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Gastric stimulator

Hung-Pin Lin, Yu-Hsueh Wu, Julia Yu-Fong Chang, Yi-Ping Wang, Hsin-Ming Chen, Andy Sun
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Gastric parietal cell antibody (GPCA), thyroglobulin antibody (TGA), and thyroid microsomal antibody (TMA) were rarely examined in Behcet's disease (BD) patients. This study mainly assessed the frequencies of serum GPCA, TGA, and TMA positivities in 63 BD patients. METHODS: The frequencies of serum GPCA, TGA, and TMA positivities in 63 BD patients, 19 major-typed recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS)/BD (major RAS/BD) patients, 44 minor-typed RAS/BD (minor RAS/BD) patients, 520 RAS patients, and 126 healthy control subjects were calculated and compared...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Jiaolong Shi, Fengping Li, Xingxing Yao, Tingyu Mou, Zhijun Xu, Zheng Han, Siyu Chen, Wende Li, Jiang Yu, Xiaolong Qi, Hao Liu, Guoxin Li
Trastuzumab is the only target to be approved as the first-line treatment of HER2 positive metastatic gastric cancer, but ubiquitous resistance decreases its therapeutic benefit. In this study, we found HER4, phosphorylation HER4 (p-HER4) and the mesenchymal marker Vimentin increased in trastuzumab-resistant cells (MKN45TR and NCI-N87TR), while epithelial markers expressions in trastuzumab-resistant cell lines and animal models decreased. Additionally, silencing HER4 prevented the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and led to decreased proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo...
March 14, 2018: Oncogene
Wei-Cheng Lu, Xu Zheng, Jin-Fu Liu, Wen-Chuan Wu, Xing-Yue Chen, Hai-Bo Wei, Chun-Lei Li, Ming-Jing Lin
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Bifidobacterium on the expression of β-defensin-2 (BD-2) in intestinal tissue of neonatal rats with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). METHODS: A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, Bifidobacterium control, NEC model, and Bifidobacterium treatment, with 10 rats in each group. A rat model of NEC was induced by hypoxia, cold stimulation, and artificial feeding. The rats in the Bifidobacterium control and Bifidobacterium treatment groups were given Bifidobacterium via the gastric tube after cold stimulation once a day for three consecutive days...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
John J Miles, Mai Ping Tan, Garry Dolton, Emily Sj Edwards, Sarah Ae Galloway, Bruno Laugel, Mathew Clement, Julia Makinde, Kristin Ladell, Katherine K Matthews, Thomas S Watkins, Katie Tungatt, Yide Wong, Han Siean Lee, Richard J Clark, Johanne M Pentier, Meriem Attaf, Anya Lissina, Ann Ager, Awen Gallimore, Pierre J Rizkallah, Stephanie Gras, Jamie Rossjohn, Scott R Burrows, David K Cole, David A Price, Andrew K Sewell
Polypeptide vaccines effectively activate human T cells but suffer from poor biological stability, which confines both transport logistics and in vivo therapeutic activity. Synthetic biology has the potential to address these limitations through the generation of highly stable antigenic "mimics" using subunits that do not exist in the natural world. We developed a platform based on D-amino acid combinatorial chemistry and used this platform to reverse engineer a fully artificial CD8+ T cell agonist that mirrored the immunogenicity profile of a native epitope blueprint from influenza virus...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yeming Xie, Koon Hee Han, Nathan Grainger, Wen Li, Robert D Corrigan, Brian A Perrino
Smooth muscle contraction involves regulating myosin light chain phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain phosphatase. CPI-17 and MYPT1 are crucial for regulating gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin light chain phosphatase. Integrin signalling involves the dynamic recruitment of several proteins, including FAK, to focal adhesions. FAK tyrosine kinase activation is involved in cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix via integrin signalling...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Kelly Flentie, Caleb Gonzalez, Brandon Kocher, Yue Wang, Hongtu Zhu, Jayne Marasa, David Piwnica-Worms
Bacterial flagellin is a potent activator of NF-κB signaling, inflammation and host innate immunity, and recent data indicate that flagellin represents a novel anti-tumor ligand acting through toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and the NF-κB pathway to induce host immunity and aid in the clearance of tumor xenografts. To identify innate signaling components of TLR5 responsible for these anti-tumor effects, a loss-of-function high-throughput screen was employed utilizing carcinoma cells expressing a dynamic NF-κB bioluminescent reporter stimulated by Salmonella typhimurium expressing flagellin...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Kai K Lie, Ole K Tørresen, Monica Hongrø Solbakken, Ivar Rønnestad, Ave Tooming-Klunderud, Alexander J Nederbragt, Sissel Jentoft, Øystein Sæle
