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Neuro-imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913086/punctate-white-matter-lesions-in-full-term-infants-with-neonatal-seizures-associated-with-slc13a5-mutations
#1
Lauren C Weeke, Eva Brilstra, Kees P Braun, Evelien Zonneveld-Huijssoon, Gajja S Salomons, Bobby P Koeleman, Koen L van Gassen, Henrica L van Straaten, Dana Craiu, Linda S de Vries
INTRODUCTION: Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy caused by biallelic SLC13A5 mutations is characterized by seizure onset in the first days of life, refractory epilepsy and developmental delay. Little detailed information about the brain MRI features is available in these patients. METHODS: Observational study describing the neuro-imaging findings in eight patients (five families) with mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. Seven infants had an MRI in the neonatal period, two had a follow-up MRI at the age of 6 and 18 months and one only at 13 months...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870421/multimodal-neuroimaging-of-male-and-female-brain-structure-in-health-and-disease-across-the-life-span
#2
REVIEW
Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson
Sex differences in brain development and aging are important to identify, as they may help to understand risk factors and outcomes in brain disorders that are more prevalent in one sex compared with the other. Brain imaging techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years, yielding detailed structural and functional maps of the living brain. Even so, studies are often limited in sample size, and inconsistent findings emerge, one example being varying findings regarding sex differences in the size of the corpus callosum...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824877/the-disability-rate-of-5-year-post-stroke-and-its-correlation-factors-a-national-survey-in-china
#3
Yang Yang, Yu-Zhi Shi, Ning Zhang, Shuo Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Yi-Long Wang, Xing-Quan Zhao, Yong-Jun Wang, Chun-Xue Wang, Yu-Tao Xiang
Few studies on long-term functional outcome have been conducted in post-stroke patients in China. The objective of this study was to conduct a nationwide survey in China to investigate the 5-year prevalence of post-stroke disability and its correlation factors. A total of 893 patients with ischemic stroke were included. Demographic, clinical and neuro-imaging information were collected with standardized instruments that assessed stroke severity, depression, cognitive impairment, stroke recurrence and physical disability...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821269/neuro-imaging-evaluation-after-the-first-afebrile-seizure-in-children-a-retrospective-observational-study
#4
Rana Al-Shami, Abdulhafeez M Khair, Mahmoud Elseid, Khalid Ibrahim, Amna Al-Ahmad, Ahmed Elsetouhy, Hussein Kamel, Khalid Al Yafei, Khalid Mohamed
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of neuro-imaging in children presenting with the first afebrile seizure and determine factors that influence the outcome of imaging in a large paediatric emergency centre. METHOD: This is a retrospective review of the medical records of all patients presenting with the first non-febrile seizure to a large paediatric emergency centre in the state of Qatar. Seizure classification followed the current ILAE classification system. Imaging was undertaken in our tertiary hospital and all images were reviewed by experienced neuro-radiologists...
October 19, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781046/is-intra-arterial-treatment-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-less-effective-in-women-than-in-men
#5
Inger R de Ridder, Puck S S Fransen, Debbie Beumer, Olvert A Berkhemer, Lucie A van den Berg, Marieke J Wermer, Hester Lingsma, Wim H van Zwam, Yvo B Roos, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Charles B Majoie, Aad van der Lugt, Diederik W J Dippel
INTRODUCTION: Stroke etiology and outcome after ischemic stroke differ between men and women. We examined if sex modifies the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in a randomized clinical trial of IAT for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. We tested for interaction between sex and treatment and estimated the treatment effect by sex with multiple ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for prognostic factors...
September 2016: Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778248/analysis-of-the-dynamics-of-temporal-relationships-of-neural-activities-using-optical-imaging-data
#6
Jannetta S Steyn, Peter Andras
The temporal relationship between the activities of neurons in biological neural systems is critically important for the correct delivery of the functionality of these systems. Fine measurement of temporal relationships of neural activities using micro-electrodes is possible but this approach is very limited due to spatial constraints in the context of physiologically valid settings of neural systems. Optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes or calcium dyes can provide data about the activity patterns of many neurons in physiologically valid settings, but the data is relatively noisy...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659189/measuring-brain-tissue-integrity-during-4-years-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#7
D Ontaneda, K Sakaie, J Lin, X-F Wang, M J Lowe, M D Phillips, R J Fox
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: DTI is an MR imaging measure of brain tissue integrity. Little is known regarding the long-term longitudinal evolution of lesional and nonlesional tissue DTI parameters in multiple sclerosis and the present study examines DTI evolution over 4 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with multiple sclerosis were imaged for up to 48 months after starting natalizumab therapy. Gadolinium-enhancing lesions at baseline, chronic T2 lesions, and normal-appearing white matter were followed longitudinally...
