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zygomycetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864097/post-translational-regulation-by-structural-changes-of-4-dihydromethyltrisporate-dehydrogenase-a-key-enzyme-in-sexual-and-parasitic-communication-mediated-by-the-trisporic-acid-pheromone-system-of-the-fungal-fusion-parasite-parasitella-parasitica
#1
Sabrina Ellenberger, Anke Burmester, Stefan Schuster, Johannes Wöstemeyer
Sexual communication between complementary mating partners in the fungal group of zygomycetes is mediated by the trisporoid pheromone system. A key enzyme towards biosynthesis of hormonally active trisporoids is 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase (TSP1), an enzyme occurring in all zygomycetous fungi. Trisporic acid and some of its precursor molecules serve as pheromones for recognizing complementary mating partners and for induction of the differentiation program towards sexual spore formation. In the parasitic zygomycete Parasitella parasitica, a biotrophic fusion parasite infecting many other zygomycetes, these substances have an additional function: They are also responsible for host-parasite recognition and the formation of the characteristic infection structures...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794531/subcutaneous-basidiobolomycosis-resembling-fournier-s-gangrene
#2
Roshni Julia Rajan, Promila Mohanraj, Winsley Rose
Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon cutaneous zygomycete infection typically seen in immunocompetent individuals. Diagnosis can be made by biopsy and fungal culture of the lesion. Treatment with Potassium iodide and co-trimoxazole is simple and effective. Early and accurate diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis is essential to avoid dissemination and mortality. We present a case with basidiobolomycosis resembling Fournier's gangrene.
October 29, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760848/five-new-species-of-the-obligate-mycoparasite-syncephalisi-zoopagales-zoopagomycotina-from-soil
#3
Gerald L Benny, Hsiao-Man Ho, Katy Lazarus, Matthew E Smith
More than 520 soil samples were surveyed for species of the mycoparasitic zygomycete genus Syncephalis using a culture-based approach. These fungi are relatively common in soil using the optimal conditions for growing both the host and parasite. Five species obtained in dual culture are unknown to science and are described here: (i) S. digitata with sporangiophores short, merosporangia separate at the apices, simple, 3-5 spored; (ii) S. floridana, which forms galls in the host and has sporangiophores up to 170 µm long with unbranched merosporangia that contain 2-4 spores; (iii) S...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738200/a-phylum-level-phylogenetic-classification-of-zygomycete-fungi-based-on-genome-scale-data
#4
Joseph W Spatafora, Ying Chang, Gerald L Benny, Katy Lazarus, Matthew E Smith, Mary L Berbee, Gregory Bonito, Nicolas Corradi, Igor Grigoriev, Andrii Gryganskyi, Timothy Y James, Kerry O'Donnell, Robert W Roberson, Thomas N Taylor, Jessie Uehling, Rytas Vilgalys, Merlin M White, Jason E Stajich
Zygomycete fungi were classified as a single phylum, Zygomycota, based on sexual reproduction by zygospores, frequent asexual reproduction by sporangia, absence of multicellular sporocarps, and production of coenocytic hyphae, all with some exceptions. Molecular phylogenies based on one or a few genes did not support the monophyly of the phylum, however, and the phylum was subsequently abandoned. Here we present phylogenetic analyses of a genome-scale data set for 46 taxa, including 25 zygomycetes and 192 proteins, and we demonstrate that zygomycetes comprise two major clades that form a paraphyletic grade...
September 2016: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730788/skull-base-osteomyelitis-caused-by-an-elegant-fungus
#5
Sharafine Stephen, Beula Subashini, Regi Thomas, Ajay Philip, Rajan Sundaresan
Malignant otitIs externa (skull base osteomyelitis) is predominantly caused by bacteria while fungal etiology is rare. We report a middle aged diabetic gentleman who succumbed to invasive skull base infection due to Apophysomyces elegans a fungus belonging to Zygomycetes which causes only skin and soft tissue infections. Mortality and invasive infections due to this genus is rarely reported, especially in the ear.
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704055/percutaneous-management-of-systemic-fungal-infection-presenting-as-bilateral-renal-fungal-ball
#6
Abhishek Shukla, Nitin Shrivastava, Chirom Amit Singh, Brusabhanu Nayak
Background: Zygomycoses are uncommon, frequently fatal diseases caused by fungi of the class Zygomycetes. The majority of human cases are caused by Mucorales (genus-rhizopus, mucor, and absidia) fungi. Renal involvement is uncommon and urine microscopy, pottasium hydroxide mount, and fungal cultures are frequently negative. Case Presentation: A twenty-one-year-old young unmarried lady presented to our emergency department with bilateral flank pain, fever, nausea, and decreased urine output of one-month duration...
