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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945015/membrane-fusion-mediated-intracellular-delivery-of-lipid-bilayer-coated-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#1
Jian Yang, Jing Tu, Gerda E M Lamers, René C L Olsthoorn, Alexander Kros
Protein delivery into the cytosol of cells is a challenging topic in the field of nanomedicine, because cellular uptake and endosomal escape are typically inefficient, hampering clinical applications. In this contribution cuboidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) containing disk-shaped cavities with a large pore diameter (10 nm) are studied as a protein delivery vehicle using cytochrome-c (cytC) as a model membrane-impermeable protein. To ensure colloidal stability, the MSNs are coated with a fusogenic lipid bilayer (LB) and cellular uptake is induced by a complementary pair of coiled-coil (CC) lipopeptides...
September 25, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944854/effect-of-hippocampal-l%C3%A2-nbp-on-bdnf-and-trkb-expression-and-neurological-function-of-vascular-dementia-rats
#2
Yujing Huang, Zhaohui Li, Guangxian Nan
The pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD) is associated with neuronal degeneration, apoptosis or necrosis following ischemic brain injury. L‑butylphthalide (L‑NBP), has been demonstrated to exhibit potent anti‑ischemic and anti‑VD effects, however the associated specific mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study generated a VD rat model, in which the effect of L‑NBP on neurological function and expression levels of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) were observed...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944735/strategies-in-the-design-of-gold-nanoparticles-for-intracellular-targeting-opportunities-and-challenges
#3
Yamin Yang, Lei Ren, Hongjun Wang
With unique physicochemical properties, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have demonstrated their potential as drug carriers or therapeutic agents. Effective guidance of Au NPs into specific intracellular destinations becomes increasingly important as we strive to further improve the efficiency of drug delivery and modulate controllable cellular responses. In this review, we summarized recent advances in designing Au NPs with the capabilities of cellular penetration and internalization, endosomal escape, intracellular trafficking and subcellular localization via various approaches including physical injection, tuning the physiochemical parameters of Au NPs, and surface modification with targeting ligands...
October 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944036/time-lapse-camera-trapping-as-an-alternative-to-pitfall-trapping-for-estimating-activity-of-leaf-litter-arthropods
#4
Rachael A Collett, Diana O Fisher
Pitfall trapping is the standard technique to estimate activity and relative abundance of leaf litter arthropods. Pitfall trapping is not ideal for long-term sampling because it is lethal, labor-intensive, and may have taxonomic sampling biases. We test an alternative sampling method that can be left in place for several months at a time: verticallyplaced time-lapse camera traps that have a short focal distance, enabling identification of small arthropods. We tested the effectiveness of these time-lapse cameras, and quantified escape and avoidance behavior of arthropod orders encountering pitfall traps by placing cameras programed with a range of sampling intervals above pitfalls, to assess numerical, taxonomic, and body size differences in samples collected by the two methods...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943878/triplebody-mediates-increased-anti-leukemic-reactivity-of-il-2-activated-donor-natural-killer-nk-cells-and-impairs-viability-of-their-cd33-expressing-nk-subset
#5
Stephan Kloess, Alessa Ede Valverde da Silva, Olaf Oberschmidt, Tanja Gardlowski, Nadine Matthies, Maulik Vyas, Lubomir Arseniev, Michael Heuser, Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Ulrike Köhl
Natural killer cells (NK) are essential for the elimination of resistant acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML and ALL) cells. NK cell-based immunotherapies have already successfully entered for clinical trials, but limitations due to immune escape mechanisms were identified. Therefore, we extended our established NK cell protocol by integration of the previously investigated powerful trispecific immunoligand ULBP2-aCD19-aCD33 [the so-called triplebodies (TBs)] to improve the anti-leukemic specificity of activated NK cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943837/solving-the-neurogenesis-puzzle-looking-for-pieces-outside-the-traditional-box
#6
Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, Ilapreet Toor, Melissa M Holmes
The vast majority of what is considered fact about adult neurogenesis comes from research on laboratory mice and rats: where it happens, how it works, what it does. However, this relative exclusive focus on two rodent species has resulted in a bias on how we think about adult neurogenesis. While it might not prevent us from making conclusions about the evolutionary significance of the process or even prevent us from generalizing to diverse mammals, it certainly does not help us achieve these outcomes. Here, we argue that there is every reason to expect striking species differences in adult neurogenesis: where it happens, how it works, what it does...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942592/major-splice-variants-and-multiple-polyadenylation-site-utilization-in-mrnas-encoding-human-translation-initiation-factors-eif4e1-and-eif4e3-regulate-the-translational-regulators
#7
Silvia Mrvová, Klára Frydrýšková, Martin Pospíšek, Václav Vopálenský, Tomáš Mašek
Alternative polyadenylation is an important and pervasive mechanism that generates heterogeneous 3'-termini of mRNA and is considered an important regulator of gene expression. We performed bioinformatics analyses of ESTs and the 3'-UTRs of the main transcript splice variants of the translational initiation factor eIF4E1 and its family members, eIF4E2 and eIF4E3. This systematic analysis led to the prediction of new polyadenylation signals. All identified polyadenylation sites were subsequently verified by 3'RACE of transcripts isolated from human lymphoblastic cell lines...
