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Egg donation

Ashley Moffett, Olympe Chazara, Francesco Colucci, Martin H Johnson
A distinctive type of (uterine) natural killer (NK) cell is present in the uterine decidua during the period of placental formation. Uterine NK cells express members of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family that bind to parental HLA-C molecules on the invading placental trophoblast cells. The maternal KIR genes and their fetal ligands are highly variable, so different KIR/HLA-C genetic combinations occur in each pregnancy. Some women only possess inhibitory KIR genes, whereas other women also express activating KIR genes...
September 5, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Salvatore Gizzo, Marco Noventa, Michela Quaranta, Roberta Venturella, Amerigo Vitagliano, Michele Gangemi, Donato D'Antona
In the era of very late, or advanced, motherhood, in which 'egg banks', 'social' egg‑freezing, egg donation and surrogacy represent a potential solution to a number of obstacles to human reproduction, what is the role of scientists and clinicians involved in assisted reproduction? In light of the apprehension that, in the future, through fertility treatment infertility may be passed on to the offspring, boundaries of medical vs. 'social' infertility are being created. Scientists and clinicians are joining forces in a synergistic effort to improve the effectiveness of infertility care by introducing novel therapeutic protocols with the intent of customising care and improving cost‑effectiveness, testing novel drugs and formulations, and searching for novel markers (for estimating biological age) and nomograms (to optimise the yield of a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle)...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
R Douglas Wilson, Isabelle De Bie, Christine M Armour, Richard N Brown, Carla Campagnolo, June C Carroll, Nan Okun, Tanya Nelson, Rhonda Zwingerman, Francois Audibert, Jo-Ann Brock, Richard N Brown, Carla Campagnolo, June C Carroll, Isabelle De Bie, Jo-Ann Johnson, Nan Okun, Melanie Pastruck, Karine Vallée-Pouliot, R Douglas Wilson, Rhonda Zwingerman, Christine Armour, David Chitayat, Isabelle De Bie, Sara Fernandez, Raymond Kim, Josee Lavoie, Norma Leonard, Tanya Nelson, Sherry Taylor, Margot Van Allen, Clara Van Karnebeek
OBJECTIVE: This guideline was written to update Canadian maternity care and reproductive healthcare providers on pre- and postconceptional reproductive carrier screening for women or couples who may be at risk of being carriers for autosomal recessive (AR), autosomal dominant (AD), or X-linked (XL) conditions, with risk of transmission to the fetus. Four previous SOGC- Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) guidelines are updated and merged into the current document. INTENDED USERS: All maternity care (most responsible health provider [MRHP]) and paediatric providers; maternity nursing; nurse practitioner; provincial maternity care administrator; medical student; and postgraduate resident year 1-7...
August 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Liang Xu, Rui Shi
Mitochondrial DNA transfer has recently received attention from physicians. The transfer techniques place genetic material from the egg nucleus of a woman with a mitochondrial DNA mutation into a healthy donated egg from which the nuclear DNA was removed. This technology intends to reconstruct a mitochondria-competent egg to produce a baby. Three approaches: (1) pronuclear transfer; (2) metaphase II spindle transfer (ST); and (3) polar body (PB) transfer, have been proposed and applied in animal models with very low levels of heteroplasmy...
September 16, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Susanna Graham, Vasanti Jadva, Tabitha Freeman, Kamal Ahuja, Susan Golombok
The objective of this study was to examine the motivations, experiences and future expectations of identity-release egg donors in the UK following the removal of donor anonymity and the increase in financial compensation for egg donation. This exploratory, in-depth qualitative study comprised semi-structured interviews with 11 women who had attended an egg donation screening appointment at a UK clinic during a four-month period in 2014. Interviews were conducted two to six weeks after the woman had donated or had withdrawn/been rejected from the donation process...