2016: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697164/biodiversity-of-mycobiota-throughout-the-brazil-nut-supply-chain-from-rainforest-to-consumer
#7
Marta H Taniwaki, Jens C Frisvad, Larissa S Ferranti, Aline de Souza Lopes, Thomas O Larsen, Maria Helena P Fungaro, Beatriz T Iamanaka
A total of 172 Brazil nut samples (114 in shell and 58 shelled) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo state, Brazil was collected at different stages of the Brazil nut production chain: rainforest, street markets, processing plants and supermarkets. The mycobiota of the Brazil nut samples were evaluated and also compared in relation to water activity. A huge diversity of Aspergillus and Penicillium species were found, besides Eurotium spp., Zygomycetes and dematiaceous fungi. A polyphasic approach using morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular and extrolite profiles, were studied to distinguish species among the more important toxigenic ones in Aspergillus section Flavi and A...
February 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682882/risk-stratification-for-invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-seifem-recommendations
#8
Livio Pagano, Alessandro Busca, Anna Candoni, Chiara Cattaneo, Simone Cesaro, Rosa Fanci, Gianpaolo Nadali, Leonardo Potenza, Domenico Russo, Mario Tumbarello, Annamaria Nosari, Franco Aversa
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Patients with hematological malignancies undergoing conventional chemotherapy, autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are considered at high risk, and Aspergillus spp. represents the most frequently isolated micro-organisms. In the last years, attention has also been focused on other rare molds (e.g., Zygomycetes, Fusarium spp.) responsible for devastating clinical manifestations...
September 17, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418867/in-vitro-antifungal-activities-against-moulds-isolated-from-dermatological-specimens
#9
Tzar Mohd Nizam, Rabiatul Adawiyah Ag Binting, Shafika Mohd Saari, Thivyananthini Vijaya Kumar, Marianayati Muhammad, Hartini Satim, Hamidah Yusoff, Jacinta Santhanam
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antifungal agents against moulds isolated from dermatological specimens. METHODS: We identified 29 moulds from dermatological specimens between October 2012 and March 2013 by conventional methods. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing on six antifungal agents, amphotericin B, clotrimazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and terbinafine, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines contained in the M38-A2 document...
May 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403107/gastrointestinal-zygomycosis-masquerading-as-acute-appendicitis
#10
Won-Tak Choi, Tammy T Chang, Ryan M Gill
Zygomycosis is a rare invasive opportunistic fungal infection that occurs in the setting of hematologic malignancies, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and immunosuppressive therapies. We report the first case of disseminated appendiceal zygomycosis due to Absidia spp. in a neutropenic patient who initially presented as acute appendicitis. A 63-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia presented as acute appendicitis while receiving induction chemotherapy and ultimately succumbed to overwhelming disseminated zygomycosis...
January 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400027/simplifungin-and-valsafungins-antifungal-antibiotics-of-fungal-origin
#11
Hiroyuki Ishijima, Ryuji Uchida, Masaki Ohtawa, Ariko Kondo, Kenichiro Nagai, Keisuke Shima, Kenichi Nonaka, Rokuro Masuma, Susumu Iwamoto, Hideyuki Onodera, Tohru Nagamitsu, Hiroshi Tomoda
The targets of antifungal antibiotics in clinical use are more limited than those of antibacterial antibiotics. Therefore, new antifungal antibiotics with different mechanisms of action are desired. In the course of our screening for antifungal antibiotics of microbial origins, new antifungal antibiotics, simplifungin (1) and valsafungins A (2) and B (3), were isolated from cultures of the fungal strains Simplicillium minatense FKI-4981 and Valsaceae sp. FKH-53, respectively. The structures of 1 to 3 including their absolute stereochemistries were elucidated using various spectral analyses including NMR and collision-induced dissociation (CID)-MS/MS as well as chemical approaches including modifications to the Mosher's method...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354831/case-of-early-disseminated-rhizopus-microsporus-var-microsporus-mucormycosis-in-a-renal-transplant-patient
#12
Dikshya Sharma, Kumud Dahal, Bandana Pathak, Udip Dahal
Mucormycosis is a rare infection caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales and class Zygomycetes. These species are vasotropic, causing rapid onset of tissue infarctions and necrosis and subsequent thrombosis by invading vascular bed. The disease spectrum ranges from involvement of skin, sinuses, lung, and brain to disseminated and mostly fatal infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we present a case of a fatal disseminated mucormycosis in a 56-year-old female who had deceased donor renal allograft transplantation ~2 weeks prior to presentation...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307416/breaking-the-mold-a-review-of-mucormycosis-and-current-pharmacological-treatment-options
#13
REVIEW
Treavor T Riley, Christina A Muzny, Edwin Swiatlo, Davey P Legendre
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature for the pathogenesis of mucormycosis, discuss diagnostic strategies, and evaluate the efficacy of polyenes, triazoles, and echinocandins as pharmacological treatment options. DATA SOURCES: An electronic literature search was conducted in PubMed using the MESH terms Rhizopus, zygomycetes, zygomycosis, Mucorales and mucormycosis, with search terms amphotericin B, micafungin, anidulafungin, caspofungin, extended infusion amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, combination therapy, triazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, diagnosis, and clinical manifestations...
