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diuretics in bodybuilding

Tae Won Lee, Eunjin Bae, Kyungo Hwang, Ha Nee Chang, Hee Jung Park, Dae-Hong Jeon, Hyun Seop Cho, Se-Ho Chang, Dong Jun Park
RATIONALE: Severe hypokalemia can be a potentially life-threatening disorder and is associated with variable degrees of skeletal muscle weakness. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of severe hypokalemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis in a 28-year-old bodybuilder. He was admitted to the emergency room due to progressive paralysis in both lower extremities, which had begun 12 hours earlier. He was a bodybuilder trainer and had participated in a regional competition 5 days earlier...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Takashi Imanishi, Takayoshi Kawabata, Akira Takayama
 In 2009, the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) established the "Sports Pharmacist Accreditation Program" to prevent doping in sports. Since then, anti-doping activities in Japan have been attracting attention. In this study, we investigated research about the current status of doping from 2007 to 2014 in Japan to make anti-doping activities more concrete, and we also discussed future anti-doping activities by pharmacists. In Japan, bodybuilding was the sporting event with the highest number and rate of doping from 2007 to 2014...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Timothy E Albertson, James A Chenoweth, Daniel K Colby, Mark E Sutter
Awareness of the prevalence of the use of appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) is increasing. Users range from professional athletes and bodybuilders to amateurs and adolescents. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are the most widely used APEDs, typically for purposes of building muscle mass, in forms that include pills, injections, topical preparations, and transdermal systems. AASs are often used in combination with augmenting drugs taken to enhance androgen production and, for men, to decrease estrogen production...
February 2016: FP Essentials
Scott Lloyd Robinson, Anneliese Lambeth-Mansell, Gavin Gillibrand, Abbie Smith-Ryan, Laurent Bannock
Bodybuilding competitions are becoming increasingly popular. Competitors are judged on their aesthetic appearance and usually exhibit a high level of muscularity and symmetry and low levels of body fat. Commonly used techniques to improve physique during the preparation phase before competitions include dehydration, periods of prolonged fasting, severe caloric restriction, excessive cardiovascular exercise and inappropriate use of diuretics and anabolic steroids. In contrast, this case study documents a structured nutrition and conditioning intervention followed by a 21 year-old amateur bodybuilding competitor to improve body composition, resting and exercise fat oxidation, and muscular strength that does not involve use of any of the above mentioned methods...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
D Thieme, A Büttner
Doping -the abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids in particular- is widespread in amateur and recreational sports and does not solely represent a problem of professional sports. Excessive overdose of anabolic steroids is well documented in bodybuilding or powerlifting leading to significant side effects. Cardiovascular damages are most relevant next to adverse endocrine effects.Clinical cases as well as forensic investigations of fatalities or steroid consumption in connection with trafficking of doping agents provide only anecdotal evidence of correlations between side effects and substance abuse...
May 2015: Herz
Ahmed Qureshi, Declan P Naughton, Andrea Petroczi
Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT's effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out...
March 2014: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Florian B Mayr, Hans Domanovits, Anton N Laggner
Severe hypokalemia is a potentially life-threatening disorder and is associated with variable degrees of skeletal muscle weakness, even to the point of paralysis. On rare occasions, diaphragmatic paralysis from hypokalemia can lead to respiratory arrest. There may also be decreased motility of smooth muscle, manifesting with ileus or urinary retention. Rarely, severe hypokalemia may result in rhabdomyolysis. Other manifestations of severe hypokalemia include alteration of cardiac tissue excitability and conduction...
September 2012: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
V Dumestre-Toulet, V Cirimele, B Ludes, S Gromb, P Kintz
Several bodybuilders, all winners of international competitions, were arrested for trafficking of a number of doping agents including anabolic steroids, ephedrine, beta-adrenergics, human chorionic gonadotropin, antidepressants, and diuretics. In accordance with the recent French law against doping, the judge asked to test seven bodybuilders to identify doping practices. Hair and urine specimens were collected for analysis. After decontamination, a 100 mg hair strand was pulverized in a ball mill, hydrolyzed, extracted, and derivatized to be tested by GC/MS for anabolic steroids, beta-adrenergic compounds, ephedrine, and other doping agents...
January 2002: Journal of Forensic Sciences
H H Dickhuth, A Berg, M Baumstark, L Rokitzki, M Huonker, J Keul
In 1986, the Medical Commission of the IOC defined doping as the use of pharmacological substances belonging to disallowed groups of active substances (stimulants, narcotics, anabolic steroids, beta-blockers, diuretics). With certain restrictions, this applies also to alcohol, local anesthetics and corticosteroids. The use of disallowed methods (blood doping, manipulation of a urine sample) is also forbidden. These days the greatest importance is attached to anabolic steroids (including testosterone), since these substances--discontinued in good time--cannot be detected on the day of competition but still have a promoting effect on performance...
September 30, 1989: Fortschritte der Medizin
S M Kleiner, T L Bazzarre, M D Litchford
To obtain a more complete view of their general health and health care habits, 27 bodybuilders (19 men and 8 women) competing at the 1988 National Physique Committee's Junior USA Bodybuilding Championships participated in this study. Data pertaining to demographics and pre-competition nutrition, training, health, and drug abuse practices were collected by self-administered and interview surveys and records. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements and casual blood samples were collected on -site at the competition registration...
July 1990: Journal of the American Dietetic Association
J F Hickson, T E Johnson, W Lee, R J Sidor
A 27-year-old male bodybuilder was studied during a 30-day precontest period when his goal was to lose fat and retain muscle mass. Weighted dietary intakes were obtained for each day of the study. The subject trained 6 days per week with weights and included an aerobic component on most days. Ergogenic drugs and a diuretic were self-administered. At the contest, the subject placed in the top three for his weight division. The strict diet enabled the subject to lose fat weight predictably in preparation for the contest...
February 1990: Journal of the American Dietetic Association
R E Ferner
The only drugs which commonly cause diabetes during therapeutic use are the anti-hypertensive vasodilator diazoxide, and corticosteroids in high doses such as those used to palliate intracranial tumours. Thiazide diuretics have in the past been used in higher doses than necessary to treat hypertension, and the lower doses now used probably carry only a slight risk of inducing diabetes. The risk from beta-blockers is also quite small, but there is some evidence that thiazides combined with beta-blockers may be more likely to cause diabetes than either drug alone...
October 1992: Baillière's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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