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Microcalcifications AND hydroxyapatite

Shayne M Plourde, Zach Marin, Zachary R Smith, Brian C Toner, Kendra A Batchelder, Andre Khalil
BACKGROUND: When screening for breast cancer, the radiological interpretation of mammograms is a difficult task, particularly when classifying precancerous growth such as microcalcifications (MCs). Biophysical modeling of benign vs. malignant growth of MCs in simulated mammographic backgrounds may improve characterization of these structures METHODS: A mathematical model based on crystal growth rules for calcium oxide (benign) and hydroxyapatite (malignant) was used in conjunction with simulated mammographic backgrounds, which were generated by fractional Brownian motion of varying roughness and quantified by the Hurst exponent to mimic tissue of varying density...
September 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
V Koukou, N Martini, C Michail, P Sotiropoulou, C Fountzoula, N Kalyvas, I Kandarakis, G Nikiforidis, G Fountos
Dual energy methods can suppress the contrast between adipose and glandular tissues in the breast and therefore enhance the visibility of calcifications. In this study, a dual energy method based on analytical modeling was developed for the detection of minimum microcalcification thickness. To this aim, a modified radiographic X-ray unit was considered, in order to overcome the limited kVp range of mammographic units used in previous DE studies, combined with a high resolution CMOS sensor (pixel size of 22...
2015: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Siyoung Choi, Scott Coonrod, Lara Estroff, Claudia Fischbach
UNLABELLED: Breast microcalcifications are routinely explored for mammographic detection of breast cancer and are primarily composed of non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (Ca10-x(PO4)6-x(CO3)x(OH)2-x) (HA). Interestingly, HA morphology and carbonate substitution vary in malignant vs. benign lesions. However, whether or not these changes (i) are functionally linked and (ii) impact malignancy remains unclear due in part to lack of model systems that permit evaluating these possibilities...
September 2015: Acta Biomaterialia
R Sathyavathi, Anushree Saha, Jaqueline S Soares, Nicolas Spegazzini, Sasha McGee, Ramachandra Rao Dasari, Maryann Fitzmaurice, Ishan Barman
Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and frequent target for stereotactic biopsy. Despite their indisputable value, microcalcifications, particularly of the type II variety that are comprised of calcium hydroxyapatite deposits, remain one of the least understood disease markers. Here we employed Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the relationship between pathogenicity of breast lesions in fresh biopsy cores and composition of type II microcalcifications. Using a chemometric model of chemical-morphological constituents, acquired Raman spectra were translated to characterize chemical makeup of the lesions...
2015: Scientific Reports
Lisa E Cole, Tracy Vargo-Gogola, Ryan K Roeder
Microcalcifications are deposits of hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral within breast tissue and the most common abnormality detected by mammography when screening for breast cancer due to exhibiting greater X-ray attenuation than the surrounding tissue. However, the detection of microcalcifications is limited by the sensitivity and specificity of mammography. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate in vivo targeted delivery of bisphosphonate-functionalized gold nanoparticles (BP-Au NPs) for contrast-enhanced detection of microcalcifications using computed tomography (CT)...
July 22, 2014: ACS Nano
George H Wilson, John C Gore, Thomas E Yankeelov, Stephanie Barnes, Todd E Peterson, Jarrod M True, Sepideh Shokouhi, J Oliver McIntyre, Melinda Sanders, Vandana Abramson, The-Quyen Ngyuen, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen, Mohammed N Tantawy
UNLABELLED: Current radiologic methods for diagnosing breast cancer detect specific morphologic features of solid tumors or any associated calcium deposits. These deposits originate from an early molecular microcalcification process of 2 types: type 1 is calcium oxylate and type II is carbonated calcium hydroxyapatite. Type I microcalcifications are associated mainly with benign tumors, whereas type II microcalcifications are produced internally by malignant cells. No current noninvasive in vivo techniques are available for detecting intratumoral microcalcifications...