September 23, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942333/beta-particle-transport-and-its-impact-on-betavoltaic-battery-modeling
#8
Tariq R Alam, Mark A Pierson, Mark A Prelas
Simulation of beta particle transport from a Ni-63 radioisotope in silicon using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code for monoenergetic beta particle average energy, monoenergetic beta particle maximum energy, and the more precise full beta energy spectrum of Ni-63 were demonstrated. The beta particle penetration depth and the shape of the energy deposition varied significantly for different transport approaches. A penetration depth of 2.25±0.25µm with a peak in energy deposition was found when using a monoenergetic beta particle average energy and a depth of 14...
September 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940318/pre-damage-biomass-allocation-and-not-invasiveness-predicts-tolerance-to-damage-in-seedlings-of-woody-species-in-hawaii
#9
Matthew H Lurie, Kasey E Barton, Curtis C Daehler
Plant-herbivore interactions have been predicted to play a fundamental role in plant invasions, although support for this assertion from previous research is mixed. While plants may escape from specialist herbivores in their introduced ranges, herbivory from generalists is common. Tolerance traits may allow non-native plants to mitigate the negative consequences of generalist herbivory that they cannot avoid in their introduced range. Here we address whether tolerance to herbivory, quantified as survival and compensatory growth, is associated with plant invasion success in Hawaii and investigate traits that may enhance tolerance in seedlings, the life stage most susceptible to herbivory...
September 21, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940006/occurrence-of-myo-inositol-and-alkyl-substituted-polysaccharide-in-the-prey-trapping-mucilage-of-drosera-capensis
#10
Tetsuo Kokubun
The chemical composition of the exudate mucilage droplets of the carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mucilage was found to contain beside a very large molecular weight polysaccharide a significant amount of myo-inositol. It appears that myo-inositol escaped detection due to the commonly applied methodology on the chemical analysis of plant mucilage, such as dialysis, precipitation of polysaccharide component with alcohol, acid hydrolysis and detection of the resultant monosaccharide (aldose) units...
September 22, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939757/pd-1-blockade-promotes-epitope-spreading-in-anticancer-cd8-t-cell-responses-by-preventing-fratricidal-death-of-subdominant-clones-to-relieve-immunodomination
#11
Arash Memarnejadian, Courtney E Meilleur, Christopher R Shaler, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Jack R Bennink, Todd D Schell, S M Mansour Haeryfar
The interactions between programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands hamper tumor-specific CD8(+) T cell (TCD8) responses, and PD-1-based "checkpoint inhibitors" have shown promise in certain cancers, thus revitalizing interest in immunotherapy. PD-1-targeted therapies reverse TCD8 exhaustion/anergy. However, whether they alter the epitope breadth of TCD8 responses remains unclear. This is an important question because subdominant TCD8 are more likely than immunodominant clones to escape tolerance mechanisms and may contribute to protective anticancer immunity...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939437/staphylococcus-aureus-strategies-to-evade-the-host-acquired-immune-response
#12
REVIEW
Oliver Goldmann, Eva Medina
Staphylococcus aureus poses a significant public-health problem. Infection caused by S. aureus can manifest as acute or long-lasting persistent diseases that are often refractory to antibiotic and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To develop more effective strategies for preventing or treating these infections, it is crucial to understand why the immune response is incapable to eradicate the bacterium. When S. aureus first infect the host, there is a robust activation of the host innate immune responses...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939157/molecular-evolution-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-escape-variants-in-china-during-2000-2016
#13
Jie Wang, Jing Qiu, Yinwei Zhu, Hui Zhou, Lugang Yu, Yi Ding, Lige Zhang, Zhirong Guo, Chen Dong
Hepatitis B vaccine escape variants are the main threat to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in vaccination era worldwide. With 215 genotype B HBV and 313 genotype C HBV vaccine escape variants isolated from China during 2000-2016, we reported that genotype B HBV vaccine escape strains diverged in ∼1997 (95% HPD; 1987-2005), while genotype C HBV vaccine escape strains diverged in ∼1976 (95% HPD; 1955-2003). Additionally, the p-distance of genotype C HBV vaccine escape strains was 0.0291±0.0169, which was significantly higher than that in the genotype B HBV (t=131...
