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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647001/gastric-bypass-surgery-stimulates-the-dormant-gut-brain-axis-in-obesity
#1
Stephanie P B Caligiuri, Paul J Kenny
To truly reduce the rates of chronic kidney disease, a root cause of kidney damage, obesity, must be targeted. Weight loss is often unsustainable because imbalances in satiety regulators are frequently not addressed to ensure maintenance of weight loss. In a recent study, gastric bypass surgery rebalanced satiety signals through resensitization of the gut-brain axis in obesity. This research may lead to noninvasive strategies to reduce obesity and obesity-related kidney disease.
July 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646592/influence-of-inspiratory-resistive-loading-on-expiratory-muscle-fatigue-in-healthy-humans
#2
Carli M Peters, Joseph F Welch, Paolo B Dominelli, Yannick Molgat-Seon, Lee M Romer, Donald C McKenzie, A William Sheel
Expiratory resistive loading elicits inspiratory as well as expiratory muscle fatigue, suggesting parallel co-activation of the inspiratory muscles during expiration. It is unknown whether the expiratory muscles are similarly co-activated to the point of fatigue during inspiratory resistive loading (IRL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether IRL elicits expiratory as well as inspiratory muscle fatigue. Healthy male subjects (n = 9) underwent isocapnic IRL (60% maximal inspiratory pressure, 15 breaths∙min(-1) , 0...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641541/-stress-is-80-years-old-from-hans-selye-original-paper-in-1936-to-recent-advances-in-gi-ulceration
#3
Sandor Szabo, Masashi Yoshida, Janos Filakovszky, Gyorgy Juhasz
The first scientific publication on 'general adaption syndrome', or as we know today 'biologic stress' has been published in Nature in 1936 by the 29-year old Hans Selye. His results in that short publication that contained no references or illustrations, were based on experiments in rats that were exposed to severe insults/stressors, but his idea about a 'nonspecific bodily response' originated from his observations of sick patients whom he had seen as a medical students and young clinician. Autopsy of stressed rats revealed three major, grossly visible changes: hyperemia and enlargement of the adrenals, atrophy of the thymus and lymph nodes as well as hemorrhagic gastric erosions/ulcers (the "stress triad")...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638885/anti-ulcerogenic-efficacy-and-mechanisms-of-edible-and-natural-ingredients-in-nsaid-induced-animal-models
#4
Weiping Bi, Lizhi Hu, Mao-Qiang Man
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of the most commonly used medicines and proven to be effective for certain disorders. Some people use NSAIDs on daily basis for preventive purpose. But a variety of severe side effects can be induced by NSAIDs. Studies have shown that edible natural ingredients exhibit preventive benefit of gastric ulcer. This paper reviews the efficacy and safety of edible natural ingredients in preventing the development of gastric ulcer induced by NSAIDs in animal models...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631561/proinflammatory-follicular-helper-t-cells-promote-immunoglobulin-g-secretion-suppress-regulatory-b-cell-development-and-correlate-with-worse-clinical-outcomes-in-gastric-cancer
#5
Hong Zhang, Rongxi Yue, Pengfei Zhao, Xuetao Yu, Junguo Li, Guoqing Ma, Jiahong Tang, Lixin Zhang, Liying Feng, Lidong Sun, Zongchang Song, Chunliang Guo, Ning Wang
Gastric cancer is one of the most common and aggressive malignancies. Both bacterial virulence factors and host chronic inflammation are thought to promote gastric cancer development. In this study, we investigated the potential involvement of follicular helper T cells in gastric cancer. Functions of follicular helper T subsets were examined in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer patients and H. pylori-infected but asymptomatic individuals. We found that the follicular helper T cells in gastric cancer individuals were skewed toward the Th1 and Th17 subsets compared to those in H...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631396/pttg3p-promotes-gastric-tumour-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-and-is-an-indicator-of-poor-prognosis
#6
Weiwei Weng, Shujuan Ni, Yiqin Wang, Midie Xu, Qiongyan Zhang, Yusi Yang, Yong Wu, Qinghua Xu, Peng Qi, Cong Tan, Dan Huang, Ping Wei, Zhaohui Huang, Yuqing Ma, Wei Zhang, Weiqi Sheng, Xiang Du
Pseudogenes play a crucial role in cancer progression. However, the role of pituitary tumour-transforming 3, pseudogene (PTTG3P) in gastric cancer (GC) remains unknown. Here, we showed that PTTG3P expression was abnormally up-regulated in GC tissues compared with that in normal tissues both in our 198 cases of clinical samples and the cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. High PTTG3P expression was correlated with increased tumour size and enhanced tumour invasiveness and served as an independent negative prognostic predictor...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629736/kfp-h008-blocks-gastric-acid-secretion-through-inhibiting-h-k-atpase
#7
Cheng-Yuan Li, Mei Su, Yun-Yi Yan, Lin Zhou, Lu-Yao Ao, Wei-Rong Fang, Yun-Man Li
