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Current opinion in psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810113/prediction-of-occupational-disability-from-psychological-and-neuropsychological-evidence-in-forensic-context
#1
Izabela Z Schultz, Ada K Law, Leanna C Cruikshank
Within the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and neuropsychology, medical examiners are often tasked with providing an opinion about an injured individual's health prognosis and likelihood of returning to work. Traditionally, examiners have conducted such assessments by employing clinical intuition, expert knowledge, and judgment. More recently, however, an accumulation of research on factors predictive of disability has allowed examiners to provide prognostications using specific empirically supported evidence...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776499/does-the-recent-intensification-of-nationalistic-and-xenophobic-attitudes-in-eastern-european-countries-adversely-affect-public-mental-health
#2
Andrzej Brodziak, Alicja Różyk-Myrta, Agnieszka Wolińska
BACKGROUND: The authors postulate that the recent intensification of the nationalist and xenophobic attitude in Poland and other Eastern European countries is detrimental to public mental health. The xenophobic attitude is accompanied by a higher incidence of anxiety and depression, disputes due to the polarization of opinions, a sense of embarrassment and a sense of contradictions with so-called Christian values, unfavorable demographic predictions and reduced life satisfaction. DISCUSSION: The authors attempt to describe the sequence of adverse events that led to the intensification of xenophobia and characterize the current state of public mental health in European countries...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414748/current-viewpoints-on-dsm-5-in-japan
#3
Toshihide Kuroki, Makoto Ishitobi, Yoko Kamio, Genichi Sugihara, Toshiya Murai, Keisuke Motomura, Kazuyoshi Ogasawara, Hiroyuki Kimura, Branko Aleksic, Norio Ozaki, Tomohiro Nakao, Kazuo Yamada, Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi, Nobuo Kiriike, Toshio Ishikawa, Chiharu Kubo, Chiaki Matsunaga, Hisatsugu Miyata, Takashi Asada, Shigenobu Kanba
The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was published in 2013, and its official Japanese version was published in 2014. The Japanese Government uses classifications from the 10th revision of the I nternational C lassification of D iseases (ICD-10) to categorize disorders and determine treatment fees. However, since the publication of the DSM-III, the use of the DSM system has become prevalent in research and educational settings in Japan. In addition to traditional psychiatry, both the ICD and the DSM are taught by many Japanese medical schools, and virtually all clinical research and trials refer to the DSM to define targeted disorders...
September 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362823/-critical-evaluation-of-current-diagnostic-classification-systems-in-psychiatry-the-case-of-dsm-5
#4
Mario Luciano, Gaia Sampogna, Valeria Del Vecchio, Corrado De Rosa, Umberto Albert, Giuseppe Carrà, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Silvia Ferrari, Giovanni Martinotti, Maria Giulia Nanni, Federica Pinna, Maurizio Pompili, Umberto Volpe, Francesco Catapano, Andrea Fiorillo
Since its first edition, the Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental disorders (DSM) has had a great impact on the scientific community and the public opinion as well. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association released the fifth edition of the manual and - as for the previous versions - several criticisms raised. In particular, the persistence of the categorical approach to mental disorders represents one of the main debated topics, as well as the introduction of new diagnostic syndromes, which are not based on an adequate evidences...
May 2016: Rivista di Psichiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075222/-contextual-psychiatry-a-re-evaluation-focusing-on-family-system-therapy
#5
E van Meekeren, J Baars
BACKGROUND: Mental health services are currently in a state of flux and psychiatry is being affected by cost-cutting measures and is seeking a new direction. In this article we advocate the re-evaluation of contextual psychiatry. We focus primarily on the position of caregivers in view of the Dutch government's political decision that mental health care problems should, if at all possible, be solved in the intimacy of the family, involving care givers and family members. This decision has put these people, who are already over-burdened, under extra pressure if they do not receive additional support...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26927780/relax-stress-and-anxiety-relief
#6
(no author information available yet)
FINDING TIME to relax can be difficult. Research published in the journal Current Opinion in Psychiatry suggests that chronic stress and anxiety can damage those areas of the brain that deal with memory and thinking, so relaxation is important.
