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Anti retroviral therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346490/effect-of-hiv-and-malaria-parasites-co-infection-on-immune-hematological-profiles-among-patients-attending-anti-retroviral-treatment-art-clinic-in-infectious-disease-hospital-kano-nigeria
#1
Feyisayo Ebenezer Jegede, Tinuade Ibijoke Oyeyi, Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Henry Akwen Mbah, Titilope Badru, Chinedu Agbakwuru, Oluwasanmi Adedokun
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria co-infection may present worse health outcomes in the tropics. Information on HIV/malaria co-infection effect on immune-hematological profiles is critical for patient care and there is a paucity of such data in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342180/metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-on-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-containing-zidovudine-or-tenofovir-in-rural-lesotho-southern-africa
#2
Niklaus Daniel Labhardt, Urs Franz Müller, Isaac Ringera, Jochen Ehmer, Mokete M Motlatsi, Karolin Pfeiffer, Michael A Hobbins, Josephine A Muhairwe, Juergen Muser, Christoph Hatz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among patients in rural Lesotho who are taking first-line anti-retroviral therapy (ART) containing either zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 10 facilities in two districts in Lesotho of adult (≥16 years) patients on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line ART for ≥6 months. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria...
March 25, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339881/genetic-aspects-and-environmental-sources-of-microsporidia-that-infect-the-human-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
Martin F Heyworth
Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are microsporidia that infect the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Each of these microsporidia has been shown to infect various non-human hosts (mammalian and avian), raising the possibility of inter-species transmission, for example, from such hosts to human subjects via waterborne dispersal of microsporidian spores. During the past two decades, genome sequencing has delineated more than 90 genotypes of Ent. bieneusi, and has led to the conclusion that not all the genotypes of this organism infect human subjects...
February 27, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331263/clinical-profile-of-surgical-diseases-with-emergence-of-new-problems-in-hiv-individuals
#4
Tejaswini Vallabha, Mandar Dhamangaonkar, Vikram Sindgikar, Ravindra Nidoni, Harshavardhan Biradar, Aniketan Kv, Ramakant Baloorkar
North Karnataka is one of the regions with the high prevalence of HIV+ individuals. Bijapur is a district in North Karnataka with high prevalence as per fact sheets of NACO of March 2012. Better awareness, access to health care, and antiretroviral therapy have improved survival and increase in number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Improved survival has increased their attendance to hospitals with variety of surgical problems, some known and some less known. The percentage of HIV+ individuals was 1.64 % among all admissions...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325288/retroviral-replicating-vector-delivery-of-mir-pdl1-inhibits-immune-checkpoint-pdl1-and-enhances-immune-responses-in%C3%A2-vitro
#5
Amy H Lin, Christopher G Twitty, Ryan Burnett, Andrew Hofacre, Leah A Mitchell, Fernando Lopez Espinoza, Harry E Gruber, Douglas J Jolly
Tumor cells express a number of immunosuppressive molecules that can suppress anti-tumor immune responses. Efficient delivery of small interfering RNAs to treat a wide range of diseases including cancers remains a challenge. Retroviral replicating vectors (RRV) can be used to stably and selectively introduce genetic material into cancer cells. Here, we designed RRV to express shRNA (RRV-shPDL1) or microRNA30-derived shRNA (RRV-miRPDL1) using Pol II or Pol III promoters to downregulate PDL1 in human cancer cells...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323756/tdf-associated-renal-tubular-dysfunction-non-invasive-assessment-of-mitochondrial-injury
#6
Ryan Samuels, Carla Roca Bayerri, John A Sayer, D Ashley Price, Brendan Ai Payne
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether TDF-associated renal tubular dysfunction is associated with evidence of mitochondrial injury in urine. DESIGN: Single centre cross-sectional observational study of HIV positive outpatients. METHODS: Biochemistry was performed on paired serum and urine samples. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was studied by real-time PCR and long-range PCR on cellular fractions of urine. RESULTS: 48 subjects were enrolled of whom half were TDF-treated...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323752/impact-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-on-the-hiv-prevention-benefit-of-antiretroviral-therapy-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#7
Christinah Mukandavire, Andrea Low, Gitau Mburu, Adam Trickey, Margaret T May, Charlotte F Davies, Clare E French, Katharine J Looker, Tim Rhodes, Lucy Platt, Andy Guise, Matthew Hickman, Peter Vickerman
OBJECTIVE: A recent meta-analysis suggested that opioid substitution therapy (OST) increased uptake of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) and HIV viral suppression. We modelled whether OST could improve the HIV prevention benefit achieved by ART amongst people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: We modelled how introducing OST could improve the coverage of ART across a PWID population for different baseline ART coverage levels. Using existing data on how yearly HIV-transmission risk is related to HIV plasma viral load, changes in the level of viral suppression across the population were used to project the relative reduction in yearly HIV-transmission risk achieved by ART, with or without OST, compared to if there was no ART - defined here as the prevention effectiveness of ART...
