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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434631/transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-and-stroke-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Periklis A Davlouros, Virginia C Mplani, Ioanna Koniari, Grigorios Tsigkas, George Hahalis
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVR) has emerged as an alternative, rapidly evolving treatment option for patients with severe aortic stenosis and high surgical risk. Stroke is a devastating complication being confined mainly in the periprocedural and 30-day period following TAVR, with a lower and relatively constant frequency thereafter. Early stroke is mainly due to debris embolization during the procedure, whereas later events are associated with patient specific factors. Despite the fact that the rate of clinical stroke has been constantly decreasing compared to initial TAVR experience, modern neuro-imaging with MRI suggests that new ischemic lesions post-TAVR are almost universal...
January 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432477/digital-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mandibular-condylar-fractures-based-on-extensible-neuro-imaging-archive-toolkit-xnat
#2
ZhongWei Zhou, Zhang'ao Li, Jiayin Ren, Mingyun He, Yongqing Huang, WeiDong Tian, Wei Tang
OBJECTIVES: The treatment of condylar fractures has long been controversial. In this paper, we established a database for accurate measurement, storage, management and analysis of patients' data, in order to help determine the best treatment plan. METHODS: First of all, the diagnosis and treatment database was established based on XNAT, including 339 cases of condylar fractures and their related information. Then image segmentation, registration and three-dimensional (3D) measurement were used to measure and analyze the condyle shapes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428267/disseminated-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-in-a-patient-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#3
Jordan Xu, Rod J Nault, Andres Maldonado-Naranjo, Leonardo A Frizon, Kuruvilla John, Katherine Holman, Sean J Nagel
Infections are one of the most common causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. In patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies, treatment with stem cell transplants (SCT) or T-cell suppressing chemotherapy increases the risk of central nervous system (CNS) infections, of which toxoplasmosis is the most common. We report the case of a 63 year-old woman with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that presented with gait instability and visual changes. Intracranial lesions were noted on initial neuro-imaging...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356568/usability-study-and-pilot-validation-of-a-computer-based-emotion-recognition-test-for-older-adults-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
J Antonio García-Casal, Fernando Martínez-Abad, Teresa Cid-Bartolomé, Sarah Jane Smith, Katia Llano-Ordóñez, M Victoria Perea-Bartolomé, Miguel Goñi-Imizcoz, Felipe Soto-Pérez, Manuel Franco-Martín
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to carry out a pilot validation of Affect-GRADIOR, a computer-based emotion recognition test, with older adults. The study evaluated its usability, reliability and validity for the screening of people with Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: The test was administered to 212 participants (76.37 ± 6.20 years) classified into three groups (healthy controls, n = 69; AD, n = 84; and aMCI, n = 59) on the basis of detailed neurological, neuropsychological, laboratory and neuro-imaging evidence...
January 22, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303386/visual-prognosis-in-compressive-optic-neuropathy-secondary-to-sphenoid-sinus-mucocele-a-systematic-review
#5
Emily Li, Martha A Howard, Eugenia M Vining, Richard D Becker, Jonathan Silbert, Robert L Lesser
Sphenoid sinus mucoceles (SSMs) are rare, benign lesions that can expand, often presenting with ocular symptoms-decreased vision, diplopia, visual field defects, proptosis, and external ophthalmoplegia. Reported cases are few, visual compromise varies, and factors affecting visual prognosis are poorly characterized. We investigate whether prompt surgical intervention (within 2 weeks of visual symptom onset) affects best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) regained in patients with vision loss secondary to compressive SSM...
January 5, 2018: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290461/oculomotor-palsy-in-diabetics
#6
H Lajmi, W Hmaied, W Ben Jalel, Z Chelly, A Ben Yakhlef, F Ben Zineb, L El Fekih
INTRODUCTION: Oculomotor palsy is one of the most frequent neuro-ophthalmologic complications of diabetic patients. It generates less interest in the literature than the other ocular manifestations. Our goal was to study the clinical, epidemiological, therapeutic and prognostic characteristics of oculomotor palsy in the diabetic. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 24 diabetic patients with oculomotor palsy. The ophthalmological examination emphasized ocular motility...
