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Nian Xiang, Miao He, Musarat Ishaq, Yu Gao, Feifei Song, Liang Guo, Li Ma, Guihong Sun, Dan Liu, Deyin Guo, Yu Chen
RNA helicase family members exhibit diverse cellular functions, including in transcription, pre-mRNA processing, RNA decay, ribosome biogenesis, RNA export and translation. The RNA helicase DEAD-box family member DDX3 has been characterized as a tumour-associated factor and a transcriptional co-activator/regulator. Here, we demonstrate that DDX3 interacts with the nuclear factor (NF)-κB subunit p65 and suppresses NF-κB (p65/p50)-mediated transcriptional activity. The downregulation of DDX3 by RNA interference induces the upregulation of NF-κB (p65/p50)-mediated transcription...
2016: PloS One
Prasad Kottayil Padmanabhan, Ouafa Zghidi-Abouzid, Mukesh Samant, Carole Dumas, Bruno Guedes Aguiar, Jerome Estaquier, Barbara Papadopoulou
DDX3 is a highly conserved member of ATP-dependent DEAD-box RNA helicases with multiple functions in RNA metabolism and cellular signaling. Here, we describe a novel function for DDX3 in regulating the mitochondrial stress response in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania. We show that genetic inactivation of DDX3 leads to the accumulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with a defect in hydrogen peroxide detoxification. Upon stress, ROS production is greatly enhanced, causing mitochondrial membrane potential loss, mitochondrial fragmentation, and cell death...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Min Xie, Farhad Vesuna, Saritha Tantravedi, Guus M Bol, Marise R Heerma van Voss, Katriana Nugent, Reem Malek, Kathleen Gabrielson, Paul J van Diest, Phuoc T Tran, Venu Raman
Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males and the second highest cause of cancer-related mortality. We identified an RNA helicase gene, DDX3 (DDX3X), which is overexpressed in prostate cancers, and whose expression is directly correlated with high Gleason scores. Knockdown of DDX3 in the aggressive prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and 22Rv1 resulted in significantly reduced clonogenicity. To target DDX3, we rationally designed a small molecule, RK-33, which docks into the ATP-binding domain of DDX3...
November 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Mehrnoush Dehghani, Paul Lasko
The DEAD-box RNA helicase Vasa (Vas, also known as DDX4) is required for germ cell development. In Drosophila, analysis of hypomorphic mutations has implicated maternally expressed Vas in germ cell formation and posterior embryonic patterning. vas-null females, which rarely complete oogenesis, exhibit defects in mitotic progression of germline stem cells, Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA)-mediated transposon silencing, and translation of Gurken (Grk), an EGFR ligand. The carboxy-terminal region of Vas orthologs throughout the animal kingdom consists of several acidic residues as well as an invariant tryptophan in the penultimate or ultimate position (Trp660 in Drosophila melanogaster)...
August 29, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
Hao-Kang Li, Ru-Tsun Mai, Hsien-Da Huang, Chih-Hung Chou, Yi-An Chang, Yao-Wen Chang, Li-Ru You, Chun-Ming Chen, Yan-Hwa Wu Lee
Studies indicate that the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In this study, the functional role of DDX3 in regulation of hepatic CSCs was investigated. Our results demonstrated that reduced DDX3 expression was not only inversely associated with tumor grade, but also predicted poor prognosis of HCC patients. Knockdown of DDX3 in HCC cell line HepG2 induced stemness gene signature followed by occurrence of self-renewal, chemoreisistance, EMT, migration as well as CSC expansion, and most importantly, DDX3 knockdown promotes tumorigenesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Laura Berneking, Marie Schnapp, Andreas Rumm, Claudia Trasak, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Malik Alawi, Adam Grundhoff, Alexey G Kikhney, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Friedrich Buck, Markus Perbandt, Christian Betzel, Dmitri I Svergun, Moritz Hentschke, Martin Aepfelbacher
Yersinia outer protein M (YopM) is a crucial immunosuppressive effector of the plaque agent Yersinia pestis and other pathogenic Yersinia species. YopM enters the nucleus of host cells but neither the mechanisms governing its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling nor its intranuclear activities are known. Here we identify the DEAD-box helicase 3 (DDX3) as a novel interaction partner of Y. enterocolitica YopM and present the three-dimensional structure of a YopM:DDX3 complex. Knockdown of DDX3 or inhibition of the exportin chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) increased the nuclear level of YopM suggesting that YopM exploits DDX3 to exit the nucleus via the CRM1 export pathway...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Takahisa Kouwaki, Tsukasa Seya
Type I interferon (IFN) induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Luqing Zhao, Yitao Mao, Jianhua Zhou, Yuelong Zhao, Ya Cao, Xiang Chen
DEAD-box RNA helicase 3 (DDX3) is a highly conserved family member of DEAD-box protein, which is a cluster of ATP-dependent and the largest family of RNA helicase. DEAD-box family is characterized by the regulation of ATPase and helicase activities, the modulation of RNA metabolism, and the actors of RNA binding proteins or molecular chaperones to interact with other proteins or RNA. For DDX3, it exerts its multifaceted roles in viral manipulation, stress response, hypoxia, radiation response and apoptosis, and is closely related to cancer development and progression...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Chia-Yu Chen, Chieh-Hsiang Chan, Chun-Ming Chen, Yin-Shuan Tsai, Tsung-Yuan Tsai, Yan-Hwa Wu Lee, Li-Ru You
The X-linked DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 (DDX3X) is a multifunctional protein that has been implicated in gene regulation, cell cycle control, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. However, the precise physiological function of Ddx3x during development remains unknown. Here, we show that loss of Ddx3x results in an early post-implantation lethality in male mice. The size of the epiblast marked by Oct3/4 is dramatically reduced in embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5) Ddx3x(-)/Y embryos. Preferential paternal X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in extraembryonic tissues of Ddx3x heterozygous (Ddx3x(-/+)) female mice with a maternally inherited null allele leads to placental abnormalities and embryonic lethality during development...