March 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317511/randomized-study-of-assessment-effects-on-alcohol-use-by-persons-with-hiv-in-rural-uganda
#8
Nneka I Emenyonu, Robin Fatch, Winnie R Muyindike, Allen Kekibiina, Sarah Woolf-King, Judith A Hahn
OBJECTIVE: Unhealthy alcohol use is a crucial driver of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, and interventions are needed. The goal of this study was to assess whether assessment itself (assessment reactivity) causes declines in alcohol use in a research study in persons with HIV in Uganda. METHOD: Study participants were adult patients of the Immune Suppression Syndrome (ISS) Clinic in Mbarara, Uganda, who were new to HIV care and reported any alcohol consumption in the prior year...
March 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289286/early-antibody-therapy-can-induce-long-lasting-immunity-to-shiv
#9
Yoshiaki Nishimura, Rajeev Gautam, Tae-Wook Chun, Reza Sadjadpour, Kathryn E Foulds, Masashi Shingai, Florian Klein, Anna Gazumyan, Jovana Golijanin, Mitzi Donaldson, Olivia K Donau, Ronald J Plishka, Alicia Buckler-White, Michael S Seaman, Jeffrey D Lifson, Richard A Koup, Anthony S Fauci, Michel C Nussenzweig, Malcolm A Martin
Highly potent and broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) have been used to prevent and treat lentivirus infections in humanized mice, macaques, and humans. In immunotherapy experiments, administration of bNAbs to chronically infected animals transiently suppresses virus replication, which invariably returns to pre-treatment levels and results in progression to clinical disease. Here we show that early administration of bNAbs in a macaque simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) model is associated with very low levels of persistent viraemia, which leads to the establishment of T-cell immunity and resultant long-term infection control...
March 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288232/-tenofovir-associated-fanconi-s-syndrome-and-rickets-in-a-hiv-infected-girl
#10
Marcela Zúñiga, Armando Galindo, María Isabel Galaz, Maritza Vivanco, Patricio Romero, Paulina Balboa, Claudia Torrejón
Tenofovir (TDF) is an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase nucleotide analogue, although it has good tolerability and high anti-retroviral activity, its effect on the kidney has been a concern. OBJECTIVE: To describe a girl infected with HIV who presented Fanconi syndrome during antiretroviral therapy with TDF. CLINICAL CASE: We describe a HIV-1-infected girl, who after 18 months treatment with TDF presented loss of strength and pain of the lower extremities with functional impairment...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265856/dram-is-involved-in-regulating-nucleoside-analog-induced-neuronal-autophagy-in-a-p53-independent-manner
#11
Ziyun Gao, Junqi Shan, Bishi Wang, Luxin Qiao, Dexi Chen, Yulin Zhang
The widespread use of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has not decreased the prevalence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), a type of neurodegenerative disease, even though cART effectively inhibits virus colonization in the central nervous system. Therefore, anti-retroviral agents cannot be fully excluded from the pathogenesis of HAND. Our previous study reported that long-term nucleoside analogue (NA) exposure induced mitochondrial toxicity in the cortical neurons of HAND patients and mice, but the exact mechanism of NA-associated neurotoxicity has remained unclear...
March 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259182/an-unexpected-diagnosis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-2-infection-in-an-overseas-visitor-a-case-report
#12
Asma Sohail, Lyndal Van Leer, Natasha Holmes
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus 2 infection is endemic in West Africa but is also found in parts of Europe, North and South America, and India where it is thought to have been introduced secondary to migration and commercial trade ties. It is less common than Human immunodeficiency virus 1, with differences in pathogenicity, lower rates of transmission, longer asymptomatic period and slower progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human immunodeficiency virus 2 is also associated with diagnostic challenges given the lack of commercially available diagnostic tests, and management challenges given intrinsic resistance to many anti-retroviral therapies...
March 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257647/hiv-care-in-yangon-myanmar-successes-challenges-and-implications-for-policy
#13
Ne Myo Aung, Josh Hanson, Tint Tint Kyi, Zaw Win Htet, David A Cooper, Mark A Boyd, Mar Mar Kyi, Htin Aung Saw
BACKGROUND: Approximately 0.8% of adults aged 18-49 in Myanmar are seropositive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Identifying the demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is essential to inform optimal management strategies in this resource-limited country. METHODS: To create a "snapshot" of the PLHIV seeking anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar, data were collected from the registration cards of all patients who had been prescribed ART at two large referral hospitals in Yangon, prior to March 18, 2016...