December 28, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181875/integration-of-routine-qa-data-into-mega-analysis-may-improve-quality-and-sensitivity-of-multisite-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#7
Peter Kochunov, Erin W Dickie, Joseph D Viviano, Jessica Turner, Peter B Kingsley, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Meghann C Ryan, Els Fieremans, Dmitry Novikov, Jelle Veraart, Elliot L Hong, Anil K Malhotra, Robert W Buchanan, Sofia Chavez, Aristotle N Voineskos
A novel mega-analytical approach that reduced methodological variance was evaluated using a multisite diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fractional anisotropy (FA) data by comparing white matter integrity in people with schizophrenia to controls. Methodological variance was reduced through regression of variance captured from quality assurance (QA) and by using Marchenko-Pastur Principal Component Analysis (MP-PCA) denoising. N = 192 (119 patients/73 controls) data sets were collected at three sites equipped with 3T MRI systems: GE MR750, GE HDx, and Siemens Trio...
November 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170578/investigating-changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-from-functional-mri-data-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-using-mca-and-machine-learning
#8
Adora M DSouza, Anas Z Abidin, Axel Wismüller
Infection of the brain by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes irreversible damage to the synaptic connections resulting in cognitive impairment. Patients with HIV infection, showing signs of impairment in multiple cognitive domains, as assessed by neuropsychological testing, are said to exhibit symptoms of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). In this study, we use resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data to distinguish between healthy subjects and subjects with symptoms of HAND. To this end, we first establish a measure of interaction between pairs of regional time-series by quantifying their non-linear functional connectivity using Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA)...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162987/systematic-approaches-for-reviewing-neuro-imaging-scans-in-ophthalmology
#9
REVIEW
Joshua M Kruger, Dean M Cestari, Mary Beth Cunnane
Neuroimaging is an important tool in ophthalmology, but many ophthalmologists are uncomfortable evaluating actual scans. Unfortunately, exclusive reliance on a radiologist's report can lead to diagnostic and management errors. We outline a methodology for equipping ophthalmologists with the skills necessary to read neuroimaging studies with respect to specific clinical questions.
2017: Digital Journal of Ophthalmology: DJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118725/cognitive-and-neural-correlates-of-mathematical-giftedness-in-adults-and-children-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Timothy Myers, Emma Carey, Dénes Szűcs
Most mathematical cognition research has focused on understanding normal adult function and child development as well as mildly and moderately impaired mathematical skill, often labeled developmental dyscalculia and/or mathematical learning disability. In contrast, much less research is available on cognitive and neural correlates of gifted/excellent mathematical knowledge in adults and children. In order to facilitate further inquiry into this area, here we review 40 available studies, which examine the cognitive and neural basis of gifted mathematics...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098418/bilateral-carotid-cavernous-sinus-fistula-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
REVIEW
Gavin Docherty, Maryam Eslami, Kailun Jiang, Jason S Barton
Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal vascular shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. They are commonly classified based on hemodynamics, etiology or anatomically. Hemodynamic classification refers to whether the fistula is high or low flow. Etiology is commonly secondary to trauma or can occur spontaneously in the setting of aneurysm or medical conditions predisposing to arterial wall defects. Bilateral carotid cavernous fistulas are rare. We present a case of bilateral CCF secondary to trauma...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095850/lesions-in-deep-gray-nuclei-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-predict-neurologic-outcome
#12
Frédéric Clarençon, Éric Bardinet, Jacques Martinerie, Vincent Pelbarg, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur, Rajiv Gupta, Eléonore Tollard, Gustavo Soto-Ares, Danielle Ibarrola, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Thomas Tourdias, Vincent Degos, Jérome Yelnik, Didier Dormont, Louis Puybasset, Damien Galanaud
PURPOSE: This study evaluates the correlation between injuries to deep gray matter nuclei, as quantitated by lesions in these nuclei on MR T2 Fast Spin Echo (T2 FSE) images, with 6-month neurological outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five patients (80 males, mean age = 36.7y) with severe TBI were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent a MR scan within the 45 days after the trauma that included a T2 FSE acquisition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069871/leptomeningeal-disease-current-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Gautam Nayar, Tiffany Ejikeme, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Kimberly L Blackwell, Jeffrey M Clarke, Shivanand P Lad, Peter E Fecci
Leptomeningeal disease has become increasingly prevalent as novel therapeutic interventions extend the survival of cancer patients. Although a majority of leptomeningeal spread occurs secondary to breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma, a wide variety of malignancies have been reported as primary sources. Symptoms on presentation are equally diverse, often involving a combination of neurological deficits with the possibility of obstructive hydrocephalus. Diagnosis is definitively made via cerebrospinal fluid cytology for malignant cells, but neuro-imaging with high quality T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can aid diagnosis and localization...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037436/which-imaging-before-reperfusion-strategy
#14
REVIEW
J M Olivot
The ischemic penumbra is a transient and potentially reversible condition. Therefore, infarct progression and its counterpart penumbral salvage are highly variable and result from the interaction of 3 major factors: collateral flow, revascularization delay and success. Multimodal brain imaging now offers in clinical practice an exhaustive characterization of the acute ischemic injury: vessel site occlusion, infarction/critical hypoperfusion volume, and collateral flow. From 1995 to 2015, IV alteplase administered within 4...
