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Personality disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453912/perceived-need-for-depression-treatment-among-persons-entering-inpatient-opioid-detoxification
#1
Michael D Stein, Olga J Santiago Rivera, Bradley J Anderson, Genie L Bailey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common among persons with opioid use disorder. We examined the perceived need for depression treatment (PNDT) among opioid-dependent patients and the relationship of PNDT to depression screening result. METHODS: Between May and December 2015, we surveyed consecutive persons (n = 440) seeking inpatient opioid detoxification. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) to screen for depression. To assess perceived need for depression services, participants were asked, "Do you believe you should be treated for depression?" Response options were recorded into four categories: "Not Depressed (ND)," "Perceive Need for Depression Treatment (PNDT)," "Depressed/Don't Want Treatment," and "Currently Treated...
April 28, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453592/-cutaneous-myiasis-due-to-cochliomyia-hominivorax-associated-with-seborrheic-dermatitis
#2
Perla Calderón H, Camilo Rojas E, Werner Apt B, Douglas Castillo O
Myiasis is an infestation of tissues and organs of humans and animals by Diptera larvae (flies, horseflies, mosquitoes). They are located at different body sites, and classified clinically as cutaneous, visceral and cavitary. We report a 26-year-old woman with a history of seborrheic dermatitis and recent trip to Brazil. She presented with a seven days history of suppurating wounds in the parieto-occipital area of the scalp. At physical examination we found three ulcers of approximately 1.5 cm each, with multiple mobile larvae inside...
February 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448942/assessing-knowledge-of-symptoms-and-first-aid-care-of-epilepsy-in-grenada-west-indies
#3
Sean C Cofano, Disep Ojukwu, Natasha Mozumdar, Zainab Raza, Shipra Saigal, Shashank Musku, Safwan Zar, Michael Merolla, Tuula O Jalonen
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that is increasingly prevalent in developing countries. It is critical to provide appropriate support to patients during seizures in order to prevent injuries. False beliefs regarding the etiology or pathogenesis of the epilepsy and inadequate health information may put patients with epilepsy or other seizure disorders at increased risk of injury. Our objective was to assess the level of epilepsy awareness amongst the general population in Grenada and educate the participants regarding proper first-aid measures...
April 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448497/examination-of-an-ehealth-literacy-scale-and-a-health-literacy-scale-in-a-population-with-moderate-to-high-cardiovascular-risk-rasch-analyses
#4
Sarah S Richtering, Rebecca Morris, Sze-Ee Soh, Anna Barker, Fiona Bampi, Lis Neubeck, Genevieve Coorey, John Mulley, John Chalmers, Tim Usherwood, David Peiris, Clara K Chow, Julie Redfern
INTRODUCTION: Electronic health (eHealth) strategies are evolving making it important to have valid scales to assess eHealth and health literacy. Item response theory methods, such as the Rasch measurement model, are increasingly used for the psychometric evaluation of scales. This paper aims to examine the internal construct validity of an eHealth and health literacy scale using Rasch analysis in a population with moderate to high cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: The first 397 participants of the CONNECT study completed the electronic health Literacy Scale (eHEALS) and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448425/vulnerability-to-psychopathology-and-dimensions-of-personality-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#5
Alba Garcia-Fontanals, Mariona Portell, Susanna García-Blanco, Violant Poca-Dias, Ferran García-Fructuoso, Marina López-Ruiz, Teresa Gutiérrez-Rosado, Montserrat Gomà-I-Freixanet, Joan Deus
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia (FM) patients may present psychopathology and some characteristic personality traits that may affect their adaptation to the disease. This paper aims to study the relationship between personality dimensions according to the psychobiological model of Cloninger and the presence of psychopathology. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 42 patients with FM and 38 healthy controls. The assessment instruments administered were the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III)...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448366/project-tendr
#6
Laura Anderko
: Chemicals are ubiquitous in the food we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the products we use at work and in our personal lives. Toxic chemicals increase the risk of cognitive, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental disorders throughout the life span. The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 was intended to allow for the collection of data on and regulation of these chemicals but has been criticized for its significant limitations in protecting the public's health. In recognition of the scientific evidence demonstrating the connection between toxic environmental chemicals and neurodevelopmental disorders, Project TENDR (Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks)-a collaborative initiative of scientists, health professionals, and children's health advocates-produced a call to action last July with the aim of reducing exposure to chemicals and pollutants that contribute to the development of these disorders...
May 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448225/online-positive-thinking-training-intervention-for-caregivers-of-individuals-with-asd-necessity-acceptability-and-feasibility
#7
Abir K Bekhet
BACKGROUND: More than 3.5 million people in the United States are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caring for children with ASD can be stressful and can be detrimental to the well-being of the caregivers (CGs). However, the adverse effects of caregiving on the well-being of CGs may be avoided with appropriate interventions. CGs of persons with ASD might benefit from a positive thinking training (PTT) intervention to help them cope with the stress of caregiving. However, the necessity, acceptability and feasibility for PTT in ASD CGs have not been studied...
