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Controversies in psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611885/american-association-for-emergency-psychiatry-task-force-on-medical-clearance-of-adult-psychiatric-patients-part-ii-controversies-over-medical-assessment-and-consensus-recommendations
#1
REVIEW
Michael P Wilson, Kimberly Nordstrom, Eric L Anderson, Anthony T Ng, Leslie S Zun, Jennifer M Peltzer-Jones, Michael H Allen
INTRODUCTION: The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED), usually termed "medical clearance," often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP), consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. METHODS: The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485405/investigating-the-neuroimmunogenic-architecture-of-schizophrenia
#2
R Birnbaum, A E Jaffe, Q Chen, J H Shin, J E Kleinman, T M Hyde, D R Weinberger
The role of the immune system in schizophrenia remains controversial despite numerous studies to date. Most studies have profiled expression of select genes or proteins in peripheral blood, but none have focused on the expression of canonical pathways that mediate overall immune response. The current study used a systematic genetic approach to investigate the role of the immune system in a large sample of post-mortem brain of patients with schizophrenia: RNA sequencing was performed to assess the differential expression of 561 immune genes and 20 immune pathways in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (144 schizophrenia and 196 control subjects) and hippocampus (83 schizophrenia and 187 control subjects)...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477247/why-psychiatry-needs-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-a-child-psychiatrist-s-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Ben Sessa
Since the late 1980s the psychoactive drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has had a well-known history as the recreationally used drug ecstasy. What is less well known by the public is that MDMA started its life as a therapeutic agent and that in recent years an increasing amount of clinical research has been undertaken to revisit the drug's medical potential. MDMA has unique pharmacological properties that translate well to its proposed agent to assist trauma-focused psychotherapy. Psychological trauma-especially that which arises early in life from child abuse-underpins many chronic adult mental disorders, including addictions...
May 5, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445399/advances-in-psychiatric-diagnosis-past-present-and-future
#4
EDITORIAL
Carol S North, Alina M Surís
This editorial examines controversies identified by the articles in this special issue, which explore psychopathology in the broad history of the classification of selected psychiatric disorders and syndromes over time through current American criteria. Psychiatric diagnosis has a long history of scientific investigation and application, with periods of rapid change, instability, and heated controversy associated with it. The articles in this issue examine the history of psychiatric nomenclature and explore current and future directions in psychiatric diagnosis through the various versions of accepted diagnostic criteria and accompanying research literature addressing the criteria...
April 26, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421476/academic-productivity-in-psychiatry-benchmarks-for-the-h-index
#5
Frank P MacMaster, Rose Swansburg, Katherine Rittenbach
OBJECTIVE: Bibliometrics play an increasingly critical role in the assessment of faculty for promotion and merit increases. Bibliometrics is the statistical analysis of publications, aimed at evaluating their impact. The objective of this study is to describe h-index and citation benchmarks in academic psychiatry. METHODS: Faculty lists were acquired from online resources for all academic departments of psychiatry listed as having residency training programs in Canada (as of June 2016)...
April 18, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399107/-exogenous-organic-disease-of-the-brain-is-a-paradoxical-problem-of-clinical-psychiatry
#6
B N Piven
The author considers an important issue of clinical psychiatry - mental or exogenous organic disorders. An analysis of publications of 9 Russian psychiatric journals for the period 2011-2015 and program reports of the XV and XVI Russian psychiatric congresses shows that very small attention is given to this pathology. According to the author's opinion, many aspects of this problem are unexplored or controversial. Some different interpretations of the term 'exogenous organic' makes it uninformative. There are not clear ideas about the structure of the clinical exogenous-organic disorders; their prevalence in different populations is not well studied; their combination with other mental illnesses requires further studies...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373794/evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-in-bipolar-disorder-in-terms-of-total-oxidant-status-total-antioxidant-status-and-oxidative-stress-index
#7
Merve Cingi Yirün, Kübranur Ünal, Neslihan Altunsoy Şen, Onur Yirün, Çiğdem Aydemir, Erol Göka