1-(5-(1H-indol-5-yl)-1-(pyridin-3-ylsulfonyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)-N-methylmethanamine (KFP-H008),a novel and potent potassium-competitive acid blocker for the treatment of acid secretion related diseases, has not been reported previously. In this study, we demonstrated that KFP-H008 inhibits basal acid secretion, 2-deoxy-D-glucose- (2DG-) stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats. KFP-H008 blocked histamine-stimulated acid secretion in rats and heidenhain pouch dogs and reversed acid output in isolated gastric perfusion under histamine stimulation...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627584/gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-enteric-neuronal-survival
#8
Nian Wang, Kun Li, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Research and clinical experience with vagotomy have confirmed that damage to the central nervous system severely affects physiological movement in the gastrointestinal system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of synchronized dual-pulse gastric electrical stimulation (SGES) on the apoptosis of enteric neurons and the possible pathways involved in these effects in vagotomized rats. For this purpose, Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into a control group, an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (ESDV group), an early subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with short-term SGES (ESDV + SSGES group), a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group (TSDV group) and a terminal subdiaphragmatic vagotomized group with long-term SGES (TSDV + LSGES group)...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625150/update-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-cholecystokinin-and-cholecystokinin-1-receptor-on-the-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#9
Helen H Wang, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important neuro-intestinal peptide hormone produced by the enteroendocrine I-cells in the upper part of small intestine. Protein- and fat-enriched food plays an important role in triggering CCK secretion from the intestine. Carbohydrates stimulate only small amounts of CCK release. The CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) is largely localized in the gallbladder, sphincter of Oddi, pancreas, small intestine, gastric mucosa, and pyloric sphincter, where it is responsible for CCK to regulate multiple digestive processes including gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, small intestinal transit, and gastric emptying...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623447/new-approaches-to-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#10
William Kethman, Mary Hawn
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common gastrointestinal disorder of the esophagus. It is a chronic, progressive disorder that presents most typically with heartburn and regurgitation and atypically with chest pain, dysphagia, chronic cough, globus, or sore throat. The mainstay for diagnosis and characterization of the disorder is esophagoduodenoscopy (EGD), high-resolution esophageal manometry, and symptom-associated ambulatory esophageal pH impedance monitoring...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618119/kh-type-splicing-regulatory-protein-mediate-inflammatory-response-in-gastric-epithelial-cells-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#11
Chong Chen, Mei Cao, Daoyan Wu, Ningzhe Li, Jingshan Peng, Liju Song, Panpan Qi, Mao Zhang, Jian Zhao
To study differential expressions of KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP) and inflammatory factors and to explore the relationship between them in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gastric epithelial cells (GES-1), cells were exposed to LPS for 24 h in the presence or absence of SC-514. Western blot and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were used to analysis the contents of KSRP, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The results showed that LPS decreased the expression of KSRP protein in GES-1 cells, but not KSRP mRNA, while increasing the levels of iNOS and COX-2 proteins and mRNAs in GES-1cells...
June 15, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611043/arl13b-promotes-gastric-tumorigenesis-by-regulating-smo-trafficking-and-activation-of-the-hedgehog-signaling-pathway
#12
Jia Shao, Linlin Xu, Limin Chen, Quqin Lu, Xinsheng Xie, Wei Shi, Huanting Xiong, Chao Shi, Xuan Huang, Jinhong Mei, Hai Rao, Hua Lu, Nonghua Lu, Shiwen Luo
Inhibitors of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway transducer Smoothened (Smo) have been approved for cancer treatment, but Smo mutations often lead to tumor resistance and it remains unclear how Smo is regulated. In this study, we identified the small GTPase Arl13b as a novel partner and regulator of Smo. Arl13b regulated Smo stability, trafficking and localization which are each crucial for Hh signaling. In gastric cancer cells, Arl13b stimulated proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. In clinical specimens of gastric cancer, Arl13b expression correlated strongly with tumor size and depth of invasion; patients with high levels of Arl13b had a poor prognosis...
June 13, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608155/pathophysiology-of-gastric-nets-role-of-gastrin-and-menin
#13
REVIEW
Sinju Sundaresan, Anthony J Kang, Juanita L Merchant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) were initially identified as a separate entity in the early 1900s as a unique malignancy that secretes bioactive amines. GI-NETs are the most frequent type and represent a unique subset of NETs, because at least 75% of these tumors represent gastrin stimulation of the enterochromaffin-like cell located in the body of the stomach. The purpose of this review is to understand the specific role of gastrin in the generation of Gastric NETs (G-NETs)...
