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Controversies in psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855425/prostitution-as-a-psychiatric-situation-ethical-aspects
#1
Danijela Tiosavljević, Slavica Djukić-Dejanović, Karel Turza, Aleksandar Jovanović, Vida Jeremić
This paper presents the morally controversial phenomenon of prostitution. As the basis for contemplating the prostitution issue the most important is revealing and understanding its primitive ethical root. For understanding its "soul", its essence, also important is comprehending sexual, "elementary thoughts" of mankind, through the relationship between prostitution and religious, social, political and spiritual life, and its nature as a reflection of the sexual-ethical concepts in different epochs and nations...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843149/jnk1-controls-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-imposes-cell-autonomous-control-of-anxiety-behaviour-from-the-neurogenic-niche
#2
H Mohammad, F Marchisella, S Ortega-Martinez, P Hollos, K Eerola, E Komulainen, N Kulesskaya, E Freemantle, V Fagerholm, E Savontous, H Rauvala, B D Peterson, H van Praag, E T Coffey
Promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis is expected to induce neuroplastic changes that improve mood and alleviate anxiety. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown and the hypothesis itself is controversial. Here we show that mice lacking Jnk1, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor-treated mice, display increased neurogenesis in adult hippocampus characterized by enhanced cell proliferation and survival, and increased maturation in the ventral region. Correspondingly, anxiety behaviour is reduced in a battery of tests, except when neurogenesis is prevented by AraC treatment...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836927/l-ron-hubbard-s-science-fiction-quest-against-psychiatry
#3
Laura Hirshbein
Layfayette Ronald Hubbard (1911-1986) was a colourful and prolific American writer of science fiction in the 1930s and 1940s. During the time between his two decades of productivity and his return to science fiction in 1980, Hubbard founded the Church of Scientology. In addition to its controversial status as a religion and its troubling pattern of intimidation and litigation directed towards its foes, Scientology is well known as an organised opponent to psychiatry. This paper looks at Hubbard's science fiction work to help understand the evolution of Scientology's antipsychiatry stance, as well as the alternative to psychiatry offered by Hubbard...
November 11, 2016: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#4
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746252/surgical-approaches-in-psychiatry-a-survey-of-the-world-literature-on-psychosurgery
#5
REVIEW
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioral or affective changes in humans remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience, and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and careful appraisal of its 2 sides is warranted: namely, the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude freehand operations into a multidisciplinary treatment of last resort...
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514542/how-valid-is-placebo-in-the-indian-setting
#6
Himanshu Sharma
Background-The Placebo is defined as an inert substance with a potent therapeutic effect. Its effect is attributed to its psychological and neurobiological effect. Its use in Psychiatric drug practice in drug trials and clinical practice is common, especially in India .Currently there is a debate whether to use it or not as there are ethical, moral and legal issues. Also, its mechanism of action is not known. Discussion-The Indian Psychiatry scenario is muddled in relation to use of placebo in Randomized Controlled Trials or Psychiatric clinical practice...
August 10, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431292/inducible-ablation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-adult-mice-impairs-locomotion-motor-skill-learning-and-leads-to-severe-parkinsonism
#7
E P Bello, R Casas-Cordero, G L Galiñanes, E Casey, M A Belluscio, V Rodríguez, D Noaín, M G Murer, M Rubinstein
Motor execution and planning are tightly regulated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors present in basal ganglia circuits. Although stimulation of D1 receptors is known to enhance motor function, the global effect of D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation or blockade remains highly controversial, with studies showing increasing, decreasing or no changes in motor activity. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic attempts to block or eliminate D2R have led to controversial results that questioned the importance of D2R in motor function...
July 19, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389885/thoughts-on-the-present-and-future-of-psychoanalytic-education
#8
Otto F Kernberg, Robert Michels
This paper originated in a series of dialogues between the authors over a period of approximately one year, focused on present problems (and possible solutions) in psychoanalytic education, internationally but particularly in the U.S. Both authors have been involved in psychoanalytic education and governance over many years and share a concern with where psychoanalysis presently stands and where it is going. They share the experience of being part of what today is a significant minority of psychoanalysts involved in academic pursuits, thus being situated at the boundary between psychoanalysis and university-based psychiatry as professions...