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders characterized by disruptive episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Considering the complex role of biological and environmental factors in the etiology of affective disorders, recent studies have focused on oxidative stress, which may damage nerve cell components and take part in pathophysiology. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the data about oxidative stress in bipolar disorder by detecting the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels of manic episode (ME) and euthymic (EU) patients and by comparing these results with those of healthy controls (HCs)...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373689/collaborative-meta-analysis-finds-no-evidence-of-a-strong-interaction-between-stress-and-5-httlpr-genotype-contributing-to-the-development-of-depression
#8
R C Culverhouse, N L Saccone, A C Horton, Y Ma, K J Anstey, T Banaschewski, M Burmeister, S Cohen-Woods, B Etain, H L Fisher, N Goldman, S Guillaume, J Horwood, G Juhasz, K J Lester, L Mandelli, C M Middeldorp, E Olié, S Villafuerte, T M Air, R Araya, L Bowes, R Burns, E M Byrne, C Coffey, W L Coventry, K A B Gawronski, D Glei, A Hatzimanolis, J-J Hottenga, I Jaussent, C Jawahar, C Jennen-Steinmetz, J R Kramer, M Lajnef, K Little, H M Zu Schwabedissen, M Nauck, E Nederhof, P Petschner, W J Peyrot, C Schwahn, G Sinnamon, D Stacey, Y Tian, C Toben, S Van der Auwera, N Wainwright, J-C Wang, G Willemsen, I M Anderson, V Arolt, C Åslund, G Bagdy, B T Baune, F Bellivier, D I Boomsma, P Courtet, U Dannlowski, E J C de Geus, J F W Deakin, S Easteal, T Eley, D M Fergusson, A M Goate, X Gonda, H J Grabe, C Holzman, E O Johnson, M Kennedy, M Laucht, N G Martin, M R Munafò, K W Nilsson, A J Oldehinkel, C A Olsson, J Ormel, C Otte, G C Patton, B W J H Penninx, K Ritchie, M Sarchiapone, J M Scheid, A Serretti, J H Smit, N C Stefanis, P G Surtees, H Völzke, M Weinstein, M Whooley, J I Nurnberger, N Breslau, L J Bierut
The hypothesis that the S allele of the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter promoter region is associated with increased risk of depression, but only in individuals exposed to stressful situations, has generated much interest, research and controversy since first proposed in 2003. Multiple meta-analyses combining results from heterogeneous analyses have not settled the issue. To determine the magnitude of the interaction and the conditions under which it might be observed, we performed new analyses on 31 data sets containing 38 802 European ancestry subjects genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and assessed for depression and childhood maltreatment or other stressful life events, and meta-analysed the results...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366897/revolutionizing-cuban-psychiatry-the-freud-wars-1955-1970
#9
Jennifer Lynn Lambe
This article traces the battle over Freud within Cuban psychiatry from its pre-1959 origins through the "disappearance" of Freud by the early 1970s. It devotes particular attention to the visit of two Soviet psychiatrists to Cuba in the early 1960s as part of a broader campaign to promote Pavlov. The decade-long controversy over Freud responded to both theoretical and political concerns. If for some Freud represented political conservatism and theoretical mystification, Pavlov held out the promise of a dialectical materialist future...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317467/ethnographic-perspectives-on-global-mental-health
#10
Sumeet Jain, David M R Orr
The field of Global Mental Health (GMH) aims to influence mental health policy and practice worldwide, with a focus on human rights and access to care. There have been important achievements, but GMH has also been the focus of scholarly controversies arising from political, cultural, and pragmatic critiques. These debates have become increasingly polarized, giving rise to a need for more dialogue and experience-near research to inform theorizing. Ethnography has much to offer in this respect. This paper frames and introduces five articles in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry that illustrate the role of ethnographic methods in understanding the effects and implications of the field of global mental health on mental health policy and practice...
December 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298188/enrichment-activities-in-the-medical-school-psychiatry-programme-could-this-be-a-key-to-engaging-medical-students-in-psychiatry-a-study-from-a-high-secure-forensic-psychiatric-uk-hospital
#11
Anna-Marie Mortlock, Ignazio Puzzo, Sophie Taylor, Veena Kumari, Susan Young, Samrat Sengupta, Mrigendra Das
BACKGROUND: The majority of research studies on medical student attitudes toward psychiatry focus on influencing factors and the medical school experience. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a one-day visit to a high secure forensic psychiatric unit on medical students' attitudes towards psychiatry and also assesses career intentions and the factors influencing these. METHOD: Change in attitudes and career intention were measured by administering a questionnaire, which included the 30-item Attitudes Toward Psychiatry (ATP-30) survey, at the start (time 1) and end (time 2) of the one-day visit...