July 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606565/milk-basic-protein-increases-ghrelin-secretion-and-bone-mineral-density-in-rodents
#14
Yuko Ishida, Rakhi Chacrabati, Aiko Ono-Ohmachi, Zhi Gong, Chika Ikenoya, Sayaka Aizawa, Takayuki Y Nara, Yoshikazu Morita, Ken Kato, Takafumi Sakai, Ichiro Sakata
OBJECTIVES: Milk basic protein (MBP), a mixture of proteins isolated from bovine milk, is known to increase bone formation. Ghrelin, a stomach-derived peptide hormone, also has been reported to stimulate osteoblast formation. The aim of this study was to determine whether MBP-induced bone formation is mediated via ghrelin. METHODS: MBP was chronically administered to mice in their drinking water for 3 wk, and body weight, water intake, and bone mineral density were measured...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605280/the-gut-a-key-to-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
Jens Juul Holst, Jens Pedersen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer Albrechtsen, Filip Krag Knop
In this communication we discuss the role of the gut for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gastric emptying rates importantly determine postprandial glucose excursions and regulate postprandial secretion of the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It thereby also determines their powerful, amplifying effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion and thus the ability of the body to regulate glucose disposal. Although disturbances in gastric emptying are not consistent findings in type 2 diabetes, the incretin system is seriously impaired, probably associated with insulin resistance and obesity...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601537/trigeminocardiac-reflex-as-the-presentation-of-maxillary-sinus-adenocarcinoma
#16
Jason M Lunt, Ahmad Al-Taee, Rachna Rawal, Fred R Buckhold
The trigeminocardiac reflex is a brainstem reflex that manifests as sudden hemodynamic dysfunction including bradycardia, hypotension, hypopnea, and gastric hypermotility due to mechanical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. Here, the trigeminocardiac reflex was part of the initial patient presentation that led to the diagnosis of maxillary adenocarcinoma. A 54-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a two-month history of right upper jaw pain. Vital signs included blood pressure of 68/48 mmHg, heart rate of 55, and oxygen saturation of 85%...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601524/rifampin-stability-and-solution-concentration-enhancement-through-amorphous-solid-dispersion-in-cellulose-%C3%AF-carboxyalkanoate-matrices
#17
Hale Çiğdem Arca, Laura I Mosquera-Giraldo, Junia M Pereira, Nammalwar Sriranganathan, Lynne S Taylor, Kevin J Edgar
Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious disease; approximately 2 billion people are currently latently infected with the causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Approximately 8 million new active cases and 2 million deaths due to TB are recorded annually(1). Rifampin (Rif) is a vital first line TB treatment drug. Its effectiveness is hampered by the high dose required (600 mg 1x/day) and by its moderate, variable bioavailability. These issues can be explained by Rif instability at gastric pH, limited solubility at neutral pH, polymorphism, and stimulation of its own metabolism...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600569/fpr2-promotes-invasion-and-metastasis-of-gastric-cancer-cells-and-predicts-the-prognosis-of-patients
#18
Xi-Lu Hou, Cheng-Dong Ji, Jun Tang, Yan-Xia Wang, Dong-Fang Xiang, Hai-Qing Li, Wei-Wei Liu, Jiao-Xue Wang, He-Zhong Yan, Yan Wang, Peng Zhang, You-Hong Cui, Ji-Ming Wang, Xiu-Wu Bian, Wei Liu
Formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2), a classical chemoattractant receptor of G-protein-coupled receptors, is reported to be involved in invasion and metastasis of some cancers, but the role of FPR2 in gastric cancer (GC) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that the levels of FPR2 expression in GC were positively correlated with invasion depth, lymph node metastasis and negatively correlated with the patients' overall survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that FPR2 expression was an independent prognostic marker for GC patients...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599497/monoclonal-antibodies-against-autocrine-motility-factor-suppress-gastric-cancer
#19
Hahn-Sun Jung, Su In Lee, Seung-Hoon Kang, Jin Sang Wang, Eun Hee Yang, Byungwook Jeon, Jayhyuk Myung, Ji Young Baek, Song-Kyu Park
Autocrine motility factor (AMF), which is a secreted form of phosphoglucose isomerase, is mainly secreted by various tumors and has cytokine-like activity. AMF is known to stimulate proliferation, survival and metastasis of cancer cells, and angiogenesis within a tumor. The present study investigated whether inhibition of AMF using targeted-antibodies was able to suppress the growth of cancer. A migration assay using a Boyden chamber was utilized to measure the activity of AMF on the motility of cancer cells...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596270/timing-of-post-exercise-carbohydrate-protein-supplementation-roles-of-gastrointestinal-blood-flow-and-mucosal-cell-damage-on-gastric-emptying-in-humans
#20
Hideaki Kashima, Nao Harada, Kanae Miyamoto, Masaki Fujimoto, Chiaki Fujita, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Toshio Kobayashi, Akira Miura, Yoshiyuki Fukuba
It is well known that protein ingestion immediately after exercise greatly stimulates muscle protein synthesis during the post-exercise recovery phase. However, immediately after strenuous exercise, the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is frequently injured by hypoperfusion in the organ/tissue, possibly resulting in impaired GI function (e.g., gastric emptying; GE). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of GI blood flow on the GE rate. Eight healthy young subjects performed an intermittent supramaximal cycling exercise for 30 min, which consisted of a 120% VO2 peak for 20 s, followed by 20 W for 40 s...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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