July 2014: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Manuel Scimeca, Elena Giannini, Chiara Antonacci, Chiara Adriana Pistolese, Luigi Giusto Spagnoli, Elena Bonanno
BACKGROUND: Mammary microcalcifications have a crucial role in breast cancer detection, but the processes that induce their formation are unknown. Moreover, recent studies have described the occurrence of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer, but its role is not defined. In this study, we hypothesized that epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristics and become capable of producing breast microcalcifications. METHODS: Breast sample biopsies with microcalcifications underwent energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to better define the elemental composition of the microcalcifications...
2014: BMC Cancer
Lisa E Cole, Tracy Vargo-Gogola, Ryan K Roeder
Microcalcifications are one of the most common abnormalities detected by mammography for the diagnosis of breast cancer. However, the detection of microcalcifications and correct diagnosis of breast cancer are limited by the sensitivity and specificity of mammography. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential of bisphosphonate-functionalized gold nanoparticles (BP-Au NPs) for contrast-enhanced radiographic detection of breast microcalcifications using two models of breast microcalcifications, which allowed for precise control over levels of hydroxyapatite (HA) mineral within a low attenuating matrix...
February 2014: Biomaterials
Jeeun Kang, Eun-Kyung Kim, Ga Ram Kim, Changhan Yoon, Tai-Kyong Song, Jin Ho Chang
This paper investigates whether photoacoustic imaging (PAI) can provide the visualization of microcalcifications in breast tissue. For this, the geometrical correlation between the 3-D PA images of breast microcalcifications within ex vivo specimens and the corresponding mammograms was ascertained. Also, the optical absorbance of the calcification compositions (i.e., hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate) was measured and compared with the PA responses of the microcalcifications. The experimental results demonstrated that the PA images discriminated between the microcalcifications and the surrounding tissue, and their locations in PA images reasonably meshed with those of the microcalcifications appeared in the mammograms...
January 2015: Journal of Biophotonics
Kesava S Kalluri, Mufeed Mahd, Stephen J Glick
PURPOSE: Breast CT is an emerging imaging technique that can portray the breast in 3D and improve visualization of important diagnostic features. Early clinical studies have suggested that breast CT has sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for accurate detection of masses and microcalcifications in the breast, reducing structural overlap that is often a limiting factor in reading mammographic images. For a number of reasons, image quality in breast CT may be improved by use of an energy resolving photon counting detector...
August 2013: Medical Physics
Jae Sam Lee, Ching-Hsuan Tung
BACKGROUND: Although microcalcifications of hydroxyapatite can be found in both benign and malignant osteotropic tumors, they are mostly seen in proliferative lesions, including carcinoma. The aim of this present study is to develop a molecular imaging contrast agent for selective identification of hydroxyapatite calcification in human osteotropic tumor tissues ex vivo and in human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. METHODS: A bioinspired biomarker, hydroxyapatite binding peptide (HABP), was designed to mimic natural protein osteocalcin property in vivo...
October 2013: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sophie E P New, Claudia Goettsch, Masanori Aikawa, Julio F Marchini, Manabu Shibasaki, Katsumi Yabusaki, Peter Libby, Catherine M Shanahan, Kevin Croce, Elena Aikawa
RATIONALE: We previously showed that early calcification of atherosclerotic plaques associates with macrophage accumulation. Chronic renal disease and mineral imbalance accelerate calcification and the subsequent release of matrix vesicles (MVs), precursors of microcalcification. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that macrophage-derived MVs contribute directly to microcalcification. METHODS AND RESULTS: Macrophages associated with regions of calcified vesicular structures in human carotid plaques (n=136 patients)...
June 21, 2013: Circulation Research
Srinivasan Vedantham, Andrew Karellas
PURPOSE: Phase contrast imaging, particularly of the breast, is being actively investigated. The purpose of this work is to investigate the x-ray phase contrast properties of breast tissues and commonly used breast tissue substitutes or phantom materials with an aim of determining the phantom materials best representative of breast tissues. METHODS: Elemental compositions of breast tissues including adipose, fibroglandular, and skin were used to determine the refractive index, n = 1 - δ + i β...