March 16, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225846/-plato-psychiatrist-foucault-platonic
#12
Nicolás Mathov
This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220082/synaptic-and-neuronal-autoantibody-associated-psychiatric-syndromes-controversies-and-hypotheses
#13
Adam Al-Diwani, Thomas A Pollak, Alexander E Langford, Belinda R Lennox
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) mediated by antibodies against synaptic and neuronal surface targets frequently presents with a psychiatric syndrome. In these patients, removal of autoantibodies treats the disease and outcomes are closely linked to early intervention. The discovery of these autoantibodies in isolated psychiatric syndromes has raised the possibility that these patients may derive similar benefits from immunotherapy, a potentially transformational approach to the treatment of mental illness. Although open-label case series suggest impressive therapeutic outcomes, the pathological relevance of these autoantibodies outside of canonical presentations is debated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210358/american-association-for-emergency-psychiatry-task-force-on-medical-clearance-of-adults-part-i-introduction-review-and-evidence-based-guidelines
#14
REVIEW
Eric L Anderson, Kimberly Nordstrom, Michael P Wilson, Jennifer M Peltzer-Jones, Leslie Zun, Anthony Ng, Michael H Allen
INTRODUCTION: In the United States, the number of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a mental health concern is significant and expected to grow. The breadth of the medical evaluation of these patients is controversial. Attempts have been made to establish a standard evaluation for these patients, but to date no nationally accepted standards exist. A task force of the American Association of Emergency Psychiatry, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine and psychiatry, and a psychologist was convened to form consensus recommendations on the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to EDs...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174594/preventing-involuntary-admissions-special-needs-for-distinct-patient-groups
#15
Knut Hoffmann, I S Haussleiter, F Illes, J Jendreyschak, A Diehl, B Emons, C Armgart, A Schramm, G Juckel
BACKGROUND: Coercive measures in psychiatry are a controversial topic and raise ethical, legal and clinical issues. Involuntary admission of patients is a long-lasting problem and indicates a problematic pathway to care situations within the community, largely because personal freedom is fundamentally covered by the UN declaration of human rights and the German constitution. METHODS: In this study, a survey on a large and comprehensive population of psychiatric in-patients in the eastern part of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, was carried out for the years 2004-2009, including 230...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041692/neurofeedback-one-of-today-s-techniques-in-psychiatry
#16
M Arns, J-M Batail, S Bioulac, M Congedo, C Daudet, D Drapier, T Fovet, R Jardri, M Le-Van-Quyen, F Lotte, D Mehler, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, D Purper-Ouakil, F Vialatte
OBJECTIVES: Neurofeedback is a technique that aims to teach a subject to regulate a brain parameter measured by a technical interface to modulate his/her related brain and cognitive activities. However, the use of neurofeedback as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders remains controversial. The aim of this review is to summarize and to comment the level of evidence of electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback and real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback for therapeutic application in psychiatry...
April 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033511/vitamin-d-and-alcohol-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#17
REVIEW
Vitor Soares Tardelli, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do Lago, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria...
February 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018248/clinical-relevance-of-informal-coercion-in-psychiatric-treatment-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Florian Hotzy, Matthias Jaeger
INTRODUCTION: Although informal coercion is frequently applied in psychiatry, its use is discussed controversially. This systematic review aimed to summarize literature on attitudes toward informal coercion, its prevalence, and clinical effects. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINF, and Google Scholar was conducted. Publications were included if they reported original data describing patients' and clinicians' attitudes toward and prevalence rates or clinical effects of informal coercion...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990322/recent-advances-and-controversies-in-peripartum-depression
#19
Jennifer L Payne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update readers on recent controversies and findings on the underlying biology and clinical management of peripartum depression. RECENT FINDINGS: Topics discussed include the discovery and replication of two epigenetic biomarkers of peripartum depression, two well controlled studies that do NOT find associations between in utero antidepressant exposure and cardiac defects and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and ongoing controversy on whether antidepressant use during pregnancy prevents peripartum depression and whether or not hormonal treatments have a place in the management of postpartum depression...
September 2016: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855425/prostitution-as-a-psychiatric-situation-ethical-aspects
#20
Danijela Tiosavljević, Slavica Djukić-Dejanović, Karel Turza, Aleksandar Jovanović, Vida Jeremić
This paper presents the morally controversial phenomenon of prostitution. As the basis for contemplating the prostitution issue the most important is revealing and understanding its primitive ethical root. For understanding its "soul", its essence, also important is comprehending sexual, "elementary thoughts" of mankind, through the relationship between prostitution and religious, social, political and spiritual life, and its nature as a reflection of the sexual-ethical concepts in different epochs and nations...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
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