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Review articles in psychiatry

Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Steven Pennybaker, Patrick Hemming, Durga Roy, Blair Anton, Margaret S Chisolm
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review was conducted of the biomedical literature regarding pastoral care (PaC) providers on inpatient psychiatric units with the aim of answering 3 questions: (1) What are the risks and benefits of PaC providers' presence on inpatient psychiatric units? (2) What are current recommendations for integration of PaC providers into a psychiatric team? and (3) What gaps exist in the literature? METHODS: PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched from the start of each database to July 9, 2014 using terms related to PaC providers and inpatient psychiatry...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
D Galland, I Tisserant, L Notardonato
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders. ADHD may have behavioral consequences and involvements in minor and serious crimes. Our work aims to establish links between ADHD and forensic psychiatry. METHODS: A review of international scientific literature concerning the relationship between ADHD and forensic psychiatry was conducted using the PudMed electronic database...
September 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Shareefa Dalvie, Nastassja Koen, Nathaniel McGregor, Kevin O'Connell, Louise Warnich, Raj Ramesar, Caroline M Nievergelt, Dan J Stein
Mental disorders represent a major public health burden worldwide. This is likely to rise in the next decade, with the highest increases predicted to occur in low- and middle-income countries. Current psychotropic medication treatment guidelines focus on uniform approaches to the treatment of heterogeneous disorders and achieve only partial therapeutic success. Developing a global precision medicine approach in psychiatry appears attractive, given the value of this approach in other fields of medicine, such as oncology and infectious diseases...
October 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Sara J Becker, Miriam M Midoun
OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze the effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient requests for medication and physician prescribing across psychiatry-relevant studies. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Thomson Reuters' ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were searched (1999-2014) using variations of the terms direct-to-consumer advertising and psychiatric. Reference lists and an online repository of DTCA manuscripts were also scrutinized. STUDY SELECTION: English-language studies collecting data at the point of service, focusing on or including psychiatric medication, and assessing the effects of DTCA on patient and/or physician behavior were included...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Paul Cammell
OBJECTIVES: This article reviews recent trends in the provision of psychiatric services to the emergency departments of tertiary hospitals in Australia, involving the establishment of specialised in-reach or liaison services as well as various forms of short stay unit attached to emergency departments. The Emergency Psychiatry Service at Flinders Medical Centre, South Australia, is described as a case example. Its specialised models of assessment and clinical care are described, highlighting how these are differentiated from more traditional models in inpatient, community and general hospital consultation-liaison psychiatry...
September 6, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Abbas Sadeghfard, Ali Reza Bozorgi, Shaghayegh Ahmadi, Masoumeh Shojaei
BACKGROUND: Melancholia is a kind of depression with the most common symptoms of evident mental disorder, slimness, lack of enjoyment, feeling guilty and having no appetite. In modern medicine, the word "melancholia" only refers to mental and affective symptoms of depression. However, historically, it could have physical symptoms as well as mental symptoms and the atrabilious situations were categorized according to their common reasons rather than their specific characteristics. This study aimed to enlighten the history of this disease...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Himanshu Sharma
Background-The Placebo is defined as an inert substance with a potent therapeutic effect. Its effect is attributed to its psychological and neurobiological effect. Its use in Psychiatric drug practice in drug trials and clinical practice is common, especially in India .Currently there is a debate whether to use it or not as there are ethical, moral and legal issues. Also, its mechanism of action is not known. Discussion-The Indian Psychiatry scenario is muddled in relation to use of placebo in Randomized Controlled Trials or Psychiatric clinical practice...
August 10, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Rif S El-Mallakh, R Jeannie Roberts, Peggy L El-Mallakh, Lillian Jan Findlay, Kristen K Reynolds
Pharmacogenomic testing in psychiatry is becoming an established clinical procedure. Several vendors provide clinical interpretation of combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing of gene variants that have documented predictive implications regarding either pharmacologic response or adverse effects in depression and other psychiatric conditions. Such gene profiles have demonstrated improvements in outcome in depression, and reduction of cost of care of patients with inadequate clinical response. Additionally, several new gene variants are being studied to predict specific response in individuals...
September 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
Sahib S Khalsa, Rachel C Lapidus
Disrupted interoception is a prominent feature of the diagnostic classification of several psychiatric disorders. However, progress in understanding the interoceptive basis of these disorders has been incremental, and the application of interoception in clinical treatment is currently limited to panic disorder. To examine the degree to which the scientific community has recognized interoception as a construct of interest, we identified and individually screened all articles published in the English language on interoception and associated root terms in Pubmed, Psychinfo, and ISI Web of Knowledge...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
W Kawohl, C Wyss, P Roser, M Brüne, W Rössler, G Juckel
BACKGROUND: The proliferation of biological psychiatry has greatly increased over the last two decades. With the possibility to carry out brain research using modern technical methods, it seemed that social influencing factors would lose importance in the development of mental diseases; however, in actual fact this does not seem to be justified. It is necessary to overcome this separation, in that social factors are incorporated into a conceptual framework in the development of mental diseases, which simultaneously also takes the results of current neurobiological research into consideration...