April 2013: Medical Physics
Rachel F Cox, Maria P Morgan
Mammographic mammary microcalcifications are routinely used for the early detection of breast cancer, however the mechanisms by which they form remain unclear. Two species of mammary microcalcifications have been identified; calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite. Calcium oxalate is mostly associated with benign lesions of the breast, whereas hydroxyapatite is associated with both benign and malignant tumors. The way in which hydroxyapatite forms within mammary tissue remains largely unexplored, however lessons can be learned from the process of physiological mineralization...
April 2013: Bone
R F Cox, A Hernandez-Santana, S Ramdass, G McMahon, J H Harmey, M P Morgan
BACKGROUND: Mammographic microcalcifications represent one of the most reliable features of nonpalpable breast cancer yet remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. METHODS: We report a novel model to investigate the in vitro mineralisation potential of a panel of mammary cell lines. Primary mammary tumours were produced by implanting tumourigenic cells into the mammary fat pads of female BALB/c mice. RESULTS: Hydroxyapatite (HA) was deposited only by the tumourigenic cell lines, indicating mineralisation potential may be associated with cell phenotype in this in vitro model...
January 31, 2012: British Journal of Cancer
Kazumasa Inoue, Fangbing Liu, Jack Hoppin, Elaine P Lunsford, Christian Lackas, Jacob Hesterman, Robert E Lenkinski, Hirofumi Fujii, John V Frangioni
Microcalcification is a hallmark of breast cancer and a key diagnostic feature for mammography. We recently described the first robust animal model of breast cancer microcalcification. In this study, we hypothesized that high-resolution computed tomography (CT) could potentially detect the genesis of a single microcalcification in vivo and quantify its growth over time. Using a commercial CT scanner, we systematically optimized acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Two ray-tracing image reconstruction algorithms were tested: a voxel-driven "fast" cone beam algorithm (FCBA) and a detector-driven "exact" cone beam algorithm (ECBA)...
August 2011: Molecular Imaging
Nicolas D Prionas, Shih-Ying Huang, John M Boone
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to experimentally identify the optimal technique factors (x-ray tube potential and added filtration material/thickness) to maximize soft-tissue contrast, microcalcification contrast, and iodine contrast enhancement using cadaveric breast specimens imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). Secondarily, the study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of phantom materials as tissue surrogates and to characterize the change in accuracy with varying bCT technique factors...
February 2011: Medical Physics
R Baker, K D Rogers, N Shepherd, N Stone
BACKGROUND: Breast microcalcifications are key diagnostically significant radiological features for localisation of malignancy. This study explores the hypothesis that breast calcification composition is directly related to the local tissue pathological state. METHODS: A total of 236 human breast calcifications from 110 patients were analysed by mid-Fouries transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy from three different pathology types (112 invasive carcinoma (IC), 64 in-situ carcinomas and 60 benign)...
September 28, 2010: British Journal of Cancer
Ben A Arnold, Ping Xiang, Song S Mao, Matthew J Budoff
PURPOSE: Development and verification of peak signal-to-noise ratio (SNR(P)) equations for determining optimum CT scanning and scoring parameters for a new automated coronary calcium scoring program (N-vivo). Experimental evaluation of the new program for scoring small calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA) microspheres with small voxel CT images. METHODS: Theoretical SNR(P) equations were developed using measures of noise, resolution, contrast, scatter, and x-ray photon energy...
July 2010: Medical Physics
Nicola Debernardi, Ruben B Roijers, Rob Krams, Rini de Crom, Peter H A Mutsaers, Ger J van der Vusse
Evidence is accumulating that calcium-rich microdeposits in the vascular wall might play a crucial role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. Here we investigated an atherosclerotic lesion of the carotid artery in an established murine model, i.e. the apolipoprotein E-deficient (APOE(-/-) ) mouse to identify (i) the presence of microcalcifications, if any, (ii) the elemental composition of microcalcifications with special reference to calcium/phosphorus mass ratio and (iii) co-localization of increased concentrations of iron and zinc with microcalcifications...
December 2010: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
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