March 4, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245526/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-driven-from-rarity-to-clinical-mainstream-by-iatrogenic-immunodeficiency
#14
REVIEW
Siraj A Misbah
Advances in immune-mediated targeted therapies have proven to be a double-edged sword for patients by highlighting the risk of iatrogenic infective complications. This has been exemplified by progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a hitherto rare devastating viral infection of the brain caused by the neurotropic JC polyoma virus. While PML achieved prominence during the first two decades of the HIV epidemic, effective anti-retroviral treatment and restitution of T cell function has led to PML being less prominent in this population...
February 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212629/cardiometabolic-risk-in-a-population-of-older-adults-with-multiple-co-morbidities-in-rural-south-africa-the-haalsi-health-and-aging-in-africa-longitudinal-studies-of-indepth-communities-study
#15
Thomas A Gaziano, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Alisha Wade, Nigel J Crowther, Sartaj Alam, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Ryan Wagner, Julia Rohr, Livia Montana, Kathleen Kahn, Till W Bärnighausen, Lisa F Berkman, Stephen Tollman
BACKGROUND: A consequence of the widespread uptake of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is that the older South African population will experience an increase in life expectancy, increasing their risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), and its risk factors. The long-term interactions between HIV infection, treatment, and CMD remain to be elucidated in the African population. The HAALSI cohort was established to investigate the impact of these interactions on CMD morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209523/tb-iris-proteomic-analysis-of-in-vitro-pbmc-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-response-modulation-by-dexamethasone
#16
Liam Bell, Janique M Peyper, Shaun Garnett, Rabecca Tadokera, Robert Wilkinson, Graeme Meintjes, Jonathan M Blackburn
Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) occurs in 8-54% of South African patients undergoing treatment for tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Improved TB-IRIS molecular pathogenesis understanding would enhance risk stratification, diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment. We assessed how TB-IRIS status and dexamethasone influence leukocyte proteomic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Patient blood was obtained three weeks post-anti-retroviral therapy initiation...
February 14, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194585/prevalence-and-associations-of-psychological-distress-hiv-infection-and-hiv-care-service-utilization-in-east-zimbabwe
#17
Malebogo Tlhajoane, Jeffrey W Eaton, Albert Takaruza, Rebecca Rhead, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Nadine Schur, Lorraine Sherr, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson
The correlation between mental health and sexual risk behaviours for HIV infection remains largely unknown in low and middle income settings. The present study determined the prevalence of psychological distress (PD) in a sub-Saharan African population with a generalized HIV epidemic, and investigated associations with HIV acquisition risk and uptake of HIV services using data from a cross-sectional survey of 13,252 adults. PD was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between PD and hypothesized covariates...
February 13, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176231/prevalence-of-asymptomatic-microalbuminuria-in-hiv-positive-children-in-india
#18
Gorav Sharma, Sheila S Mathai
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of covert or early renal involvement among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out on 250 HIV positive children (2-18 y) on follow-up in a tertiary care hospital from January 2014 through June 2015. Those who met the study criteria were evaluated for microalbuminuria and glomerular and tubular dysfunctions. RESULTS: Fifty-one out of two hundred fifty (20%) children were found to have microalbuminuria though none had any other evidence of renal dysfunction...
February 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173763/risk-factors-for-poor-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-kyiv-oblast-ukraine
#19
Omowunmi Aibana, Mariya Bachmaha, Viatcheslav Krasiuk, Natasha Rybak, Timothy P Flanigan, Vasyl Petrenko, Megan B Murray
BACKGROUND: Ukraine is among ten countries with the highest burden of multidrug- resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Treatment success rates for MDR-TB in Ukraine remain below global success rates as reported by the World Health Organization. Few studies have evaluated predictors of poor MDR-TB outcomes in Ukraine. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients initiated on MDR-TB treatment in the Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine between January 01, 2012 and March 31st, 2015...
February 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170410/disclosure-of-hiv-status-and-its-impact-on-the-loss-in-the-follow-up-of-hiv-infected-patients-on-potent-anti-retroviral-therapy-programs-in-a-post-conflict-setting-a-retrospective-cohort-study-from-goma-democratic-republic-of-congo
#20
Pierre Zalagile Akilimali, Patou Masika Musumari, Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Patrick Kalambayi Kayembe, François B Lepira, Paulin Beya Mutombo, Thorkild Tylleskar, Mapatano Mala Ali
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to identify the impact of non-disclosure of HIV status on the loss to follow-up (LTFU) of patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy. METHODOLOGY: A historic cohort of HIV patients from 2 major hospitals in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo was followed from 2004 to 2012. LTFU was defined as not taking an ART refill for a period of 3 months or longer since the last attendance, and had not yet been classified as 'dead' or 'transferred-out'...
2017: PloS One
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