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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921918/proteomic-response-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-to-histamine-stimulation
#1
Pelin Esma Emirbayer, Ankit Sinha, Vladimir Ignatchenko, Stefanie Hoyer, Jan Dörrie, Niels Schaft, Monika Pischetsrieder, Thomas Kislinger
The histamine receptors (HRs) represent a subclass of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and comprise four subtypes. Due to their numerous physiological and pathological effects, HRs are popular drug targets for the treatment of allergic reactions or the regulation of gastric acid secretion. Hence, an understanding of the functional selectivity of HR ligands has gained importance. These ligands can bind to specific GPCRs and selectively activate defined pathways. Supporting the activation of a therapeutically necessary pathway without the activation of other signaling cascades can result in drugs with more specific activity and fewer side effects...
September 18, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921304/expression-and-purification-of-an-fgf9-fusion-protein-in-e-coli-and-the-effects-of-the-fgf9-subfamily-on-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-and-migration
#2
Shen Wang, Haipeng Lin, Tiantian Zhao, Sisi Huang, David G Fernig, Nuo Xu, Fenfang Wu, Mi Zhou, Chao Jiang, Haishan Tian
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 has oncogenic activity and plays an important role in the development of ovarian, lung, prostate, and gastric cancers. In the present study, with the aim of reducing the cost of utilizing growth factors in cancer research, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of recombinant human (rh)FGF9 in Escherichia coli was established. The rhFGF9 fusion protein (6 × His-TEV-rhFGF9) and the native protein released by tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease were obtained using a Ni-NTA system, with > 95% purity...
September 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918793/-workup-and-treatment-of-gastroparesis
#3
Mette Winther Klinge, Jan Bech Pedersen, Birgit Schelde, Sten Lund, Klaus Krogh
Gastroparesis is defined as impaired gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction and cardinal symptoms including vomiting, nausea, early satiety, and upper abdominal pain. Most cases of gastroparesis are diabetic, idiopathic or post-operative. The correlation between symptoms and objective measures of gastroparesis is poor. Basic treatment includes dietary advices and prokinetics. Selected patients not responding to basic treatment can be offered gastric electrical stimulation. In many cases, gastroparesis is present in combination with other motility disorders, especially constipation...
September 18, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918025/effect-of-calcium-carbonate-encapsulation-on-the-activity-of-orally-administered-cpg-oligonucleotides
#4
Neslihan Kayraklioglu, Julia Scheiermann, W Gregory Alvord, Dennis M Klinman
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG ODNs) stimulate immune cells via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Because oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are susceptible to gastric degradation, clinical trials designed to evaluate their therapeutic utility have relied solely on parenteral routes of administration. A strategy to improve the activity of orally delivered ODNs by reducing their susceptibility to gastrointestinal (GI) digestion via encapsulation in calcium carbonate nanoparticles (ODNcaps) was recently described...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#5
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n=30) and age-matched singletons (n=14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#6
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop following ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902909/the-cytoprotective-protein-clusterin-is-overexpressed-in-hypergastrinemic-rodent-models-of-oxyntic-preneoplasia-and-promotes-gastric-cancer-cell-survival
#7
Pål Vange, Torunn Bruland, Berit Doseth, Reidar Fossmark, Mirta M L Sousa, Vidar Beisvag, Øystein Sørdal, Gunnar Qvigstad, Helge L Waldum, Arne K Sandvik, Ingunn Bakke
The cytoprotective protein clusterin is often dysregulated during tumorigenesis, and in the stomach, upregulation of clusterin marks emergence of the oxyntic atrophy (loss of acid-producing parietal cells)-associated spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM). The hormone gastrin is important for normal function and maturation of the gastric oxyntic mucosa and hypergastrinemia might be involved in gastric carcinogenesis. Gastrin induces expression of clusterin in adenocarcinoma cells. In the present study, we examined the expression patterns and gastrin-mediated regulation of clusterin in gastric tissue from: humans; rats treated with proton pump (H+/K+-ATPase) inhibitors and/or a gastrin receptor (CCK2R) antagonist; H+/K+-ATPase β-subunit knockout (H/K-β KO) mice; and Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori and given a CCK2R antagonist...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902140/iron-absorption-from-three-commercially-available-supplements-in-gastrointestinal-cell-lines
#8
Francesca Uberti, Vera Morsanuto, Sabrina Ghirlanda, Claudio Molinari
This study compares the absorption characteristics of two iron-based dietary supplements and their biocompatibility to bisglycinate iron, a common chelated iron form. The Caco-2 cell line-a model of human intestinal absorption-and GTL-16 cell line-a model of gastric epithelial cells-were used to perform the experiments; in the first experiments, the kinetics of absorption have been evaluated analyzing the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression. Three different iron combinations containing 50 µM iron (named Fisioeme(®), Sideral(®) and bisglycinate) were used for different stimulation times (1-24 h)...
