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zygomycetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917057/the-fungal-tree-of-life-from-molecular-systematics-to-genome-scale-phylogenies
#1
Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Jason E Stajich, Meredith Blackwell
The kingdom Fungi is one of the more diverse clades of eukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, where they provide numerous ecological services ranging from decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling to beneficial and antagonistic associations with plants and animals. The evolutionary relationships of the kingdom have represented some of the more recalcitrant problems in systematics and phylogenetics. The advent of molecular phylogenetics, and more recently phylogenomics, has greatly advanced our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with fungal evolution, however...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813732/gastric-zygomycosis-in-a-previously-healthy-56-year-old-male
#2
Ashwyna Sunassee, Desirae M Muirhead
Zygomycosis refers to invasive fungal infections caused by fungi belonging to the phylum zygomycota. Infections generally occur in immunocompromised individuals. The following case is of a previously healthy 56 year-oldmale admitted to the hospital following a motor vehicle accident. During his hospitalization, there was a significant drop in hemoglobin with no obvious source of bleeding. This prompted the clinician to insert a nasogastric tube which returned at least 2 liters of black fluid and led to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy...
April 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793031/airborne-fungi-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#3
C L Gonçalves, F V Mota, G F Ferreira, J F Mendes, E C Pereira, C H Freitas, J N Vieira, J P Villarreal, P S Nascente
The presence of airborne fungi in Intensive Care Unit (ICUs) is associated with increased nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of airborne fungi presented in an ICU from the University Hospital of Pelotas - RS, with the attempt to know the place's environmental microbiota. 40 Petri plates with Sabouraud Dextrose Agar were exposed to an environment of an ICU, where samples were collected in strategic places during morning and afternoon periods for ten days. Seven fungi genera were identified: Penicillium spp...
July 27, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616783/a-search-for-glomuferrin-a-potential-siderophore-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-of-the-genus-glomus
#4
Günther Winkelmann
Most fungi are known to synthesize siderophores under iron limitation. However, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) have so far not been reported to produce siderophores, although their metabolism is iron-dependent. In an approach to isolate siderophores from AM fungi, we have grown plants of Tagetes patula nana in the presence of spores from AM fungi of the genus Glomus (G. etunicatum, G. mossae & unidentified Glomus sp.) symbiotically under iron limitation and sterile conditions. A siderophore was isolated from infected roots after 2-3 weeks of growth in pots containing low-iron sand with Hoagland solution...
June 14, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598997/selection-of-reference-genes-for-quantitative-real-time-rt-pcr-assays-in-different-morphological-forms-of-dimorphic-zygomycetous-fungus-benjaminiella-poitrasii
#5
Ejaj K Pathan, Vandana Ghormade, Mukund V Deshpande
Benjaminiella poitrasii, a dimorphic non-pathogenic zygomycetous fungus, exhibits a morphological yeast (Y) to hypha (H) reversible transition in the vegetative phase, sporangiospores (S) in the asexual phase and zygospores (Z) in the sexual phase. To study the gene expression across these diverse morphological forms, suitable reference genes are required. In the present study, 13 genes viz. ACT, 18S rRNA, eEF1α, eEF-Tu,eIF-1A, Tub-α, Tub-b, Ubc, GAPDH, Try, WS-21, NADGDH and NADPGDH were evaluated for their potential as a reference, particularly for studying gene expression during the Y-H reversible transition and also for other asexual and sexual life stages of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588644/directed-evolution-of-a-%C3%AE-mannanase-from-rhizomucor-miehei-to-improve-catalytic-activity-in-acidic-and-thermophilic-conditions
#6
Yan-Xiao Li, Ping Yi, Qiao-Juan Yan, Zhen Qin, Xue-Qiang Liu, Zheng-Qiang Jiang
BACKGROUND: β-Mannanase randomly cleaves the β-1,4-linked mannan backbone of hemicellulose, which plays the most important role in the enzymatic degradation of mannan. Although the industrial applications of β-mannanase have tremendously expanded in recent years, the wild-type β-mannanases are still defective for some industries. The glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 β-mannanase (RmMan5A) from Rhizomucor miehei shows many outstanding properties, such as high specific activity and hydrolysis property...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560130/fatal-haemorrhagic-duodenal-mucormycosis-in-a-non-immunocompromised-host-a-case-report
#7
Simbarashe G Mungazi, Blessing Zambuko, David Muchuweti, Edwin G Muguti, Sizolwenkosi Mlotshwa
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the fungi of the Mucorales order of the class Zygomycetes. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is an uncommon, fatal condition accounting for only 7% of the cases. We present the case of a gastroduodenal mucormycosis presenting as recurrent massive hematemesis. We report this case to alert clinicians of this rare but fatal condition and to encourage further research into its pathogenesis and management.
