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Controversies in psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317467/ethnographic-perspectives-on-global-mental-health
#1
Sumeet Jain, David M R Orr
The field of Global Mental Health (GMH) aims to influence mental health policy and practice worldwide, with a focus on human rights and access to care. There have been important achievements, but GMH has also been the focus of scholarly controversies arising from political, cultural, and pragmatic critiques. These debates have become increasingly polarized, giving rise to a need for more dialogue and experience-near research to inform theorizing. Ethnography has much to offer in this respect. This paper frames and introduces five articles in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry that illustrate the role of ethnographic methods in understanding the effects and implications of the field of global mental health on mental health policy and practice...
December 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298188/enrichment-activities-in-the-medical-school-psychiatry-programme-could-this-be-a-key-to-engaging-medical-students-in-psychiatry-a-study-from-a-high-secure-forensic-psychiatric-uk-hospital
#2
Anna-Marie Mortlock, Ignazio Puzzo, Sophie Taylor, Veena Kumari, Susan Young, Samrat Sengupta, Mrigendra Das
BACKGROUND: The majority of research studies on medical student attitudes toward psychiatry focus on influencing factors and the medical school experience. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a one-day visit to a high secure forensic psychiatric unit on medical students' attitudes towards psychiatry and also assesses career intentions and the factors influencing these. METHOD: Change in attitudes and career intention were measured by administering a questionnaire, which included the 30-item Attitudes Toward Psychiatry (ATP-30) survey, at the start (time 1) and end (time 2) of the one-day visit...
March 16, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225846/-plato-psychiatrist-foucault-platonic
#3
Nicolás Mathov
This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220082/synaptic-and-neuronal-autoantibody-associated-psychiatric-syndromes-controversies-and-hypotheses
#4
Adam Al-Diwani, Thomas A Pollak, Alexander E Langford, Belinda R Lennox
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) mediated by antibodies against synaptic and neuronal surface targets frequently presents with a psychiatric syndrome. In these patients, removal of autoantibodies treats the disease and outcomes are closely linked to early intervention. The discovery of these autoantibodies in isolated psychiatric syndromes has raised the possibility that these patients may derive similar benefits from immunotherapy, a potentially transformational approach to the treatment of mental illness. Although open-label case series suggest impressive therapeutic outcomes, the pathological relevance of these autoantibodies outside of canonical presentations is debated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210358/american-association-for-emergency-psychiatry-task-force-on-medical-clearance-of-adults-part-i-introduction-review-and-evidence-based-guidelines
#5
REVIEW
Eric L Anderson, Kimberly Nordstrom, Michael P Wilson, Jennifer M Peltzer-Jones, Leslie Zun, Anthony Ng, Michael H Allen
INTRODUCTION: In the United States, the number of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a mental health concern is significant and expected to grow. The breadth of the medical evaluation of these patients is controversial. Attempts have been made to establish a standard evaluation for these patients, but to date no nationally accepted standards exist. A task force of the American Association of Emergency Psychiatry, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine and psychiatry, and a psychologist was convened to form consensus recommendations on the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to EDs...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174594/preventing-involuntary-admissions-special-needs-for-distinct-patient-groups
#6
Knut Hoffmann, I S Haussleiter, F Illes, J Jendreyschak, A Diehl, B Emons, C Armgart, A Schramm, G Juckel
BACKGROUND: Coercive measures in psychiatry are a controversial topic and raise ethical, legal and clinical issues. Involuntary admission of patients is a long-lasting problem and indicates a problematic pathway to care situations within the community, largely because personal freedom is fundamentally covered by the UN declaration of human rights and the German constitution. METHODS: In this study, a survey on a large and comprehensive population of psychiatric in-patients in the eastern part of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, was carried out for the years 2004-2009, including 230...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041692/neurofeedback-one-of-today-s-techniques-in-psychiatry
#7
M Arns, J-M Batail, S Bioulac, M Congedo, C Daudet, D Drapier, T Fovet, R Jardri, M Le-Van-Quyen, F Lotte, D Mehler, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, D Purper-Ouakil, F Vialatte
OBJECTIVES: Neurofeedback is a technique that aims to teach a subject to regulate a brain parameter measured by a technical interface to modulate his/her related brain and cognitive activities. However, the use of neurofeedback as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders remains controversial. The aim of this review is to summarize and to comment the level of evidence of electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback and real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback for therapeutic application in psychiatry...
December 29, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033511/vitamin-d-and-alcohol-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#8
REVIEW
Vitor Soares Tardelli, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do Lago, Dartiu Xavier da Silveira, Thiago Marques Fidalgo
Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria...
February 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018248/clinical-relevance-of-informal-coercion-in-psychiatric-treatment-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Florian Hotzy, Matthias Jaeger
INTRODUCTION: Although informal coercion is frequently applied in psychiatry, its use is discussed controversially. This systematic review aimed to summarize literature on attitudes toward informal coercion, its prevalence, and clinical effects. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, PsycINF, and Google Scholar was conducted. Publications were included if they reported original data describing patients' and clinicians' attitudes toward and prevalence rates or clinical effects of informal coercion...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990322/recent-advances-and-controversies-in-peripartum-depression
#10
Jennifer L Payne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update readers on recent controversies and findings on the underlying biology and clinical management of peripartum depression. RECENT FINDINGS: Topics discussed include the discovery and replication of two epigenetic biomarkers of peripartum depression, two well controlled studies that do NOT find associations between in utero antidepressant exposure and cardiac defects and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and ongoing controversy on whether antidepressant use during pregnancy prevents peripartum depression and whether or not hormonal treatments have a place in the management of postpartum depression...
