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Controversies in psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740357/a-perspective-on-a-possible-relation-between-the-psychopathology-of-the-schizophrenia-schizoaffective-spectrum-and-unconjugated-bilirubin-a-longitudinal-protocol-study
#1
João Gama Marques, Filipe Arantes-Gonçalves
Some authors suggest a relation between Unconjugated Bilirubin (UCB) plasma high levels and schizophrenia, as schizophrenia patients have been showing higher UCB levels when compared with other psychiatric patients and general population. These higher UCB levels have been already correlated with acute psychotic states, positive symptoms, and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders share common symptoms but there aren't yet accepted biomarkers for their distinction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704415/ways-of-understanding-of-religious-delusions-associated-with-a-change-of-identity-on-the-example-of-identification-with-jesus-christ
#2
REVIEW
Krzysztof Dyga, Radosław Stupak
Identification with Christ among psychiatric patients is an example of a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. As a delusion it includes a misidentification (change of identity) in the layer of content and, usually, grandiosity and/or paranoid traits in the formal aspect. What is more, it fits in the category of religious delusions, which are perhaps the most controversial type of delusions and as such require special sensitivity as well as knowledge beyond psychology or psychiatry. The aim of the articleis to show the phenomenon of identification with Christ among psychiatric patients, taking into account different ways of its explaining and understanding...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694527/psyche-meets-matter-body-and-personhood-in-the-medical-scientific-project-of-nise-da-silveira
#3
Felipe Sales Magaldi
In the early 1900s, Brazilian psychiatry was marked by the use of controversial treatments, like electroconvulsive therapy, psychosurgery, and insulin coma therapy. In 1946, the Brazilian physician Nise da Silveira took the front line in criticizing these treatments by setting up a creative activities studio in the National Psychiatric Center (Centro Psiquiátrico Nacional), in Rio de Janeiro. The article examines the theoretical basis for Silveira's medical-scientific project, drawing on documental sources and fieldwork with the study group at the Museum of Images from the Unconscious (Museu de Imagens do Inconsciente), maintained by her disciples...
March 2018: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675415/practical-and-ethical-aspects-of-advance-research-directives-for-research-on-healthy-aging-german-and-israeli-professionals-perspectives
#4
Perla Werner, Silke Schicktanz
Background: Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557314/-hans-heinze-and-the-research-programme-of-the-german-association-of-child-psychiatry-and-therapeutic-education-1942-1945
#5
Klaus Schepker, Thomas Beddies
Hans Heinze and the Research Programme of the German Association of Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education 1942-1945 Upon its foundation in 1940, Paul Schröder, full professor for psychiatry in Leipzig, was the first president of the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education (DGKH). Following his death in 1941, his student Hans Heinze (Brandenburg/H.) succeeded him, prevailing over Werner Villinger (Breslau). The principal task of the DGKH was considered to be the exploration of the genetic origins of intellectual disabilities and behavioural disorders among children and adolescents...
September 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532566/application-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-psychiatric-clinical-evaluation-controversies-and-avenues
#6
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Ivo D Popivanov, Stefan Kostianev
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have attempted to replicate the findings of altered emotional processing in depressed patients compared with healthy controls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during passive viewing of positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Pictures System. METHODS: Nineteen medicated depressed patients and 19 sex and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during presentation of affective pictures in a block design...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522582/-full-recovery-seems-possible-and-would-depend-on-treatment-the-revolutionary-promise-of-open-dialogue
#7
Carlos E León
We present an important advance in psychiatry regarding the phenomenon of recovery. Comparative studies between Open Dialogue (OD) and current treatments of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses point to an important difference in short and long-term results in favor of this approach developed in Western Lapland. This suggests that OD treatment enhances durable recovery. The prognosis of recovery would depend mainly on the treatment received, and would not be necessarily partial or dependent on a mysterious personal quality...
September 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496535/refractory-schizophrenia-attempted-suicide-and-withdrawal-of-life-support-a-clinical-ethics-case-report
#8
Cory Taylor, Jamie C Fertal, Solomon Liao
BACKGROUND: Withdrawal of life support for an individual with refractory schizophrenia after attempted suicide remains controversial. Discussion regarding prognosis of mental illness and the distinction between somatic and mental illness brings out many ethical issues. This article will examine the role and weight of severe persistent mental illness in the withdrawal of life support after attempted suicide. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 30-year-old gentleman with deafness and schizophrenia was admitted with multiple self-inflicted visceral stab wounds...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476951/current-status-of-vaccines-in-psychiatry-a-narrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Harshini Manohar, Vikas Menon
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines are one of the newer therapeutic modalities being researched in psychiatric illnesses with limited role of pharmacological interventions. Preclinical studies on vaccines have shown favorable results in conditions like Substance use Disorders and Alzheimer's Dementia. However, the utility of Mumps Measles Rubella vaccine has been overshadowed by controversy linked to causation of Autism. With this background, the current narrative review aimed to comprehensively and critically evaluate the current status of vaccines in Psychiatric illnesses...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469662/a-recurrent-question-what-is-borderline
#10
Maja Zandersen, Mads Gram Henriksen, Josef Parnas
The status of borderline personality disorder (BPD) as a diagnostic category is a matter of continuing controversy. In the United States, BPD is one of the most frequent diagnoses of psychiatric inpatients, and a similar tendency emerges in Europe. Nearly all theoretical aspects of BPD have been questioned, including its very position as a personality disorder. In this article, we trace the evolution of the borderline concept from the beginning of the 20th century to the current psychometric research. We argue that the status of BPD is fraught with conceptual difficulties, including an unrecognized semantic drift of major phenomenological terms (e...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287276/patients-attitudes-towards-and-acceptance-of-coercion-in-psychiatry
#11
Eva Krieger, Steffen Moritz, Ricarda Weil, Matthias Nagel
Coercive interventions for psychiatric patients are controversial. Research on different preventive measures has increased over the last years. The present study examined patients' attitudes towards and understanding of previously experienced coercive measures as well as their preferences related to coercive measures and possible alternatives. In total, 213 patients who had experienced coercion and 51 patient controls (patients staying voluntarily on a closed ward with no coercive treatment) from three acute wards were examined via expert interviews and questionnaires in the framework of a naturalistic trial...