September 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938115/a-human-bi-specific-antibody-against-zika-virus-with-high-therapeutic-potential
#14
Jiaqi Wang, Marco Bardelli, Diego A Espinosa, Mattia Pedotti, Thiam-Seng Ng, Siro Bianchi, Luca Simonelli, Elisa X Y Lim, Mathilde Foglierini, Fabrizia Zatta, Stefano Jaconi, Martina Beltramello, Elisabetta Cameroni, Guntur Fibriansah, Jian Shi, Taylor Barca, Isabel Pagani, Alicia Rubio, Vania Broccoli, Elisa Vicenzi, Victoria Graham, Steven Pullan, Stuart Dowall, Roger Hewson, Simon Jurt, Oliver Zerbe, Karin Stettler, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Federica Sallusto, Andrea Cavalli, Eva Harris, Shee-Mei Lok, Luca Varani, Davide Corti
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes devastating congenital birth defects. We isolated a human monoclonal antibody (mAb), ZKA190, that potently cross-neutralizes multi-lineage ZIKV strains. ZKA190 is highly effective in vivo in preventing morbidity and mortality of ZIKV-infected mice. NMR and cryo-electron microscopy show its binding to an exposed epitope on DIII of the E protein. ZKA190 Fab binds all 180 E protein copies, altering the virus quaternary arrangement and surface curvature...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937910/loneliness-and-social-internet-use-pathways-to-reconnection-in-a-digital-world
#15
Rebecca Nowland, Elizabeth A Necka, John T Cacioppo
With the rise of online social networking, social relationships are increasingly developed and maintained in a digital domain. Drawing conclusions about the impact of the digital world on loneliness is difficult because there are contradictory findings, and cross-sectional studies dominate the literature, making causation difficult to establish. In this review, we present our theoretical model and propose that there is a bidirectional and dynamic relationship between loneliness and social Internet use. When the Internet is used as a way station on the route to enhancing existing relationships and forging new social connections, it is a useful tool for reducing loneliness...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936639/an-assessment-of-the-potential-use-of-compost-filled-plastic-void-forming-units-to-serve-as-vents-on-historic-landfills-and-related-sites
#16
Fredrick U Mbanaso, Stephen J Coupe, Ernest O Nnadi, Alan P Newman
Much of the solid municipal waste generated by society is sent to landfill, where biodegrading processes result in the release of methane, a major contributor to climate change. This work examined the possibility of installing a type of biofilter within paved areas of the landfill site, making use of modified pervious paving, both to allow the escape of ground gas and to avoid contamination of groundwater, using specially designed test models with provision for gas sampling in various chambers. It proposes the incorporation of an active layer within a void forming box with a view to making dual use of the pervious pavement to provide both a drainage feature and a ground gas vent, whilst providing an active layer for the oxidation of methane by microbial action...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935440/effects-of-acute-restraint-and-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-on-brain-corticotrophin-releasing-factor-mrna-in-the-elevated-t-maze
#17
José S de Andrade, Isabel C Céspedes, Renata O Abrão, Joelcimar M da Silva, Ricardo Ceneviva, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Jackson C Bittencourt, Milena B Viana
Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) modulates stress/anxiety-related responses. Previous studies showed that exposure to acute restraint and unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) facilitates elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses, an anxiogenic-like effect. This study verified the role of CRF in the modulation of ETM avoidance and escape reactions, in unstressed rats and in animals exposed to acute restraint or to UCMS, by quantifying CRF mRNA concentrations in stress/anxiety-related brain regions, through semiquantitative in situ hybridization...
September 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934466/cohesin-acetyltransferase-esco2-regulates-sac-and-kinetochore-functions-via-maintaining-h4k16-acetylation-during-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#18
Yajuan Lu, Xiaoxin Dai, Mianqun Zhang, Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Zhaokang Cui, Bo Xiong
Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by cohesin complex and established by the acetyltransferases Esco1 and Esco2, is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Mutations in Esco2 cause Roberts syndrome, a developmental disease characterized by severe prenatal retardation as well as limb and facial abnormalities. However, its exact roles during oocyte meiosis have not clearly defined. Here, we report that Esco2 localizes to the chromosomes during oocyte meiotic maturation. Depletion of Esco2 by morpholino microinjection leads to the precocious polar body extrusion, the escape of metaphase I arrest induced by nocodazole treatment and the loss of BubR1 from kinetochores, indicative of inactivated SAC...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934391/homozygous-kidins220-loss-of-function-variants-in-fetuses-with-cerebral-ventriculomegaly-and-limb-contractures
#19
I-L Mero, H H Mørk, Y Sheng, A Blomhoff, G L Opheim, Aa Erichsen, M D Vigeland, K K Selmer
Heterozygous mutations in KIDINS220 were recently suggested a cause of spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus and obesity. All patients carried terminal nonsense de novo mutations that seemed to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The mechanism for pathogenicity is yet unexplained, as it seems that heterozygous loss-of-function variants of KIDINS220 are generally well tolerated. We present a consanguineous couple who experienced four pregnancy terminations due to repeated findings in the fetuses comprising enlarged cerebral ventricles and limb contractures...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932886/immediate-responses-of-the-cockroach-blaptica-dubia-after-the-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard
#20
Tanja Popp, Robin Lüling, Ingrid Boekhoff, Thomas Seeger, Francisco Branoner, Thomas Gudermann, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Dirk Steinritz
The chemical agent sulfur mustard (SM) causes erythema, skin blisters, ulcerations, and delayed wound healing. It is accepted that the underlying molecular toxicology is based on DNA alkylation. With an expected delay, DNA damage causes impairment of protein biosynthesis and disturbance of cell division. However, using the cockroach model Blaptica dubia, the presented results show that alkylating compounds provoke immediate behavior responses along with fast changes in the electrical field potential (EFP) of neurons, suggesting that lesions of DNA are probably not the only effect of alkylating compounds...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
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