August 4, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Christoffel Le Roux, Yilang Tang, Karen Drexler
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) in older adults for general psychiatrists. The rapid growth of the geriatric population in the USA has wide-ranging implications as the baby boomer generation ages. Various types of substance use disorders (SUDs) are common in older adults, and they often take a greater toll on affected older adults than on younger adults. Due to multiple reasons, SUDs in older adults are often under-reported, under-detected, and under-treated...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Shashank Rohatagi, Deborah Profit, Ainslie Hatch, Cathy Zhao, John P Docherty, Timothy S Peters-Strickland
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to medication compromises the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments in patients with serious mental illness (SMI). A newly developed digital medicine system (DMS) offers an opportunity to objectively assess and report patient medication adherence. DMS includes a wearable sensor that receives a data signal from a medication tablet with an embedded ingestible sensor after ingestion of the medication and transmits that data to the patient's mobile device to display health care information for the patient and treatment team...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Rohit Aiyer, Vladan Novakovic, Robert L Barkin
OBJECTIVES: It is known that psychotropic medications have an impact on the readings found in Electroencephalogram (EEG). In the field of psychiatry, there are several psychotropics utilized by clinicians. This review seeks to investigate all the available data for psychotropic drugs and their impact on EEG changes. METHODS: A systematic review of all the published and ongoing literature was conducted via PubMed. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method was used for each search...
September 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Yakov Shapiro, Nicholas John, Rowan Scott, Nadia Tomy
In the first article in this 2-part series, we outlined a psychobiological model of psychiatric treatment and reviewed the evidence showing psychotherapy to be a form of biological intervention that induces lasting alterations in brain structure and function. In this second article, we focus on the adaptive model of psychopathology, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions, the synergistic effects of combined psychotherapy and psychopharmacology treatments, and attention to the patient's subjective experience and the doctor-patient alliance to complement an "objective" case formulation...
July 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Borwin Bandelow, David Baldwin, Marianna Abelli, Blanca Bolea-Alamanac, Michel Bourin, Samuel R Chamberlain, Eduardo Cinosi, Simon Davies, Katharina Domschke, Naomi Fineberg, Edna Grünblatt, Marek Jarema, Yong-Ku Kim, Eduard Maron, Vasileios Masdrakis, Olya Mikova, David Nutt, Stefano Pallanti, Stefano Pini, Andreas Ströhle, Florence Thibaut, Matilde M Vaghi, Eunsoo Won, Dirk Wedekind, Adam Wichniak, Jade Woolley, Peter Zwanzger, Peter Riederer
OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network...
July 15, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Borwin Bandelow, David Baldwin, Marianna Abelli, Carlo Altamura, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Katharina Domschke, Naomi A Fineberg, Edna Grünblatt, Marek Jarema, Eduard Maron, David Nutt, Stefano Pini, Matilde M Vaghi, Adam Wichniak, Gwyneth Zai, Peter Riederer
OBJECTIVES: Biomarkers are defined as anatomical, biochemical or physiological traits that are specific to certain disorders or syndromes. The objective of this paper is to summarise the current knowledge of biomarkers for anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: Findings in biomarker research were reviewed by a task force of international experts in the field, consisting of members of the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry Task Force on Biological Markers and of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Anxiety Disorders Research Network...
August 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Sandra S Swantek, Susan M Maixner, Maria D Llorente, Josepha A Cheong, Laura Edgar, Christopher R Thomas, Iqbal Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Milestone Project is the next step in a series of changes revamping the system of graduate medical education. In 2013 the ACGME completed the general psychiatry milestones. The ACGME then pursued creation of milestones for accredited psychiatric subspecialty fellowships. This article documents the work of the geriatric psychiatry subspecialty milestones work group. It reports the history and rationale supporting the milestones, the milestone development process, and the implications for geriatric psychiatry fellowship training...
September 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Akin Ojagbemi, Dominic H Ffytche
OBJECTIVES: The idea that delirium is a risk factor for dementia, broadly defined, is derived from heterogeneous patient samples. We reviewed available evidence as to whether stroke survivors who developed delirium during the acute phase of treatment are at a higher prospective risk of incident post-stroke cognitive impairment or dementia. DESIGN: We searched 8721 records in the Cochrane database for reviews or protocols dealing with the study objective, Medline, EMBASE, PsycInfo and CINAHL for observational studies in the general adult population and PubMed for in-process articles...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Francesco Panza, Madia Lozupone, Eleonora Stella, Lucia Lofano, Carolina Gravina, Maria Urbano, Antonio Daniele, Antonello Bellomo, Giancarlo Logroscino, Antonio Greco, Davide Seripa
INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic failures (TFs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs), together with the recurring nature of the clinical course of psychiatric disorders, mainly bipolar disorders (BDs), strongly contributed to the prevalence and frequency of hospital readmissions observed in these patients. This is the revolving door (RD) condition, dramatically rising costs for the management of these patients in psychiatric settings. AREAS COVERED: In the present review article, we underlined the role of functional variants in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene on observed ADRs and TFs in RD patients with BDs, conferring a different capacity to metabolize psychotropic drugs...
July 4, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
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