August 26, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Shashank Pooniya, C Behera, A R Mridha, D N Bhardwaj, Tabin Millo
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a rare, but potentially life-threatening iatrogenic disorder arising from ovulation induction or ovarian hyperstimulation for assisted reproduction techniques. We report a case of a 26-year-old multiparous woman, an anonymous egg donor, who died a few hours after undergoing a procedure to donate eggs at an in vitro fertilization clinic. Her husband alleged that medical negligence had led to her death. The autopsy confirmed death due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome...
August 19, 2016: Medico-legal Journal
C Calhaz-Jorge, C de Geyter, M S Kupka, J de Mouzon, K Erb, E Mocanu, T Motrenko, G Scaravelli, C Wyns, V Goossens
STUDY QUESTION: The 16th European IVF-monitoring (EIM) report presents the data of the treatments involving assisted reproductive technology (ART) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) initiated in Europe during 2012: are there any changes compared with previous years? SUMMARY ANSWER: Despite some fluctuations in the number of countries reporting data, the overall number of ART cycles has continued to increase year by year, the pregnancy rates (PRs) in 2012 remained stable compared with those reported in 2011, and the number of transfers with multiple embryos (3+) and the multiple delivery rates were lower than ever before...
August 2016: Human Reproduction
César Palacios-González
Several objections against the morality of researching or employing mitochondrial replacement techniques have been advanced recently. In this paper, I examine three of these objections and show that they are found wanting. First I examine whether mitochondrial replacement techniques, research and clinical practice, should not be carried out because of possible harms to egg donors. Next I assess whether mitochondrial replacement techniques should be banned because they could affect the study of genealogical ancestry...
March 2016: Monash Bioethics Review
Padma Rekha Jirge
Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy...
April 2016: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
Emily A Rauscher, Stephanie L Young, Wesley T Durham, Joshua B Barbour
This study investigates how young women of egg-donating age perceive egg donation. Using institutional theory, this study demonstrates how participants frame a health care decision, such as egg donation, utilizing familial ideals. Results revealed that women expressed the importance of ownership over their genetic material and that familial ideals encourage an ideal way to create a family, which egg donation only fits as a last resort. Results show that familial ideals reach past the institution of family into broader decision making, such as that of health care...
June 21, 2016: Health Communication
Lindsay B Gezinski, Sharvari Karandikar, James Carter, Melinda White
This research study surveyed prospective egg donors at orientation to (a) understand women's motivations to donate eggs, (b) assess awareness and knowledge of egg donation prior to entry into the egg donation program, and (c) explore attitudes toward egg donation. Ninety-two women completed the questionnaire at one fertility clinic located in the Midwest between August 2011 and August 2012. Descriptive and inferential statistics as well as textual analysis were used to analyze the data. Three themes emerged regarding participant motivations: (1) altruistic, (2) financial, and (3) desire to pass on genetic material...
May 2016: Health & Social Work
Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira Braga, Amanda Souza Setti, Rita Cássia Sávio Figueira, Matheus de Castro Azevedo, Assumpto Iaconelli, Edson Guimarães Lo Turco, Edson Borges
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of ETs using cryopreserved embryos, cryopreserved oocytes, or fresh embryos. DESIGN: Observational, cohort study. SETTING: Private university-affiliated fertility center. PATIENT(S): This study included 8,210 mature oocytes obtained from 425 oocyte donors. Of those, 5,440 were used for the donors' own cycles (Fresh Oocyte Cycles Group), and 2,770 were cryobanked for 425 recipients (Banked Donor Egg Group)...
