-health-training-among-u-s-residency-specialties-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
Duncan K Hau, Luke R Smart, Jennifer I DiPace, Robert N Peck
BACKGROUND: Interest in global health training during residency is increasing. Global health knowledge is also becoming essential for health-care delivery today. Many U.S. residency programs have been incorporating global health training opportunities for their residents. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate global health training opportunities and challenges among U.S. residency specialties. METHODS: We searched PubMed from its earliest dates until October 2015...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138200/a-review-of-psychopharmacological-interventions-post-disaster-to-prevent-psychiatric-sequelae
#6
REVIEW
Badari Birur, Suresh Bada Math, Rachel E Fargason
BACKGROUND: Disasters are mega-scale catastrophic events which cause trauma and mental health sequelae. A review of early pharmacological interventions for the prevention of psychiatric disorders following disasters is sorely needed. METHODS: A literature search of "Psychiatric Sequelae AND Disasters", "Disaster mental health/Disaster psychiatry", "Psychotropics AND Disasters", and "Drug therapy AND Disasters" yielded 213 articles, 38 of which were included in the review...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107153/human-trafficking-mental-illness-and-addiction-avoiding-diagnostic-overshadowing
#7
Hanni Stoklosa, Marti MacGibbon, Joseph Stoklosa
This article reviews an emergency department-based clinical vignette of a trafficked patient with co-occurring pregnancy-related, mental health, and substance use disorder issues. The authors, including a survivor of human trafficking, draw on their backgrounds in addiction care, human trafficking, emergency medicine, and psychiatry to review the literature on relevant general health and mental health consequences of trafficking and propose an approach to the clinical complexities this case presents. In their discussion, the authors explicate the deleterious role of implicit bias and diagnostic overshadowing in trafficked patients with co-occurring addiction and mental illness...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088867/the-political-use-of-psychiatry-a-comparison-between-totalitarian-regimes
#8
Massimiliano Buoli, Aldo Sabino Giannuli
BACKGROUND: After the end of Second World War, the recent experience of the Nazi horrors stimulated a debate about the political use of psychiatry. Over the years, the focus shifted on major dictatorships of the time and especially on Soviet Union. AIMS: This article aims to provide a critical review of the ways in which psychiatry was used by totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. METHODS: We summarized relevant literature about political use of psychiatry in totalitarian regimes of the 20th century, with particular focus on Fascism, Nazism, Argentina dictatorship, Soviet Union and China...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073112/space-and-objects-on-the-phenomenology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-of-anomalous-perception-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-1
#9
Steven M Silverstein, Docia Demmin, Borut Škodlar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Perception of space and objects is a traditional focus within phenomenology, and disturbances in these aspects of perception among people with schizophrenia have long been discussed within phenomenological psychiatry. Despite this, there has been little empirical work on the causes and effects of most of these perceptual alterations in people with schizophrenia. Progress towards this goal can be accelerated by the use of EAWE (Examination of Anomalous World Experience), an interview-based tool to elicit, categorize, and quantify abnormal perceptual and other experiential phenomena...
January 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070123/a-meta-analysis-of-peripheral-blood-nerve-growth-factor-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#10
X-Y Qin, H-T Wu, C Cao, Y P Loh, Y Cheng
Neurotrophins particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are crucial modulators in the neurodevelopment and maintenance of central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurotrophin hypothesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) postulated that the changes in the brains of SCZ patients are the result of disturbances of developing processes involving neurotrophic factors. This hypothesis was mainly supported by the abnormal regulation of BDNF in SCZ, especially the decreased peripheral blood BDNF levels in SCZ patients validated by several meta-analyses...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064463/global-research-trends-in-lithium-toxicity-from-1913-to-2015-a-bibliometric-analysis
#11
Sa'ed H Zyoud, W Stephen Waring, Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi
Lithium salts have been used to treat psychiatric disorders since the 1940s and are currently used in prophylaxis and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess lithium toxicity-related publications using bibliometric approaches from a health point of view to assess global research trends in the lithium toxicity field to offer guidance to future research in this field. The data were retrieved from the online version of Scopus database on 6 August 2016. All records with the term "lithium" in the title were retrieved, and those related to lithium toxicity were evaluated...