May 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448094/high-prevalence-of-personality-disorders-in-skin-restricted-lupus-patients
#8
Isabelle Jalenques, Fabien Rondepierre, Catherine Massoubre, Sophie Bonnefond, Raymond Schwan, Bruno Labeille, Jean-Luc Perrot, Marianne Collange, Aurelien Mulliez, Michel D'Incan
Psychiatric and personality disorders have been extensively documented in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the prevalence of personality disorders in skin-restricted lupus (SRL) patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of personality disorders in SRL outpatients and to examine the associated factors. We evaluated 60 SRL outpatients and 118 controls matched for sex, age and education level. On the basis of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire 4+, 38% of patients vs 20 % of controls fulfilled the criteria for at least one personality disorder (OR 2...
April 27, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447827/interpersonal-dysfunction-in-personality-disorders-a-meta-analytic-review
#9
Sylia Wilson, Catherine B Stroud, C Emily Durbin
Personality disorders are defined in the current psychiatric diagnostic system as pervasive, inflexible, and stable patterns of thinking, feeling, behaving, and interacting with others. Questions regarding the validity and reliability of the current personality disorder diagnoses prompted a reconceptualization of personality pathology in the most recent edition of the psychiatric diagnostic manual, in an appendix of emerging models for future study. To evaluate the construct and discriminant validity of the current personality disorder diagnoses, we conducted a quantitative synthesis of the existing empirical research on associations between personality disorders and interpersonal functioning, defined using the interpersonal circumplex model (comprising orthogonal dimensions of agency and communion), as well as functioning in specific relationship domains (parent-child, family, peer, romantic)...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447491/mobile-communication-jacket-for-people-with-severe-speech-impairment
#10
Renée Lampe, Tobias Blumenstein, Varvara Turova, Ana Alves-Pinto
PURPOSE: Cerebral palsy is a movement disorder caused by damage to motor control areas of the developing brain during early childhood. Motor disorders can also affect the ability to produce clear speech and to communicate. The aim of this study was to develop and to test a prototype of an assistive tool with an embedded mobile communication device to support patients with severe speech impairments. METHODS: A prototype was developed by equipping a cycling jacket with a display, a small keyboard, a LED and an alarm system, all controlled by a microcontroller...
April 27, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447419/controversies-in-the-diagnosis-of-type-1-von-willebrand-disease
#11
REVIEW
M L Bowman, P D James
von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common bleeding disorder. Type 1 VWD represents the majority of cases and results from a partial quantitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (VWF). The diagnosis of Type 1 VWD presents many challenges, despite there being three established diagnostic criteria: a personal history of mucocutaneous bleeding, a family history and low VWF levels. These criteria do not always coexist, and there is great overlap of clinical phenotypes and laboratory parameters between healthy individuals and those with VWD...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447032/risk-of-sleepiness-related-accidents-in-switzerland-results-of-an-online-sleep-apnea-risk-questionnaire-and-awareness-campaigns
#12
Mona Lichtblau, Daniel Bratton, Philippe Giroud, Thomas Weiler, Konrad E Bloch, Thomas Brack
OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with major morbidity and mortality but OSAS is frequently under recognized. To promote awareness of OSAS, the Swiss Lung League launched an online questionnaire combined with annual advertisements in mass media. Characteristics of participants, prevalence of sleep apnea, OSAS-related symptoms, and their association with accidents were investigated. METHODS: A questionnaire was created incorporating anthropometrics, the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), the OSAS domain of the sleep disorders questionnaire (SDQ), and a question on accidents related to sleepiness...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446836/physical-activity-levels-and-prevalence-of-low-back-pain-in-thai-call-center-operators
#13
Chaikumarn Montakarn, Nakphet Nuttika
BACKGROUND: Call-center operators are exposed to working conditions that indicate an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Nevertheless, there are few studies regarding health and working condition in call-center operators. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the physical activity levels and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in Thai call-center operators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-reported questionnaire was distributed to 150 operators at a call center to identify the physical activity levels, prevalence of LBP, personal characteristics, and associated work factors...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445632/the-association-of-baseline-suicidality-with-treatment-outcome-in-psychotic-depression
#14
Kathleen S Bingham, Anthony J Rothschild, Benoit H Mulsant, Ellen M Whyte, Barnett S Meyers, Samprit Banerjee, Katalin Szanto, Alastair J Flint