September 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892258/sitagliptin-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-modulate-insulin-secretion-via-regulation-of-intra-islet-pyy
#9
Claudia Guida, Laura J McCulloch, Mahdieh Godazgar, Sam D Stephen, Charlotte Baker, Davide Basco, Jiawen Dong, Duan Chen, Anne Clark, Reshma D Ramracheya
AIMS: The gut hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) is critical for maintaining islet integrity and restoring islet function following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The expression of PYY and its receptors (NPYRs) in islets has been documented but not fully characterized. Modulation of islet PYY by the proteolytic enzyme DPP-IV has not been investigated and the impact of DPP-IV inhibition on islet PYY function remains unexplored. Here we have addressed these gaps and their effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
September 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890386/co-targeting-c-met-and-dna-double-strand-breaks-dsbs-therapeutic-strategies-in-brca-mutated-gastric-carcinomas
#10
REVIEW
Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Michalis V Karamouzis, Dimitrios Schizas, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Gastric cancer (GC) is a threatening malignancy characterized by heterogeneity. Current therapies use DNA damaging agents, for example, chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation (IR). However, a significant portion of GC patients develops therapeutic resistance to DNA damage response (DDR) - inducing agents. An important mechanism is the stimulation of the c-MET RTK, which is a tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which facilitates cell survival by boosting DNA damage repair pathways and via escaping cell cycle arrest...
September 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888796/laparoscopic-treatment-of-gastroparesis-a-single-center-experience
#11
Kotaro Wakamatsu, Federico Perez Quirante, Lisandro Montorfano, Emanuele Lo Menzo, Yasuyuki Seto, Raul J Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis (GP) is a chronic disorder of gastric motility with delayed gastric emptying. Gastric electrical stimulator (GES) implantation and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are surgical options for medically refractory GP. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate operational outcomes and symptom improvement of patients with diabetic (DM) and idiopathic (IP) GP. SETTING: University Hospital, United States. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients who underwent surgical treatment of GP from February 2003 to December 2014...
July 29, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874393/mitochondrial-topoisomerase-i-absence-enhances-aerobic-glycolysis-in-cancer
#12
Hongqiang Wang, Rui Zhou, Li Sun, Jianling Xia, Xuchun Yang, Changqie Pan, Na Huang, Min Shi, Jianping Bin, Yulin Liao, Wangjun Liao
Aerobic glycolysis plays an important role in cancer progression. New target genes regulating cancer aerobic glycolysis must be explored to improve patient prognosis. Mitochondrial topoisomerase I (TOP1MT) deficiency suppresses glucose oxidative metabolism but enhances glycolysis in normal cells. Here, we examined the role of TOP1MT in gastric cancer (GC) and attempted to determine the underlying mechanism. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments and analyzing the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with GC, we found that TOP1MT expression was lower in GC samples than in adjacent nonmalignant tissues...