May 14, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Annalaura Brai, Roberta Fazi, Cristina Tintori, Claudio Zamperini, Francesca Bugli, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Egidio Stigliano, José Esté, Roger Badia, Sandra Franco, Miguel A Martinez, Javier P Martinez, Andreas Meyerhans, Francesco Saladini, Maurizio Zazzi, Anna Garbelli, Giovanni Maga, Maurizio Botta
Targeting a host factor essential for the replication of different viruses but not for the cells offers a higher genetic barrier to the development of resistance, may simplify therapy regimens for coinfections, and facilitates management of emerging viral diseases. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) is a human host factor required for the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses, including some of the most challenging human pathogens currently circulating, such as HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue virus, and West Nile virus...
May 10, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Moushimi Amaya, Taryn Brooks-Faulconer, Tyler Lark, Forrest Keck, Charles Bailey, Venu Raman, Aarthi Narayanan
The mosquito-borne New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a Category B select agent with no approved vaccines or therapies to treat infected humans. Therefore it is imperative to identify novel targets that can be targeted for effective therapeutic intervention. We aimed to identify and validate interactions of VEEV nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) with host proteins and determine the consequences of these interactions to viral multiplication. We used a HA tagged nsP3 infectious clone (rTC-83-nsP3-HA) to identify and validate two RNA helicases: DDX1 and DDX3 that interacted with VEEV-nsP3...
July 2016: Antiviral Research
Boris L Zybailov, Alicia K Byrd, Galina V Glazko, Yasir Rahmatallah, Kevin D Raney
Helicases are enzymes involved in nucleic acid metabolism, playing major roles in replication, transcription, and repair. Defining helicases oligomerization state and transient and persistent protein interactions is essential for understanding of their function. In this article we review current methods for the protein-protein interaction analysis, and discuss examples of its application to the study of helicases: Pif1 and DDX3. Proteomics methods are our main focus - affinity pull-downs and chemical cross-linking followed by mass spectrometry...
October 1, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Sekyung Oh, Ryan A Flynn, Stephen N Floor, James Purzner, Lance Martin, Brian T Do, Simone Schubert, Dedeepya Vaka, Sorana Morrissy, Yisu Li, Marcel Kool, Volker Hovestadt, David T W Jones, Paul A Northcott, Thomas Risch, Hans-Jörg Warnatz, Marie-Laure Yaspo, Christopher M Adams, Ryan D Leib, Marcus Breese, Marco A Marra, David Malkin, Peter Lichter, Jennifer A Doudna, Stefan M Pfister, Michael D Taylor, Howard Y Chang, Yoon-Jae Cho
DDX3X encodes a DEAD-box family RNA helicase (DDX3) commonly mutated in medulloblastoma, a highly aggressive cerebellar tumor affecting both children and adults. Despite being implicated in several facets of RNA metabolism, the nature and scope of DDX3's interactions with RNA remain unclear. Here, we show DDX3 collaborates extensively with the translation initiation machinery through direct binding to 5'UTRs of nearly all coding RNAs, specific sites on the 18S rRNA, and multiple components of the translation initiation complex...
May 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Aymeric Ravel-Chapuis, Amanda Klein Gunnewiek, Guy Bélanger, Tara E Crawford Parks, Jocelyn Côté, Bernard J Jasmin
Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is caused by an expansion of CUG repeats (CUG(exp)) in the DMPK mRNA 3'UTR. CUG(exp)-containing mRNAs become toxic to cells by misregulating RNA-binding proteins. Here we investigated the consequence of this RNA toxicity on the cellular stress response. We report that cell stress efficiently triggers formation of stress granules (SGs) in proliferating, quiescent, and differentiated muscle cells, as shown by the appearance of distinct cytoplasmic TIA-1- and DDX3-containing foci. We show that Staufen1 is also dynamically recruited into these granules...