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between baseline suicidality and outcome of major depression in a randomized controlled trial of the pharmacotherapy of psychotic depression and to explore the interaction of suicidality, randomized treatment assignment, and depression outcome. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of data from 258 persons aged 18 years or older with DSM-IV-defined major depressive disorder with psychotic features who participated in a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing olanzapine plus sertraline with olanzapine plus placebo (the Study of the Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression [STOP-PD], which ran from 2002 to 2007)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445517/motivation-factors-for-suicidal-behavior-and-their-clinical-relevance-in-admitted-psychiatric-patients
#15
Naoki Hayashi, Miyabi Igarashi, Atsushi Imai, Yuka Yoshizawa, Kaori Asamura, Yoichi Ishikawa, Taro Tokunaga, Kayo Ishimoto, Yoshitaka Tatebayashi, Hirohiko Harima, Naoki Kumagai, Hidetoki Ishii, Yuji Okazaki
BACKGROUND: Suicidal behavior (SB) is a major, worldwide health concern. To date there is limited understanding of the associated motivational aspects which accompany this self-initiated conduct. AIMS: To develop a method for identifying motivational features associated with SB by studying admitted psychiatric patients, and to examine their clinical relevance. METHODS: By performing a factor analytic study using data obtained from a patient sample exhibiting high suicidality and a variety of SB methods, Motivations for SB Scale (MSBS) was constructed to measure the features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445433/determinants-of-work-performance-in-workers-with-depression-and-anxiety-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Ivana Ivandic, Kaloyan Kamenov, Diego Rojas, Gloria Cerón, Dennis Nowak, Carla Sabariego
Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent disorders with an impact on existential aspects of person's life, including employment i.e., work performance (WP). In order to develop appropriate strategies, it is essential to identify determinants of WP. The objective of this study was to identify the built, social, attitudinal and health system-related environmental determinants of WP in workers with anxiety or depression in total (N = 1211) and regarding the level of disability. Hierarchical binary logistic regression was performed on data obtained from implementation of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS) in Chile in 2015...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444554/relationships-between-environmental-factors-and-participation-in-adults-with-traumatic-brain-injury-stroke-and-spinal-cord-injury-a-cross-sectional-multi-center-study
#17
Alex W K Wong, Sheryl Ng, Jessica Dashner, M Carolyn Baum, Joy Hammel, Susan Magasi, Jin-Shei Lai, Noelle E Carlozzi, David S Tulsky, Ana Miskovic, Arielle Goldsmith, Allen W Heinemann
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a model of environmental factors-participation relationships for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and spinal cord injury (SCI), and test whether this model differed across three diagnostic groups, as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study included 545 community-dwelling adults with neurological disorders (TBI = 166; stroke = 189; SCI = 190) recruited at three academic medical centers...
April 25, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444318/psychiatric-morbidity-in-children-with-hiv-aids-at-a-tertiary-health-institution-in-north-central-nigeria
#18
Mary Oluwatosin Adefalu, Mosunmola Florence Tunde-Ayinmode, Baba Awoye Issa, Adewole Adebola Adefalu, Seleemat Ajoke Adepoju
Introduction: Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are living longer with the infection and are at risk of different complications. We assessed for the prevalence of and associated factors for psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected children in a tertiary facility in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional, two-staged study involving 196 HIV-positive children (6-17 years). A semi-structured questionnaire and psychological instruments were used for the study...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443027/personalized-medication-response-prediction-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-learning-in-the-model-space-vs-learning-in-the-data-space
#19
Hin K Wong, Paul A Tiffin, Michael J Chappell, Thomas E Nichols, Patrick R Welsh, Orla M Doyle, Boryana C Lopez-Kolkovska, Sarah K Inglis, David Coghill, Yuan Shen, Peter Tiño
Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental health disorders amongst school-aged children with an estimated prevalence of 5% in the global population (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Stimulants, particularly methylphenidate (MPH), are the first-line option in the treatment of ADHD (Reeves and Schweitzer, 2004; Dopheide and Pliszka, 2009) and are prescribed to an increasing number of children and adolescents in the US and the UK every year (Safer et al., 1996; McCarthy et al...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441962/acceptability-of-a-mobile-health-intervention-to-enhance-hiv-care-coordination-for-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#20
Ryan P Westergaard, Andrew Genz, Kristen Panico, Pamela J Surkan, Jeanne Keruly, Heidi E Hutton, Larry W Chang, Gregory D Kirk
BACKGROUND: Persons living with HIV and substance use disorders face barriers to sustained engagement in medical care, leading to suboptimal antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Innovative mobile technology tools such as customizable smartphone applications have the potential to enhance existing care coordination programs, but have not been rigorously studied. METHODS: We developed and implemented a two-component intervention consisting of peer health navigation supported by a smartphone application conducting ecologic momentary assessment (EMA) of barriers to care and medication adherence...
April 26, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
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