September 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523015/transcription-factors-in-fungi-tfome-dynamics-three-major-families-and-dual-specificity-tfs
#8
Ekaterina Shelest
Transcription factors (TFs) are essential regulators of gene expression in a cell; the entire repertoire of TFs (TFome) of a species reflects its regulatory potential and the evolutionary history of the regulatory mechanisms. In this work, I give an overview of fungal TFs, analyze TFome dynamics, and discuss TF families and types of particular interest. Whole-genome annotation of TFs in more than 200 fungal species revealed ~80 families of TFs that are typically found in fungi. Almost half of the considered genomes belonged to basidiomycetes and zygomycetes, which have been underrepresented in earlier annotations due to dearth of sequenced genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471330/characterization-and-gene-cloning-of-l-xylulose-reductase-involved-in-l-arabinose-catabolism-from-the-pentose-fermenting-fungus-rhizomucor-pusillus
#9
Shino Yamasaki-Yashiki, Hidenobu Komeda, Kazuhiro Hoshino, Yasuhisa Asano
l-Xylulose reductase (LXR) catalyzes the reduction of l-xylulose to xylitol in the fungal l-arabinose catabolic pathway. LXR (RpLXR) was purified from the pentose-fermenting zygomycetous fungus Rhizomucor pusillus NBRC 4578. The native RpLXR is a homotetramer composed of 29 kDa subunits and preferred NADPH as a coenzyme. The Km values were 8.71 mM for l-xylulose and 3.89 mM for dihydroxyacetone. The lxr3 (Rplxr3) gene encoding RpLXR consists of 792 bp and encodes a putative 263 amino acid protein (Mr = 28,341)...
August 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392288/fontana-masson-stain-in-fungal-infections
#10
Kelly Leigh West, Alan D Proia, Puja Kumari Puri
BACKGROUND: Fontana-Masson (FM) staining is a histopathology technique used to identify dematiaceous fungi. The result often guides initial species identification and antifungal treatment; however, there is evidence that nondematiaceous fungi might react with this stain. Few studies in the current literature address this issue. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to classify the FM staining patterns of common fungal pathogens for use by pathologists attempting to accurately identify fungi on histopathologic examination...
April 6, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373049/fungal-chitosan-based-nanocomposites-sponges-an-alternative-medicine-for-wound-dressing
#11
A Sathiyaseelan, A Shajahan, P T Kalaichelvan, V Kaviyarasan
The porous structured and cell proliferative biodegradable fungal chitosan (FCS) based composites with potential antibacterial property was prepared with Aloe vera extract (ALE) and the plant Cuscuta reflexa mediated biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (CUS-AgNPS) were developed for wound dressing applications by freeze drying method. Fungal chitosan was derived from Cunninghamella elegans a species belongs the family of Zygomycetes. The CUS-AgNPS were characterized by the UV-vis spectrum, XRD and SEM. CUS-AgNPS were loaded into the FCS-ALE sponges and were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, FT-IR and SEM...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332467/fungal-sex-the-mucoromycota
#12
REVIEW
Soo Chan Lee, Alexander Idnurm
Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220379/pulmonary-mucormycosis-clinical-features-and-outcomes
#13
Erica Lin, Teng Moua, Andrew H Limper
PURPOSE: Mucormycosis encompasses a group of opportunistic fungal infections caused by Zygomycetes, order Mucorales. Mucormycosis can manifest as rhino-orbito-cerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and disseminated infections. Pulmonary mucormycosis is the second most common presentation. This manuscript characterizes the demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, radiologic findings, therapeutic interventions, and outcome in pulmonary mucormycosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 35 patients with pulmonary mucormycosis from 2000 to 2015...
August 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161358/assessment-of-species-richness-in-lake-dal-kashmir-based-on-classical-approach-physiological-approach-and-rdna-its-sequences-from-isolates
#14
Suhaib A Bandh, Azra N Kamili, Bashir A Ganai, Bashir A Lone
As a first description to document the species richness in Dal Lake, a freshwater lake ecosystem in Kashmir valley, an extensive network of sixteen sampling stations with distinguishing features was sampled seasonally for two years. The identification process yielded fifty-one species probably first and new records for this area to date. The taxonomic groups observed were those with species from Ascomycetes (inclusive of yeasts), Basidiomycetes, Blastocladiomycetes, Zygomycetes, and Peronosporomycetes. Each phylum was represented by a single Order, with the exception of the Peronosporomycetes, which was represented by two Orders- Saprolegniales and Pythiales...