March 2016: Nursing Management (Harrow)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26860167/relax-stress-and-anxiety-relief-app
#7
(no author information available yet)
Finding time to relax can be difficult. Research published in the journal Current Opinion in Psychiatry has shown that chronic stress and anxiety can damage areas of the brain dealing with memory and thinking - so relaxation is important.
February 10, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25844409/-psychotherapy-for-pregnant-women-with-psychiatric-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Łukasz Müldner-Nieckowski, Katarzyna Cyranka, Bogna Smiatek-Mazgaj, Michał Mielimąka, Jerzy Sobański, Krzysztof Rutkowski
Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry...
January 2015: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25754081/evaluating-historical-candidate-genes-for-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
M S Farrell, T Werge, P Sklar, M J Owen, R A Ophoff, M C O'Donovan, A Corvin, S Cichon, P F Sullivan
Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists...
May 2015: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25672664/switching-antipsychotic-medication-to-aripiprazole-position-paper-by-a-panel-of-italian-psychiatrists
#10
Andrea Fagiolini, Roberto Brugnoli, Guido Di Sciascio, Sergio De Filippis, Giuseppe Maina
INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with antipsychotic medication can frequently experience lack of efficacy and persistent side-effects, so much so that switching from one antipsychotic to another with a different side-effect profile has become a recommended strategy for improving the tolerability and safety of long-term antipsychotic treatment. Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with proven efficacy in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder, with a pharmacological profile distinct from other available antipsychotics and a side-effect profile that is different from other agents in the class; these characteristics make it a possible alternative in patients requiring a change in antipsychotic treatment due to lack of efficacy or persistent side-effects...
April 2015: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25596883/the-pharmacodynamic-properties-of-lurasidone-and-their-role-in-its-antidepressant-efficacy-in-bipolar-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Maria Gazouli, John Kelsoe, Hagop Akiskal
The treatment of bipolar depression is one of the most challenging issues in contemporary psychiatry. Currently only quetiapine, the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination and recently lurasidone are officially FDA-approved against this condition. The neurobiology of bipolar depression and the possible targets of bipolar antidepressant therapy remain elusive. The current study investigated whether the pharmacodynamic properties of lurasidone fit to a previously developed model which was the first to be derived on the basis of the strict combination of clinical and preclinical data with no input from theory or opinion...
March 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25539908/mental-health-related-internet-use-among-psychiatric-patients-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#12
Sophie Kalckreuth, Friederike Trefflich, Christine Rummel-Kluge
BackgroundThe Internet is of great importance in today¿s health sector, as most Internet users utilize online functions for health related purposes. Concerning the mental health care sector, little data exist about the Internet use of psychiatric patients. It is the scope of this current study to analyze the quantity and pattern of Internet usage among mental health patients.MethodsPatients from all services of the Department of Psychiatry at a university hospital were surveyed by completing a 29-item questionnaire...
December 24, 2014: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25539871/pharmacological-approaches-to-manage-persistent-symptoms-of-major-depressive-disorder-rationale-and-therapeutic-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Irvin Epstein, Isaac Szpindel, Martin A Katzman
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent chronic psychiatric illness associated with significant morbidity, mortality, loss of productivity, and diminished quality of life. Typically, only a minority of patients responds to treatment and meet criteria for remission as residual symptoms may persist, the result of an inadequate course of treatment and/or the presence of persistent side effects. The foremost goal of treatment should be to restore patients to full functioning and eliminate or relieve all MDD symptoms, while being virtually free of troublesome side effects...
December 2014: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25316938/impact-of-psychiatry-training-on-attitude-of-medical-students-toward-mental-illness-and-psychiatry
#14
Prannay Gulati, Subhash Das, B S Chavan
CONTEXT: Attitude of fresh graduates toward psychiatric patients is important to bridge the treatment gap due to mental illness. Psychiatry as a subject has been neglected in the undergraduates of MBBS. AIMS: (1) To compare the attitude of medical students and interns in a medical college toward mental illness and psychiatry. (2) To assess the impact of psychiatric training on attitude toward the mentally ill person and mental illness. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional, single assessment study conducted at a tertiary hospital...