January 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044943/forgotten-but-not-gone-new-developments-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#12
Jonathan M Meyer
The broad use of atypical antipsychotics was expected to dramatically reduce the prevalence and incidence of tardive dyskinesia (TD), but data show that TD remains an important challenge due the persistent nature of its symptoms and resistance to numerous treatment modalities, including antipsychotic discontinuation. Recent insights on genetic risk factors and new concepts surrounding pathophysiology have spurred interest in the possibility of targeted treatment for TD. As will be reviewed in this article, the number of evidence-based strategies for TD treatment is small: only clonazepam, amantadine, ginkgo biloba extract, and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor tetrabenazine have compelling data...
December 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033511/vitamin-d-and-alcohol-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#13
REVIEW
Vitor Soares Tardelli, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do Lago, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria...
February 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029436/psychiatric-psychological-forensic-report-writing
#14
Gerald Young
Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018248/clinical-relevance-of-informal-coercion-in-psychiatric-treatment-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Florian Hotzy, Matthias Jaeger
INTRODUCTION: Although informal coercion is frequently applied in psychiatry, its use is discussed controversially. This systematic review aimed to summarize literature on attitudes toward informal coercion, its prevalence, and clinical effects. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINF, and Google Scholar was conducted. Publications were included if they reported original data describing patients' and clinicians' attitudes toward and prevalence rates or clinical effects of informal coercion...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997287/acute-dissociative-reaction-to-spontaneous-delivery-in-a-case-of-total-denial-of-pregnancy-diagnostic-and-forensic-aspects
#16
Vedat Şar, Nazan Aydın, Onno van der Hart, A Steven Frankel, Meriç Şar, Oğuz Omay
This article presents the history of a 21-year-old female college student with total denial of pregnancy who experienced an acute dissociative reaction during the spontaneous delivery at home without medical assistance where the newborn died immediately. Psychiatric examination, self-report questionnaires, legal documents, and witness reports have been reviewed in evaluation of the case. Evidence pointed to total denial of pregnancy, that is, until delivery. The diagnoses of an acute dissociative reaction to stress (remitted) and a subsequent PTSD were established in a follow-up examination conducted 7 months after the delivery...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992051/travel-and-professional-networks-in-the-origins-of-spanish-psychiatry
#17
Enric J Novella
This article examines the importance of travel and professional networks in the origins of Spanish psychiatry. After reviewing the early alienists' Enlightenment predecessors and their therapeutic and professional trajectories, it describes the trips to foreign psychiatric institutions made during the second third of the nineteenth century by a group of exiled Spanish doctors, commissioners and pioneers. Later, as they became more socially, institutionally and professionally established, some figures of Spanish psychological medicine cultivated their connections and international profile by organizing or attending conferences and other scientific events...
October 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965330/approach-to-risk-identification-in-undifferentiated-mental-disorders
#18
REVIEW
José Silveira, Patricia Rockman, Casey Fulford, Jon Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To provide primary care physicians with a novel approach to risk identification and related clinical decision making in the management of undifferentiated mental disorders. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: We conducted a review of the literature in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar using the search terms diagnostic uncertainty, diagnosis, risk identification, risk assessment/methods, risk, risk factors, risk management/methods, cognitive biases and psychiatry, decision making, mental disorders/diagnosis, clinical competence, evidence-based medicine, interviews as topic, psychiatry/education, psychiatry/methods, documentation/methods, forensic psychiatry/education, forensic psychiatry/methods, mental disorders/classification, mental disorders/psychology, violence/prevention and control, and violence/psychology...
December 2016: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925499/non-adherence-to-psychotropic-medication-among-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#19
Alexander Häge, Lisa Weymann, Lucia Bliznak, Viktoria Märker, Konstantin Mechler, Ralf W Dittmann
INTRODUCTION: Whether patients take their medication as prescribed is of increasing importance in adolescent psychiatry since both the number of efficacious pharmaceutical treatments and the rate of prescriptions of psychotropic compounds are on the rise. Previous research showed high rates of medication nonadherence among both adolescents with medical disorders and adult patients with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: The present review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines and evaluates existing scientific literature concerning adherence to psychotropic medication among adolescents...
December 7, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887679/-mindfulness-based-interventions-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-mechanisms-of-action-and-presentation-of-a-pilot-study
#20
M Gasnier, A Pelissolo, G Bondolfi, S Pelissolo, M Tomba, L Mallet, K N'diaye
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and severe disease, potentially inducing a major impairment for the patient and burden for their family. Recent research in psychiatry and neuroscience have led to better comprehension of the disease's mechanisms and helped to improve its treatment. However, a large proportion of patients have refractory symptoms, including for traditional cognitive and behavioral therapy by exposure and response prevention (ERP), leading clinicians to look for new treatments...
November 22, 2016: L'Encéphale
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