September 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Ana Marina Moreira, Poli Mara Spritzer
UNLABELLED: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is the condition of intermittent or permanent gonadal insufficiency that occurs in women before the age of 40. We describe three cases of POI referred to the outpatient endocrinology clinic of a university hospital. The three patients met diagnostic criteria for POI and were managed by specific approaches tailored to individualized goals. In the first case, the main concern was fertility and the reproductive prognosis. The second patient was a carrier of a common genetic cause of POI: premutation of the FMR1 gene...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
George Queiroz Vaz, Alessandra Viviane Evangelista, Cassio Alessandro Paganoti Sartorio, Maria Cecilia Almeida Cardoso, Maria Cecilia Erthal, Paulo Gallo, Marco Aurelio Pinho Oliveira
Background. The use of donated oocytes for in vitro fertilization treatment in patients with ovarian failure is universally recognized. But would patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) be a good choice for egg donation programs? Objective. Comparing the pregnancy rates of egg receptors from donor patients diagnosed with PCOS to receptors from donors without PCOS. Design. Retrospective cohort study. Methods. A total of 234 patients who had undergone egg reception program were separated into two groups: Group I, receptors from PCOS donors (n = 36); Group II, receptors from donors without PCOS (n = 198)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Taleen MacArthur, Gloria Bachmann, Charletta Ayers
OBJECTIVE: As more postreproductive women opt to pursue pregnancy with advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART), the menopausal practitioner will become more involved in counseling, screening, and referral of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women for these services. This review was conducted with the aim of (1) evaluating ART screening practices as they pertain to postreproductive women, and (2) reviewing the outcomes of ART using oocyte donation in postreproductive women...
July 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Norbert Gleicher, Vitaly A Kushnir, David F Albertini, David H Barad
Women above age 40 years in the US now represent the most rapidly growing age group having children. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are rapidly aging in parallel. Especially where egg donations are legal, donation cycles, therefore, multiply more rapidly than autologous IVF cycles. The donor oocytes, however, are hardly ever a preferred patient choice. Since with use of own eggs, live birth rates decline with advancing age but remain stable (and higher) with donor eggs, older patients always face the difficult and very personal choice between poorer chances with own and better chances with donor oocytes...
July 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
A Vincent-Rohfritsch, A Marszalek, P Santulli, V Gayet, C Chapron, F Goffinet, C Le Ray
OBJECTIVES: In France, egg donation is covered by Social insurance among women<43 years old. Because of shortage of egg donor, women aged 43 years or more cannot resort to egg donation in French infertility centers, leading them to turn to the foreign centers having practices different and less regulated than in France. We are thus brought to take care of the pregnancy and of the delivery of these women. Our objective was to estimate if the perinatal risks are more important after egg donation abroad than in case of egg donation in a French center...
April 12, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
M Vialle, J Perrin, A Amar-Hoffet, P Boyer, B Courbiere
OBJECTIVES: To study the social dimension of age-related female infertility through an analysis of three key themes: the personal life histories of infertile women over 40 years of age; representations of age and the desire to become pregnant after age 40; opinions of French legislations framing Assisted Reproductive Technologies, age limits, egg donation, and egg freezing for non-medical reasons. METHODS: This qualitative sociological study was based on semi-structured interviews with infertile women over age 40 going through fertility treatments...
April 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Hélène Letur, Maëliss Peigné, Jeanine Ohl, Isabelle Cédrin-Durnerin, Emmanuelle Mathieu-D'Argent, Florence Scheffler, Veronika Grzegorczyk-Martin, Jacques de Mouzon
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether egg donation (ED) pregnancies are at higher risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) than those achieved by autologous assisted reproductive technology (ART; controls). DESIGN: Anonymous comparative observational matched cohort study. SETTING: Assisted reproductive technology centers. PATIENT(S): Two hundred seventeen ED and 363 control singleton pregnancies matched at 7-8 weeks (pregnancy date, parity, cycle type [fresh/frozen] and women's age)...
August 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Kazuhiro Kawamura, Nanami Kawamura, Aaron J W Hsueh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is diagnosed by amenorrhea before 40 years of age. Owing to exhaustion of follicles in POF ovaries, egg donation is the only option. Although menstrual cycles cease in POF patients, some of them still contain residual dormant follicles in ovaries. Recently, we developed a new infertility treatment and named it as in-vitro activation (IVA), which enables POF patients to conceive using their own eggs by activation of residual dormant follicles...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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