BACKGROUND: The ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta) belongs to a large teleost family containing more than 600 species showing several unique evolutionary traits such as lack of stomach and hermaphroditism. Agastric fish are found throughout the teleost phylogeny, in quite diverse and unrelated lineages, indicating stomach loss has occurred independently multiple times in the course of evolution. By assembling the ballan wrasse genome and transcriptome we aimed to determine the genetic basis for its digestive system function and appetite regulation...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Gianluca Cipriani, Simon J Gibbons, Katie E Miller, Daniel S Yang, Matthew L Terhaar, Seth T Eisenman, Tamas Ördög, David R Linden, Gabriela B Gajdos, Joseph H Szurszewski, Gianrico Farrugia
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Muscularis propria macrophages lie close to cells that regulate gastrointestinal motor function, including interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and myenteric neurons. In animal models of diabetic gastroparesis, development of delayed gastric emptying has been associated with loss of macrophages that express cytoprotective markers and reduced networks of ICC. Mice with long-term diabetes and normal gastric emptying have macrophages that express anti-inflammatory markers and have normal gastric ICC...
February 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
Zhikuan He, Wenxing Dong, Quanying Li, Changjiang Qin, Yongjun Li
Sauchinone, one of the active lignan isolated from the roots of Saururus chinensis, was reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties, such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects. However, the possible role of sauchinone in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sauchinone on the EMT in gastric cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that sauchinone significantly inhibited transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells...
February 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jing Xiao, Xiaoli Zhang, Chensheng Fu, Qingmei Yang, Ying Xie, Zhenxing Zhang, Zhibin Ye
Hyperuricemia contributes to renal inflammation. We aimed to investigate the role of Na+ -K+ -ATPase (NKA) in hyperuricemia-induced renal tubular injury. Human primary proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) were incubated with uric acid (UA) at increasing doses or for increasing lengths of time. PTECs were then stimulated by pre-incubation with an NKA α1 expression vector or small interfering RNA before UA (100 μg ml-1 , 48 h) stimulation. Hyperuricemic rats were induced by gastric oxonic acid and treated with febuxostat (Feb)...
March 2, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg-1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α-2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg-1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α-2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg-1 , b...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Jun Song, Sai-Jun Ma, Jian-Hua Luo, Hui Zhang, Ri-Xiong Wang, Hui Liu, Li Li, Zhi-Guang Zhang, Rui-Xiang Zhou
Globally, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common types of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer‑related death. In China, gastric and liver cancers have the highest mortality rates. Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl‑5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness. Melatonin has been shown to inhibit various carcinomas, including GC. There are many different hypotheses to explain the anticancer effects of melatonin, including stimulation of apoptosis, inhibition of cell growth, regulation of anticancer immunity, induction of free-radical scavenging, and the competitive inhibition of estrogen...
February 26, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jaanus Suumann, Toomas Sillakivi, Živile Riispere, Kari Syrjänen, Pentti Sipponen, Ülle Kirsimägi, Ants Peetsalu
Background: To assess the value of serological biomarker testing as a substitute for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS) in pre-operative assessment of patients referred for bariatric surgery. Methods: Sixty-five obese patients with a mean age of 43 years (range: 21-65) and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 44 (range: 36-59) were studied. The patients were tested with a four-biomarker panel: pepsinogen I and II, gastrin-17 (basal and stimulated), and Helicobacter pylori (HP) antibodies (GastroPanel®, Biohit Oyj, Finland)...