September 2016: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855425/prostitution-as-a-psychiatric-situation-ethical-aspects
#11
Danijela Tiosavljević, Slavica Djukić-Dejanović, Karel Turza, Aleksandar Jovanović, Vida Jeremić
This paper presents the morally controversial phenomenon of prostitution. As the basis for contemplating the prostitution issue the most important is revealing and understanding its primitive ethical root. For understanding its "soul", its essence, also important is comprehending sexual, "elementary thoughts" of mankind, through the relationship between prostitution and religious, social, political and spiritual life, and its nature as a reflection of the sexual-ethical concepts in different epochs and nations...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843149/jnk1-controls-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-imposes-cell-autonomous-control-of-anxiety-behaviour-from-the-neurogenic-niche
#12
H Mohammad, F Marchisella, S Ortega-Martinez, P Hollos, K Eerola, E Komulainen, N Kulesskaya, E Freemantle, V Fagerholm, E Savontous, H Rauvala, B D Peterson, H van Praag, E T Coffey
Promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis is expected to induce neuroplastic changes that improve mood and alleviate anxiety. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown and the hypothesis itself is controversial. Here we show that mice lacking Jnk1, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor-treated mice, display increased neurogenesis in adult hippocampus characterized by enhanced cell proliferation and survival, and increased maturation in the ventral region. Correspondingly, anxiety behaviour is reduced in a battery of tests, except when neurogenesis is prevented by AraC treatment...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836927/l-ron-hubbard-s-science-fiction-quest-against-psychiatry
#13
Laura Hirshbein
Layfayette Ronald Hubbard (1911-1986) was a colourful and prolific American writer of science fiction in the 1930s and 1940s. During the time between his two decades of productivity and his return to science fiction in 1980, Hubbard founded the Church of Scientology. In addition to its controversial status as a religion and its troubling pattern of intimidation and litigation directed towards its foes, Scientology is well known as an organised opponent to psychiatry. This paper looks at Hubbard's science fiction work to help understand the evolution of Scientology's antipsychiatry stance, as well as the alternative to psychiatry offered by Hubbard...
December 2016: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#14
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746252/surgical-approaches-in-psychiatry-a-survey-of-the-world-literature-on-psychosurgery
#15
REVIEW
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioral or affective changes in humans remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience, and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and careful appraisal of its 2 sides is warranted: namely, the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude freehand operations into a multidisciplinary treatment of last resort...
January 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514542/how-valid-is-placebo-in-the-indian-setting
#16
Himanshu Sharma, Bharti Sharma
Background-The Placebo is defined as an inert substance with a potent therapeutic effect. Its effect is attributed to its psychological and neurobiological effect. Its use in Psychiatric drug practice in drug trials and clinical practice is common, especially in India .Currently there is a debate whether to use it or not as there are ethical, moral and legal issues. Also, its mechanism of action is not known. Discussion-The Indian Psychiatry scenario is muddled in relation to use of placebo in Randomized Controlled Trials or Psychiatric clinical practice...
August 10, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431292/inducible-ablation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-adult-mice-impairs-locomotion-motor-skill-learning-and-leads-to-severe-parkinsonism
#17
E P Bello, R Casas-Cordero, G L Galiñanes, E Casey, M A Belluscio, V Rodríguez, D Noaín, M G Murer, M Rubinstein
Motor execution and planning are tightly regulated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors present in basal ganglia circuits. Although stimulation of D1 receptors is known to enhance motor function, the global effect of D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation or blockade remains highly controversial, with studies showing increasing, decreasing or no changes in motor activity. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic attempts to block or eliminate D2R have led to controversial results that questioned the importance of D2R in motor function...
April 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389885/thoughts-on-the-present-and-future-of-psychoanalytic-education
#18
Otto F Kernberg, Robert Michels
This paper originated in a series of dialogues between the authors over a period of approximately one year, focused on present problems (and possible solutions) in psychoanalytic education, internationally but particularly in the U.S. Both authors have been involved in psychoanalytic education and governance over many years and share a concern with where psychoanalysis presently stands and where it is going. They share the experience of being part of what today is a significant minority of psychoanalysts involved in academic pursuits, thus being situated at the boundary between psychoanalysis and university-based psychiatry as professions...
June 2016: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271002/theory-of-mind-and-verstehen-understanding-methodology
#19
Tsutomu Kumazaki
Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former...
September 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27179180/physical-restraint-for-psychiatric-patients-and-its-associations-with-clinical-characteristics-and-the-national-mental-health-law-in-china
#20
Feng-Rong An, Sha Sha, Qing-E Zhang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Helen F K Chiu, Ping-Ping Wu, Xin Jin, Jian-Song Zhou, Yi-Lang Tang, Yu-Tao Xiang
Physical restraint (PR) for patients is an ongoing controversial topic in psychiatry. This study examined the percentage of PR and its associations with clinical characteristics and the implementation of the National Mental Health Law (NMHL) in China. The study consecutively assessed a sample of 1364 psychiatric inpatients. Socio-demographic and clinical data including use of PR were collected from the medical records using a form designed for this study and confirmed via interview. Psychopathology and insight were measured using standardized instruments...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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