March 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143744/can-fungi-compete-with-marine-sources-for-chitosan-production
#15
REVIEW
V Ghormade, E K Pathan, M V Deshpande
Chitosan, a β-1,4-linked glucosamine polymer is formed by deacetylation of chitin. It has a wide range of applications from agriculture to human health care products. Chitosan is commercially produced from shellfish, shrimp waste, crab and lobster processing using strong alkalis at high temperatures for long time periods. The production of chitin and chitosan from fungal sources has gained increased attention in recent years due to potential advantages in terms of homogenous polymer length, high degree of deacetylation and solubility over the current marine source...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091548/genome-analysis-of-a-zygomycete-fungus-choanephora-cucurbitarum-elucidates-necrotrophic-features-including-bacterial-genes-related-to-plant-colonization
#16
Byoungnam Min, Ji-Hyun Park, Hongjae Park, Hyeon-Dong Shin, In-Geol Choi
A zygomycete fungus, Choanephora cucurbitarum is a plant pathogen that causes blossom rot in cucurbits and other plants. Here we report the genome sequence of Choanephora cucurbitarum KUS-F28377 isolated from squash. The assembled genome has a size of 29.1 Mbp and 11,977 protein-coding genes. The genome analysis indicated that C. cucurbitarum may employ a plant pathogenic mechanism similar to that of bacterial plant pathogens. The genome contained 11 genes with a Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor-like domain, which plays an important role in the defense against plant immunity...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034347/the-fate-of-mitochondria-after-infection-of-the-mucoralean-fungus-absidia-glauca-by-the-fusion-parasite-parasitella-parasitica-comparison-of-mitochondrial-genomes-in-zygomycetes
#17
Sabrina Ellenberger, Anke Burmester, Johannes Wöstemeyer
Absidia glauca and Parasitella parasitica constitute a versatile experimental system for studying horizontal gene transfer between a mucoralean host and its fusion parasite. The A. glauca chondriome has a length of approximately 63 kb and a GC content of 28%. The chondriome of P. parasitica is larger, 83 kb, and contains 31% GC base pairs. These mtDNAs contain the standard fungal mitochondrial gene set, small and large subunit rRNAs, plus ribonuclease P RNA. Comparing zygomycete chondriomes reveals an unusually high number of homing endonuclease genes in P...
December 30, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864097/post-translational-regulation-by-structural-changes-of-4-dihydromethyltrisporate-dehydrogenase-a-key-enzyme-in-sexual-and-parasitic-communication-mediated-by-the-trisporic-acid-pheromone-system-of-the-fungal-fusion-parasite-parasitella-parasitica
#18
Sabrina Ellenberger, Anke Burmester, Stefan Schuster, Johannes Wöstemeyer
Sexual communication between complementary mating partners in the fungal group of zygomycetes is mediated by the trisporoid pheromone system. A key enzyme towards biosynthesis of hormonally active trisporoids is 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase (TSP1), an enzyme occurring in all zygomycetous fungi. Trisporic acid and some of its precursor molecules serve as pheromones for recognizing complementary mating partners and for induction of the differentiation program towards sexual spore formation. In the parasitic zygomycete Parasitella parasitica, a biotrophic fusion parasite infecting many other zygomycetes, these substances have an additional function: They are also responsible for host-parasite recognition and the formation of the characteristic infection structures...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794531/subcutaneous-basidiobolomycosis-resembling-fournier-s-gangrene
#19
Roshni Julia Rajan, Promila Mohanraj, Winsley Rose
Basidiobolomycosis is an uncommon cutaneous zygomycete infection typically seen in immunocompetent individuals. Diagnosis can be made by biopsy and fungal culture of the lesion. Treatment with Potassium iodide and co-trimoxazole is simple and effective. Early and accurate diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis is essential to avoid dissemination and mortality. We present a case with basidiobolomycosis resembling Fournier's gangrene.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760848/five-new-species-of-the-obligate-mycoparasite-syncephalisi-zoopagales-zoopagomycotina-from-soil
#20
Gerald L Benny, Hsiao-Man Ho, Katy Lazarus, Matthew E Smith
More than 520 soil samples were surveyed for species of the mycoparasitic zygomycete genus Syncephalis using a culture-based approach. These fungi are relatively common in soil using the optimal conditions for growing both the host and parasite. Five species obtained in dual culture are unknown to science and are described here: (i) S. digitata with sporangiophores short, merosporangia separate at the apices, simple, 3-5 spored; (ii) S. floridana, which forms galls in the host and has sporangiophores up to 170 µm long with unbranched merosporangia that contain 2-4 spores; (iii) S...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
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