2018: BMC Obesity
Jorge Vallecillo-Hernández, Maria Dolores Barrachina, Dolores Ortiz-Masiá, Sandra Coll, Juan Vicente Esplugues, Sara Calatayud, Carlos Hernández
NSAIDs inhibit tumorigenesis in gastrointestinal tissues and have been proposed as coadjuvant agents to chemotherapy. The ability of cancer epithelial cells to adapt to the tumour environment and to resist cytotoxic agents seems to depend on rescue mechanisms such as autophagy. In the present study we aimed to determine whether an NSAID with sensitizing properties such as indomethacin modulates autophagy in gastric cancer epithelial cells. We observed that indomethacin causes lysosomal dysfunction in AGS cells and promotes the accumulation of autophagy substrates without altering mTOR activity...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Preethi Devanand, Yukiko Oya, Santhoshkumar Sundaramoorthy, Kye Yong Song, Tatsuro Watanabe, Yasuhito Kobayashi, Yoshihiko Shimizu, Soon Auck Hong, Masami Suganuma, In Kyoung Lim
To understand the regulation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastric carcinogenesis, we examined the effect of B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) expression on the biological activity of Tipα, an oncoprotein secreted from H. pylori. BTG2, the human ortholog of mouse TIS21 (BTG2/TIS21 ), has been reported to be a primary response gene that is transiently expressed in response to various stimulations. Here, we report that BTG2 is constitutively expressed in the mucous epithelium and parietal cells of the gastric gland in the stomach...
February 23, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Sarah N Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
Li-Wang Yang, Dong-Ze Qin, Erskine James, Robert J McKallip, Ning-Ping Wang, Wei-Wei Zhang, Rong-Hua Zheng, Qing-Hua Han, Zhi-Qing Zhao
This study tested the hypothesis that CD44 is involved in development of cardiac fibrosis via angiotensin II (Ang II) AT1 receptor stimulated TNFα/NFκB/IκB signaling pathways. Study was conducted in C57BL/6 wild type and CD44 knockout mice subjected to Ang II infusion (1000 ng/kg/min) using osmotic minipumps up to 4 weeks or with gastric gavage administration of the AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day. Results indicated that Ang II enhances expression of the AT1 receptor, TNFα, NFκB and CD44 as well as downregulates IκB...
February 21, 2018: Shock
Mona Tafreshi, Jyeswei Guan, Rebecca J Gorrell, Nicole Chew, Yue Xin, Virginie Deswaerte, Manfred Rohde, Roger J Daly, Richard M Peek, Brendan J Jenkins, Elizabeth M Davies, Terry Kwok
The Gram-negative bacterium, Helicobacter pylori , causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer in humans. Although the gastric epithelium is the primary site of H. pylori colonization, H. pylori can gain access to deeper tissues. Concurring with this notion, H. pylori has been found in the vicinity of endothelial cells in gastric submucosa. Endothelial cells play crucial roles in innate immune response, wound healing and tumorigenesis. This study examines the molecular mechanisms by which H...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Francesco Boccellato, Sarah Woelffling, Aki Imai-Matsushima, Gabriela Sanchez, Christian Goosmann, Monika Schmid, Hilmar Berger, Pau Morey, Christian Denecke, Juergen Ordemann, Thomas F Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori causes life-long colonisation of the gastric mucosa, leading to chronic inflammation with increased risk of gastric cancer. Research on the pathogenesis of this infection would strongly benefit from an authentic human in vitro model. DESIGN: Antrum-derived gastric glands from surgery specimens served to establish polarised epithelial monolayers via a transient air-liquid interface culture stage to study cross-talk with H. pylori and the adjacent stroma...
February 21, 2018: Gut
Sheuli Afroz, Ayano Yagi, Kouki Fujikawa, M Motiur Rahman, Katsuya Morito, Tatsuya Fukuta, Shiro Watanabe, Emi Kiyokage, Kazunori Toida, Taro Shimizu, Tatsuhiro Ishida, Kentaro Kogure, Akira Tokumura, Tamotsu Tanaka
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that induces diverse biological responses. Recently, we found that LPA ameliorates NSAIDs-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Here, we quantified LPA in 21 medicinal herbs used for treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We found that half of them contained LPA at relatively high levels (40-240 μg/g) compared to soybean seed powder (4.6 μg/g), which we previously identified as an LPA-rich food. The LPA in peony (Paeonia lactiflora) root powder is highly concentrated in the lipid fraction that ameliorates indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in mice...
February 17, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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