September 5, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873383/incretins-and-their-endocrine-and-metabolic-functions
#13
Jochen Seufert
Incretins are hormones secreted into the blood stream from the gut mucosa in response to nutrient intake. They have been characterized based on their capacity to lower blood glucose levels. The more potent reduction of blood glucose coupled to a more intensive stimulation of insulin secretion, in response to oral glucose uptake, as compared to intravenous glucose infusion has further been termed the "incretin effect." As a prototype incretin hormone, the biology of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been intensively studied...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867726/short-chain-fatty-acid-acetate-protects-against-ethanol-induced-acute-gastric-mucosal-lesion-in-mice
#14
Jiaming Liu, Jindan Wang, Yilu Shi, Wei Su, Jie Chen, Zhengzheng Zhang, Guocan Wang, Fangyan Wang
Short chain fatty acids acetate and propionate have been demonstrated protective function in the intestinal mucosa. However, their impact on gastric mucosa has not yet been elucidated. The current study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of acetate and propionate against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesion and the underlying mechanism in mice. ICR mice were orally treated with acetate and propionate, respectively, 30 min prior to the establishment of gastric mucosal injury model by challenge with absolute ethanol...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861731/adaptation-of-intestinal-and-bile-acid-physiology-accompany-the-metabolic-benefits-following-ileal-interposition-in-the-rat
#15
Ping Zhao, Donna Wendt, Sean Z Goodin, Shwetha Ravichandran, Tara E Chouinard, April D Strader
PURPOSE: Ileal interposition recapitulates many of the metabolic improvements similar to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We aimed to determine whether the metabolic improvements seen following ileal interposition were conferred solely by the interposed segment by examining changes in neighboring intestinal segments as well as the composition of the bile acid pool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male rats were treated with either sham or ileal interposition surgeries. Glucose tolerance tests, body composition analysis, polymer chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were done after the surgeries...
August 31, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860709/%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-modulates-the-central-acyl-ghrelin-induced-stimulation-of-feeding-gastrointestinal-motility-and-colonic-secretion
#16
Hsien-Hao Huang, Liang-Yu Chen, Ming-Luen Doong, Shi-Chuan Chang, Chih-Yen Chen
BACKGROUND: Acyl ghrelin-induced intake depends on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurotransmitters. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of AgRP increases feeding through competitive antagonism at melanocortin receptors. ICV administration of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), a natural antagonist of AgRP, may modulate the acyl ghrelin-induced orexigenic effect. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the modulating effect of α-MSH on the central acyl ghrelin-induced food intake, gastrointestinal motility, and colonic secretion in rats...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845841/caffeinated-energy-drink-consumption-among-adolescents-and-potential-health-consequences-associated-with-their-use-a-significant-public-health-hazard
#17
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Nada Soliman, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsedfy, Salvatore Di Maio, Mohamed El Kholy, Bernadette Fiscina
Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are increasingly popular among adolescents despite growing evidence of their negative health effects. The consumption of EDs has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. EDs contain high levels of caffeine, sugar, and novel ingredients, and are often marketed through youth-oriented media and venues. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of EDs poses a risk of caffeine toxicity and other ill effects when consumed by young people...
August 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840471/the-effects-of-duodenojejunal-omega-switch-in-combination-with-high-fat-diet-and-control-diet-on-incretins-body-weight-and-glucose-tolerance-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#18
Dominika Stygar, Tomasz Sawczyn, Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek, Aleksander J Owczarek, Natalia Matysiak, Marek Michalski, Łukasz Mielańczyk, Barbara Bażanów, Paweł Ziora, Piotr Choręza, Bogdan Doleżych, Konrad Wojciech Karcz
BACKGROUND: Despite excellent results of bariatric surgery in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and weight loss in human subjects, some patients do not obtain desired results. One of the reasons for this is that not all patients follow caloric intake recommendations. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of duodenojejunal omega switch (DJOS) surgery on body weight, glucose tolerance, and incretins in rats. METHODS: DJOS and SHAM surgery were performed on rats maintained for 8 weeks on high-fat diet (HF) and control diet (CD), respectively...
August 24, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835317/mir-216a-3p-inhibits-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-human-gastric-cancer-cells-via-targeting-runx1-and-activating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#19
Yinfang Wu, Jun Zhang, Yu Zheng, Cheng Ma, Xing-E Liu, Xiaodong Sun
This work aims to elucidate the effects and the potential underlying mechanisms of microRNA-216a-3p (miR-216a-3p) on proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer (GC) cells. In this study, we revealed that the expression of miR-216a-3p was significantly elevated in GC tissues and cell lines. The different expression level of miR-216a-3p was firmly correlated with clinicopathological characteristics of GC patients. We next demonstrated that upregulation of miR-216a-3p could dramatically promote the ability of proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells using a series of experiments, while downregulation essentially inhibited these properties...
August 23, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821663/agrp-neurons-can-increase-food-intake-during-conditions-of-appetite-suppression-and-inhibit-anorexigenic-parabrachial-neurons
#20
Rachel A Essner, Alison G Smith, Adam A Jamnik, Anna R Ryba, Zoe D Trutner, Matthew E Carter
To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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