June 2016: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271002/theory-of-mind-and-verstehen-understanding-methodology
#9
Tsutomu Kumazaki
Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former...
September 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179180/physical-restraint-for-psychiatric-patients-and-its-associations-with-clinical-characteristics-and-the-national-mental-health-law-in-china
#10
Feng-Rong An, Sha Sha, Qing-E Zhang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Helen F K Chiu, Ping-Ping Wu, Xin Jin, Jian-Song Zhou, Yi-Lang Tang, Yu-Tao Xiang
Physical restraint (PR) for patients is an ongoing controversial topic in psychiatry. This study examined the percentage of PR and its associations with clinical characteristics and the implementation of the National Mental Health Law (NMHL) in China. The study consecutively assessed a sample of 1364 psychiatric inpatients. Socio-demographic and clinical data including use of PR were collected from the medical records using a form designed for this study and confirmed via interview. Psychopathology and insight were measured using standardized instruments...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27107752/parent-child-bed-sharing-the-good-the-bad-and-the-burden-of-evidence
#11
Viara R Mileva-Seitz, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Chiara Battaini, Maartje P C M Luijk
The practice of parent and child sharing a sleeping surface, or 'bed-sharing', is one of the most controversial topics in parenting research. The lay literature has popularized and polarized this debate, offering on one hand claims of dangers, and on the other, of benefits - both physical and psychological - associated with bed-sharing. To address the scientific evidence behind such claims, we systematically reviewed 659 published papers (peer-reviewed, editorial pieces, and commentaries) on the topic of parent-child bed-sharing...
March 15, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26944741/anders-breivik-extreme-beliefs-mistaken-for-psychosis
#12
Tahir Rahman, Phillip J Resnick, Bruce Harry
The case of Anders Breivik, who committed mass murder in Norway in 2011, stirred controversy among forensic mental health experts. His bizarrely composed compendium and references to himself as the "Knights Templar" raised concerns that he had a psychotic mental illness. Beliefs such as Mr. Breivik's that precede odd, unusual, or extremely violent behavior present a unique challenge to the forensic evaluator, who sometimes struggles to understand those beliefs. Psychotic disorder frequently is invoked to characterize odd, unusual, or extreme beliefs, with a classification that has evolved over time...
March 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842897/-patients-with-icd-10-disorders-f3-and-f4-in-psychiatric-and-psychosomatic-in-patient-units-who-is-treated-where-allocation-features-from-the-pfad-study
#13
D Bichescu-Burian, C Cerisier, A Czekaj, J Grempler, S Hund, S Jaeger, P Schmid, G Weithmann, T Steinert
BACKGROUND: In Germany, in-patient treatment of patients with depressive, neurotic, anxiety, and somatoform disorders (ICD-10 F3, F4) is carried out in different settings in psychiatry and psychosomatics. Which patient characteristics determine referral to one or the other specialty is a crucial question in mental health policy and is a matter of ongoing controversy. However, comparative data on patient populations are widely lacking. METHODS: In the study of Treatment Pathways of Patients with Anxiety and Depression (PfAD study), a total of 320 patients with ICD-10 F3/F4 clinical diagnoses were consecutively recruited from four treatment settings (psychiatric depression ward, psychiatric crisis intervention ward, psychiatric day hospitals, or psychosomatic hospital units; 80 participants per setting) and investigated...
February 3, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26672261/-depression-but-which-depression
#14
Régis Marion-Veyron, Michaël Saraga, Friedrich Stiefel
Despite intensive efforts in neurobiology and epidemiology, depression remains a diagnosis with blurred b. We illustrate this point by examining the controversial issue of systematic screening by GPs, which highlights tensions between psychiatry and general medicine. We suggest a broader perspective on depression, taking into account the patient's individuality, as well as potentially pathogenic social determinants. In the era of operational diagnostic criteria, clinical intuition and the wider sociological context of the doctor-patient relationship are relevant...