December 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282230/deconstructing-risk-management-in-psychotherapy-supervision
#12
Jerome Kroll, Jennifer Radden
In the ongoing controversy over how much regulation and standardization to impose on clinical practice and research, it is not surprising that the activity of psychotherapy supervision should be swept up in the drive for uniformity. The managers amongst us want to regulate and institutionalize all aspects of practice. In opposition, many clinicians resist the relentless march toward the safety of uniformity travel alongside managerial imposition of regulations. Psychotherapy supervision's method of a close apprenticeship relationship between supervisor and trainee and its focus on the process and ethics of professional interaction stand at the humanistic core of what is otherwise becoming an increasingly mechanistic model of providing care to persons with mental illness...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195805/-symptomatic-remission-and-its-relationship-to-social-functioning-in-tunisian-out-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
I El Gharbi, M Chhoumi, A Mechri
INTRODUCTION: The concept of symptomatic and functional remission represents an important challenge in the care of the mentally ill, particularly in patients with schizophrenia. Operational criteria for symptomatic remission in schizophrenia have been proposed by Andreasen et al. (2005). Over the last decade, these criteria have been widely validated; however few studies have been conducted outside developed countries. Moreover, the association of symptomatic remission with functional outcome has not yet been established in developing countries including Tunisia, as there may be variability in the social and familial environment...
November 28, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193265/substance-use-disorder-and-compulsory-commitment-to-care-a-care-ethical-decision-making-framework
#14
Marie Nicolini, Joris Vandenberghe, Chris Gastmans
In the era of deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric patients, steady or even increasing rates of compulsory commitment to care (CCC) are an intriguing phenomenon to analyse. From a clinical, legal and ethical perspective, CCC continues to be a controversial practice in psychiatry, and perhaps even more so when applied to patients with severe substance use disorder (SUD). Several reasons make it controversial. The lack of consensus about the benefits of CCC and professional disagreement about what mental illness and autonomy mean in the case of SUD make it difficult to apply ethically sound clinical decision-making in CCC...
November 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053485/the-effects-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-augmentation-of-antipsychotic-treatment-on-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#15
Bjanka Vuksan Ćusa, Nataša Klepac, Nenad Jakšić, Zoran Bradaš, Marija Božičević, Natalia Palac, Marina Šagud
OBJECTIVES: Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) continues to be a challenge in modern psychiatry. Most of these patients have severe neurocognitive deficits. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has proved effective and safe in the treatment of TRS, but because of potential neurocognitive adverse effects, it is associated with many controversies. The aim of this prospective, open study was to evaluate the effects of ECT augmentation of antipsychotics on cognitive functions in patients with TRS...
March 2018: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045768/a-brief-history-of-lithium-treatment-in-psychiatry
#16
Mark L Ruffalo
The history of lithium as a psychiatric medication is marked by its serendipitous discovery, its lengthy path to US Food and Drug Administration approval, and controversy surrounding its current status in bipolar disorder treatment. Without doubt, the discovery of lithium as a psychotropic agent forever changed the course of psychiatry. The drug's fascinating, and sometimes contentious, history is reviewed here.
October 12, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953837/emotionally-responsive-wearable-technology-and-stress-detection-for-affective-disorders
#17
Jenny Tillotson
As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21st century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953763/the-performing-arts-and-psychological-well-being
#18
Ahmed Hankir, Bruce Kirkcaldy, Frederick R Carrick, Asad Sadiq, Rashid Zaman
Although psychotropic drugs have been hailed as, 'One of the success stories of modern psychiatry' the prescribing of these medicines has not been without commotion, concern and controversy. Moreover, the President of the World Psychiatry Association Professor Dinesh Bhugra and colleagues, after conducting a recent large-scale study (n=25,522) on psychiatric morbidity in the UK, collectively issued the clarion call that, 'The mental health of the nation was unlikely to be improved by treatment with psychotropic medication alone'...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944628/-understanding-the-use-of-mechanical-restraints-in-psychiatry-phenomenological-study-of-nurses%C3%A2-lived-experience
#19
Pascale Corneau, Jean Daniel Jacob, Dave Holmes, Desire Rioux
The use of mechanical restraints in psychiatric settings is currently the subject of ethical controversy. However, both patients' and nurses' voices are absent in the debate over this controversial intervention. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the experience of psychiatric nurses using mechanical restraints. Twentyone nurses working on either the acute psychiatric inpatient unit and/or the emergency psychiatric unit of a university affiliated Canadian hospital participated in semi-structured interviews, which were then transcribed, coded and analyzed using the interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) method...
March 2017: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915376/psychometric-properties-of-the-postpartum-bonding-questionnaire-and-correlates-of-mother-infant-bonding-impairment-in-italian-new-mothers
#20
Alessandra Busonera, Stefania Cataudella, Jessica Lampis, Marco Tommasi, Giulio Cesare Zavattini
OBJECTIVE: impaired maternal bonding is a risk factor for problems with infant well-being and development. The investigation of perinatal variables related to disorders of the mother-infant relationship as well as the administration of reliable and valid screening tools to new mothers in the postpartum can help identify early signs of a disturbed mother-child relationship. The Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) has been shown to be a valid screening instrument, but its dimensional structure is still controversial...
September 1, 2017: Midwifery
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