November 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032220/electodiagnostic-and-advanced-neuro-imaging-characterization-for-successful-treatment-of-a-spinal-extradural-arachnoid-cyst
#15
Tomoko Tanaka, Raja S Boddepalli, Douglas C Miller, Zongxian Cao, Vivek Sindhwani, Joan R Coates, Raghav Govindarajan, N Scott Litofsky
BACKGROUND: Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEAC) are relatively uncommon. However, several large cysts have presented with spinal cord compression requiring surgical intervention. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a patient with progressively enlarging SEAC causing worsening right S1 radiculopathy and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) revealed an S1 motor radiculopathy. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings confirmed enlargement of the small cyst originating from the sacral thecal sac on the right while two smaller cyst on the left remained stable...
October 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986311/glaucoma-and-the-brain-trans-synaptic-degeneration-structural-change-and-implications-for-neuroprotection
#16
REVIEW
Mitchell Lawlor, Helen Danesh-Meyer, Leonard A Levin, Indran Davagnanam, Enrico De Vita, Gordon T Plant
A recent hypothesis to enter the literature suggests that glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease. The basis for this has been the finding of central nervous system changes in glaucoma patients on histology and neuroimaging. It is known that retinal ganglion cell pathology of any cause leads to anterograde and retrograde retinal ganglion cell degeneration, as well as trans-synaptic (transneuronal) anterograde degeneration. Trans-synaptic degeneration has been demonstrated in a range of optic neuropathies including optic nerve transection, optic neuritis, and hereditary optic neuropathies...
October 3, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870591/hemorrhage-recurrence-risk-factors-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-comparative-analysis-of-the-overall-small-vessel-disease-severity-score-versus-individual-neuroimaging-markers
#17
Gregoire Boulouis, Andreas Charidimou, Marco Pasi, Duangnapa Roongpiboonsopit, Li Xiong, Eitan Auriel, Ellis S van Etten, Sergi Martinez-Ramirez, Alison Ayres, Anastasia Vashkevich, Kristin M Schwab, Jonathan Rosand, Joshua N Goldstein, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
INTRODUCTION: An MRI-based score of total small vessel disease burden (CAA-SVD-Score) in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) has been demonstrated to correlate with severity of pathologic changes. Evidence suggests that CAA-related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) recurrence risk is associated with specific disease imaging manifestations rather than overall severity. We compared the correlation between the CAA-SVD-Score with the risk of recurrent CAA-related lobar ICH versus the predictive role of each of its components...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869961/contribution-of-neuro-imaging-for-prediction-of-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#18
Wolf-Dieter Heiss
Prediction measures of recovery and outcome after stroke perform with only modest levels of accuracy if based only on clinical data. Prediction scores can be improved by including morphologic imaging data, where size, location, and development of the ischemic lesion is best documented by magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to the primary lesion, the involvement of fiber tracts contributes to prognosis, and consequently the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess primary and secondary pathways improves the prediction of outcome and of therapeutic effects...
September 5, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837072/understanding-the-epilepsy-in-polg-related-disease
#19
REVIEW
Omar Hikmat, Tom Eichele, Charalampos Tzoulis, Laurence A Bindoff
Epilepsy is common in polymerase gamma (POLG) related disease and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Epileptiform discharges typically affect the occipital regions initially and focal seizures, commonly evolving to bilateral convulsive seizures which are the most common seizure types in both adults and children. Our work has shown that mtDNA depletion-i.e., the quantitative loss of mtDNA-in neurones is the earliest and most important factor of the subsequent development of cellular dysfunction...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818270/the-glass-ceiling-a-biological-phenomenon
#20
Tom W J Schulpen
Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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