October 21, 2015: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664092/neurosis-meets-psychosis-case-series-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#15
Saumil Y Dholakia, Chandramouleeswaran Susmita, Krishna Das Ranjit, Yogendra Singh, Deepa Braganza
The utility of the terms psychosis and neurosis in psychiatry have maintained their dichotomous stance since ages. Clinical observations and etiological hypothesis of psychiatric disorders have kept this polarity intact since the times of Freud and Jung. This case series attempts to revisit this perennial psychiatric controversy.
July 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26650560/-debating-psychiatry-a-critical-review-of-some-recent-discussions
#16
Elena Levy Yeyati
This paper reviews the principal critiques and reactions stated regarding the launching of DSM-5 up to the present days in Anglo-Saxon's mental health domain. The arguments are gathered as follows: current diagnoses systems; validity of psychiatric diagnoses; limits of the efficacy of psychiatric treatments (especially medications and conflict of interests); the image of psychiatry in user's networks. In the end controversies get polarized between medicalization of ordinary life and antipsychiatry. However, if acknowledged impasses and benevolent distrust are tolerated, it is possible to make a clinical use of the critiques and reactions...
May 2015: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26643538/brain-borne-il-1-adjusts-glucoregulation-and-provides-fuel-support-to-astrocytes-and-neurons-in-an-autocrine-paracrine-manner
#17
A Del Rey, M Verdenhalven, A C Lörwald, C Meyer, M Hernangómez, A Randolf, E Roggero, A M König, J T Heverhagen, C Guaza, H O Besedovsky
It is still controversial which mediators regulate energy provision to activated neural cells, as insulin does in peripheral tissues. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) may mediate this effect as it can affect glucoregulation, it is overexpressed in the 'healthy' brain during increased neuronal activity, and it supports high-energy demanding processes such as long-term potentiation, memory and learning. Furthermore, the absence of sustained neuroendocrine and behavioral counterregulation suggests that brain glucose-sensing neurons do not perceive IL-1β-induced hypoglycemia...
September 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26643416/risk-factors-for-seclusion-and-restraint-in-a-pediatric-psychiatry-day-hospital
#18
Wuroh Timbo, Aishwarya Sriram, Elizabeth K Reynolds, Renee DeBoard-Lucas, Matthew Specht, Carolyn Howell, Colleen McSweeney, Marco A Grados
The use of seclusion and restraints (SR) in acute hospital settings remains a controversial practice. Despite the focus on SR in the psychiatric services literature, data on SR use in pediatric day hospital settings is lacking. A case-control retrospective analysis for children admitted into a pediatric psychiatry day hospital in a 2-year span examined predictors of SR use. Demographic and clinical descriptors were examined in relation to SR events using univariate and multivariate regression models. Significant univariate risk factors for SR use were psychiatric morbidity, history of physical abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, having any anxiety disorder, and younger age...
October 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26552314/-changing-forensic-mental-health-in-france-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Yoji Nakatani, Suguru Hasuzawa
This article describes the background and recent changes in French forensic mental health. The literature suggests that three law reforms have been crucial to changes in the mental health system. First, the Penal Code of 1992 redefined the provisions of criminal responsibility and introduced the category of diminished responsibility. Second, a controversial law for preventive detention (rétention de sûretê) was enacted in 2008, according to which criminals with severe personality disorders are subject to incarceration even after the completion of their prison sentences if they are still considered to pose a danger to the public...
2015: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26514048/-clinical-introduction-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-major-depression-in-japan
#20
REVIEW
Motoaki Nakamura
Therapeutic applications of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have long been awaited for not only neurological but also psychiatric disorders as a low-invasive transcranial brain stimulation. In 2008, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States finally approved repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for medication-resistant patients with major depression. More recently, at the beginning of 2013, a deep TMS device with the H-coil received FDA approval as the second TMS device for major depression...
2015: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
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