September 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294856/invasive-conidiobolomycosis-can-be-successfully-treated-on-burn-survivors
#14
Jesus Ramirez, Pirko Maguina
Conidiobolus infection is difficult to diagnose and treat. We report successful treatment of invasive conidiobolomycosis, only one third such report is in the literature, and the first case reported was on a burn survivor. Our patient is also the first case reported on an adult surviving conidiobolomycosis. This case illustrates that serum β-D-glucan (BDG) may be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of invasive Conidiobolus infection, contrary to the misconception that Zygomycetes do not release detectable levels of BDG...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284399/molecular-identification-of-mucor-and-lichtheimia-species-in-pure-cultures-of-zygomycetes
#15
Ardeshir Ziaee, Mohammadali Zia, Mansour Bayat, Jamal Hashemi
BACKGROUND: The Mucorales are an important opportunistic fungi that can cause mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients. The fast and precise diagnosis of mucormycosis is very important because, if the diagnosis is not made early enough, dissemination often occurs. It is now well established that molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) are feasible and reliable tools for the early and accurate diagnosis of mucormycosis agents...
April 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200123/mucormycosis-in-a-surgical-defect-masquerading-as-osteomyelitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Ashwini Kumar Mengji, Uday Shankar Yaga, Nishanth Gollamudi, Bhanu Prakash, Edunuri Rajashekar
Mucormycosis is a rare, highly lethal opportunistic fungal disease affecting immune compromised and diabetic patients. Mucormycosis is considered as the 3(rd) most common invasive mycosis after candidiasis and aspergillosis in debilitating patients. It is caused by the filamentous fungi of the class zygomycetes. The infection usually begins in the nose due to inhalation of fungal spores. This fatal fungal disease needs a prompt and early definitive diagnosis, aggressive surgical therapy and high dose anti-fungal therapy...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190852/concurrent-infections-of-conidiobolus-coronatus-with-disseminated-tuberculosis-presenting-as-bilateral-orbital-cellulitis
#17
Deepa John, Aparna Irodi, Joy Sarojini Michael
Zygomycetes species contains two orders of organisms that infect humans, namely Mucorales and Entomophthorales. Entomophthorales cause chronic infection in immunocompetent patients, invading subcutaneous tissues but are non-angioinvasive. This includes Basidiobolus ranarum, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus coronatus. We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis with Conidiobolus coronatus infection presenting as orbital cellulitis in an adolescent.
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103852/characterization-of-two-new-records-of-zygomycete-species-belonging-to-undiscovered-taxa-in-korea
#18
Thi Thuong Thuong Nguyen, Seo Hee Lee, Sarah Bae, Sun Jeong Jeon, Hye Yeon Mun, Hyang Burm Lee
During a biodiversity survey of undiscovered taxa in Korea, two zygomycetous fungal strains were isolated. The first strain, EML-FSDY6-1 was isolated from a soil sample collected at Dokdo Island in the East Sea of Korea in 2013, and the second strain, EML-DG-NH3-1 was isolated from a rat dung sample collected at Chonnam National University garden, Gwangju, Korea in 2014. Based on the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, 18S and 28S rDNA, actin and translation elongation factor-1α genes...
March 2016: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097442/distribution-and-antimicrobial-potential-of-endophytic-fungi-associated-with-ethnomedicinal-plant-melastoma-malabathricum-l
#19
Vineet Kumar Mishra, Garima Singh, Ajit Kumar Passari, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Bhim Pratap Singh
Distributions of endophytic fungi associated with ethnomedicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum L. was studied and 91 isolates belonging to 18 genera were recovered. The isolates were distributed to sordariomycetes (62.63%), dothideomycetes (19.78%), eurotiomycetes (7.69%), zygomycetes (4.19%), agaricomycetes (1.09%), and mycelia sterilia (4.39%). Based on colony morphology and examination of spores, the isolates were classified into 18 taxa, of which Colletotrichum, Phomopsis and Phoma were dominant, their relative frequencies were 23...
March 2016: Journal of Environmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988842/spatial-and-seasonal-influences-on-culturable-endophytic-mycobiota-associated-with-different-tissues-of-eugenia-jambolana-lam-and-their-antibacterial-activity-against-mdr-strains
#20
Manila Yadav, Amita Yadav, Sandeep Kumar, Jaya Parkash Yadav
BACKGROUND: Present study focuses on diversity and distribution analysis of endophytic fungi associated with different tissues of Eugenia jambolana. The influence of season and geographical location on diversity and distribution of endophytic fungi has been analyzed. Antibacterial activity of isolated fungal species has also been investigated against MDR bacterial strains. RESULT: A total of 1896 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained from healthy, surface sterilized tissues of leaf, stem and petiole tissues during summer, monsoon and winter season...
2016: BMC Microbiology
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