July 2014: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25204812/transforming-mental-health-services-a-participatory-mixed-methods-study-to-promote-and-evaluate-the-implementation-of-recovery-oriented-services
#15
Melissa M Park, Hiba Zafran, Janet Stewart, Jon Salsberg, Carolyn Ells, Suzanne Rouleau, Orly Estein, Thomas W Valente
BACKGROUND: Since 2007, the Mental Health Commission of Canada has worked collaboratively across all provinces to publish a framework and strategy for recovery and well-being. This federal document is now mandated as policy for implementation between 2012 and 2017. The proposed strategies have been written into provincial health plans, hospital accreditation standards, and annual objectives of psychiatric departments and community organizations. The core premise is: to empower persons with mental illness and their families to become participants in designing their own care, while meeting the needs of a diverse Canadian population...
2014: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25178309/the-diminished-pipeline-for-medications-to-treat-mental-health-and-substance-use-disorders
#16
Peggy L O'Brien, Cindy Parks Thomas, Dominic Hodgkin, Katharine R Levit, Tami L Mark
OBJECTIVE: Psychotropic drug development is perceived to be lagging behind other pharmaceutical development, even though there is a need for more effective psychotropic medications. This study examined the state of the current psychotropic drug pipeline and potential barriers to psychotropic drug development. METHODS: The authors scanned the recent academic and "grey" literature to evaluate psychotropic drug development and to identify experts in the fields of psychiatry and substance use disorder treatment and psychotropic drug development...
December 1, 2014: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25142252/the-importance-of-code-status-discussions-in-the-psychiatric-hospital-results-of-a-single-site-survey-of-psychiatrists
#17
Alastair J S McKean, Maria I Lapid, Jennifer R Geske, Simon Kung
OBJECTIVES: Documentation of code status is a requirement with hospital admission, yet this discussion may present unique challenges with psychiatric inpatients. Currently, no standards exist on conducting these discussions with psychiatric inpatients. The authors surveyed psychiatry trainees and faculty regarding their perceptions and practice to gain further insight into the types of approaches used. METHODS: The authors conducted an IRB-approved, Web-based survey of psychiatry faculty and trainees using a 25-item questionnaire of demographics and opinions about code status among psychiatric inpatients...
April 2015: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24930411/sex-and-segregation-staff-attitudes-explored
#18
Mary Cole, David Baldwin, Peter Thomas
INTRODUCTION The aim of the study was to establish whether there was consistency of opinion amongst staff about mixed sex wards and the sexual activity of inpatients. Also to establish what demographic factors, if any, modulated those opinions. METHOD A 17-item, five-point, questionnaire was supplied to all medical and nursing staff working on five wards of a psychiatric inpatient unit. Demographic details of the respondents were also recorded. RESULTS Some items produced almost unanimous responses: 92.5% agreeing or strongly agreeing that some inpatients form sexually active relationships that are detrimental to their health...
2003: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24916493/a-survey-of-psychiatrists-attitudes-to-schizoaffective-disorder
#19
Renarta Rowe, Tom Clark
Objective. Schizoaffective disorder is an established diagnosis in both ICD-10 and DSM-IV, but research evidence relating to its nosological status and aetiology is conflicting. This study aimed to examine the attitudes of practising consultant psychiatrists, and to see whether there is a consensus about its classification and value in everyday clinical psychiatry. Method. A questionnaire was mailed to 2000 consultant psychiatrists drawn randomly from the membership list of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in the United Kingdom...
2008: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24902820/opinions-of-forensic-schizophrenia-patients-on-the-use-of-restraints-controversial-legislative-issues
#20
Branimir Margetić, Branka Aukst Margetić, Dragutin Ivanec
The use of restraints is a controversial issue even though legal regulations may seem straightforward. Our aims were to evaluate the forensic patients' opinions on certain aspects of restraining and to compare these opinions with the current legal norms. Inpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry in Popovača, Croatia, were asked the following questions about the use of mechanical restraints: (a) Should the patients' family be informed about the use of restraints? (b) Should the physician ask the patient whether to inform the family about the use of restraints? (c) Can the use of restraints be a kind of punishment for intentionally aggressive behavior toward people in their environment? and (d) Should restraints be used if the patient requests to be restrained? The patients were assessed according to the Temperament and character inventory and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale...
December 2014: Psychiatric Quarterly
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