June 1, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Alvaro Fröhlich, Bárbara Rojas-Araya, Camila Pereira-Montecinos, Alessandra Dellarossa, Daniela Toro-Ascuy, Yara Prades-Pérez, Francisco García-de-Gracia, Andrea Garcés-Alday, Paulina S Rubilar, Fernando Valiente-Echeverría, Théophile Ohlmann, Ricardo Soto-Rifo
DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 is a host factor essential for HIV-1 replication and thus, a potential target for novel therapies aimed to overcome viral resistance. Previous studies have shown that DDX3 promotes nuclear export and translation of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA. Although the function of DDX3 during both processes requires its catalytic activity, it is unknown whether other domains surrounding the helicase core are involved. Here, we show the involvement of the N- and C-terminal domains of DDX3 in the regulation of HIV-1 unspliced mRNA translation...
May 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
De-Wei Wu, Po-Lin Lin, Ya-Wen Cheng, Chi-Chou Huang, Lee Wang, Huei Lee
DDX3 plays a dual role in colorectal cancer; however, the role and underlying mechanism of DDX3 in colorectal tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that DDX3 enhances oncogenic KRAS transcription via an increase in SP1 binding to its promoter. Accelerating oncogenic KRAS expression by DDX3 promotes the invasion capability via the ERK/PTEN/AKT/β-catenin cascade. Moreover, the β-catenin/ZEB1 axis is responsible for DDX3-induced cell invasiveness and xenograft lung tumor nodule formation. The xenograft lung tumor nodules induced by DDX3-overexpressing T84 stable clone were nearly suppressed by the inhibitor of AKT (perifosine) or β-catenin (XAV939)...
April 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Pang-Kuo Lo, Yi-Chun Huang, John S Poulton, Nicholas Leake, William H Palmer, Daniel Vera, Gengqiang Xie, Stephen Klusza, Wu-Min Deng
Belle (Bel), the Drosophila homolog of the yeast DEAD-box RNA helicase DED1 and human DDX3, has been shown to be required for oogenesis and female fertility. Here we report a novel role of Bel in regulating the expression of transgenes. Abrogation of Bel by mutations or RNAi induces silencing of a variety of P-element-derived transgenes. This silencing effect depends on downregulation of their RNA levels. Our genetic studies have revealed that the RNA helicase Spindle-E (Spn-E), a nuage RNA helicase that plays a crucial role in regulating RNA processing and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis in germline cells, is required for loss-of-bel-induced transgene silencing...
April 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Tsung-Ying He, De-Wei Wu, Po-Lin Lin, Lee Wang, Chi-Chou Huang, Ming-Chih Chou, Huei Lee
DDX3, a subunit of CK1ε, phosphorylates Dvl2 to promote β-catenin activation. Overexpression of the Dvl2 protein results in potent activation of β-catenin/TCF signaling in colorectal cancer. Therefore, we hypothesized that DDX3 might promote tumor invasion via the CK1ε/Dvl2 axis due to β-catenin/TCF activation. Western blotting showed that β-catenin expression was decreased by DDX3 knockdown and increased by DDX3 overexpression in colorectal cancer cells. The TCF promoter activity and invasion capability were concomitantly increased and decreased by DDX3 manipulation in these cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
Alexei A Kotov, Oxana M Olenkina, Mikhail V Kibanov, Ludmila V Olenina
The present study showed that RNA helicase Belle (DDX3) was required intrinsically for mitotic progression and survival of germline stem cells (GSCs) and spermatogonial cells in the Drosophila melanogaster testes. We found that deficiency of Belle in the male germline resulted in a strong germ cell loss phenotype. Early germ cells are lost through cell death, whereas somatic hub and cyst cell populations are maintained. The observed phenotype is related to that of the human Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome caused by the loss of DBY (DDX3) expression in the human testes and results in a complete lack of germ cells with preservation of somatic Sertoli cells...
June 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mancy Tong, Torsten Kleffmann, Shantanu Pradhan, Caroline L Johansson, Joana DeSousa, Peter R Stone, Joanna L James, Qi Chen, Larry W Chamley
STUDY QUESTION: What proteins are carried by extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from normal first trimester placentae? SUMMARY ANSWER: One thousand five hundred and eighty-five, 1656 and 1476 proteins were characterized in macro-, micro- and nano-vesicles, respectively, from first trimester placentae, with all EV fractions being enriched for proteins involved in vesicle transport and inflammation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Placental EVs are being increasingly recognized as important mediators of both healthy and pathological pregnancies...
April 2016: Human Reproduction
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