September 22, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649026/progress-in-neuro-imaging-of-brain-tumors
#8
Antonella Castellano, Andrea Falini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely employed in the diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumors. This review provides an overview of the advancements in the field of MRI, with a particular focus on the quantitative assessment by advanced physiological magnetic resonance techniques in light of the new molecular classification of brain tumor. RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding how molecular phenotypes of brain tumors are reflected in noninvasive imaging is the goal of radiogenomics, which aims at determining the association between imaging features and molecular markers in neuro-oncology...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617867/a-novel-infusion-drainage-device-to-assess-lower-urinary-tract-function-in-neuro-imaging
#9
Lorenz Leitner, Matthias Walter, Behnaz Jarrahi, Johann Wanek, Jörg Diefenbacher, Lars Michels, Martina D Liechti, Spyros S Kollias, Thomas M Kessler, Ulrich Mehnert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the applicability and precision of a novel infusion-drainage device (IDD) for standardised filling paradigms in neuro-urology and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of lower urinary tract (LUT) (dys)function. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The IDD is based on electrohydrostatic actuation which was previously proven feasible in a prototype setup. The current design includes hydraulic cylinders and a motorised slider to provide force and motion...
September 12, 2016: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608765/bilateral-strio-pallido-dentate-calcinosis-fahr-s-disease-report-of-seven-cases-and-revision-of-literature
#10
Elisabetta Savino, Cecilia Soavi, Eleonora Capatti, Massimo Borrelli, Giovanni B Vigna, Angelina Passaro, Giovanni Zuliani
BACKGROUND: Fahr's disease is rare a neurodegenerative idiopathic condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcifications of basal ganglia, usually associated with progressive neuropsychiatric dysfunctions and movement disorders. The term "Fahr's syndrome" is used in presence of calcifications secondary to a specific cause, but the variability of etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical picture underlying this condition have raised the question of the real existence of a syndrome...
September 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598104/automated-tissue-segmentation-of-mr-brain-images-in-the-presence-of-white-matter-lesions
#11
Sergi Valverde, Arnau Oliver, Eloy Roura, Sandra González-Villà, Deborah Pareto, Joan C Vilanova, Lluís Ramió-Torrentà, Àlex Rovira, Xavier Lladó
Over the last few years, the increasing interest in brain tissue volume measurements on clinical settings has led to the development of a wide number of automated tissue segmentation methods. However, white matter lesions are known to reduce the performance of automated tissue segmentation methods, which requires manual annotation of the lesions and refilling them before segmentation, which is tedious and time-consuming. Here, we propose a new, fully automated T1-w/FLAIR tissue segmentation approach designed to deal with images in the presence of WM lesions...
August 30, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593800/minimally-invasive-approach-in-bilateral-chronic-subdural-hematomas-surgical-selection-and-outcome-in-74-cases
#12
Min Xu, Bo Yu, Cunzu Wang, Xun Zhu, Xiaofeng Lu, Pin Chen, Hengzhu Zhang
AIM: To investigate effect of minimally invasive approaches on outcome of bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed in 74 hospitalized bilateral chronic subdural hematoma patients from January, 2010 to January, 2013 in Northern Jiangsu People\'s Hospital. Patients' gender, age, hematoma location, history of trauma, surgical approaches, the operation time, hospitalized time and follow-up three months after discharge were recorded...
January 25, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528110/abnormal-effective-fronto-limbic-connectivity-during-emotion-processing-in-schizophrenia
#13
Stéphane Potvin, Ovidiu Lungu, Andràs Tikàsz, Adrianna Mendrek
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with core emotional dysfunctions. At the neural level, functional neuro-imaging studies have highlighted fronto-limbic alterations during emotion processing in schizophrenia, as well as impaired connectivity between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. However, the direction of the impaired fronto-limbic connections remains largely unknown. To clarify this issue, we performed an effective connectivity study on emotion processing in schizophrenia...
January 4, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527887/-mania-induced-by-antibiotic-therapy
#14
T R W M Walrave, S Mohammad, R R Ploeger
We report two cases of adults who developed mania after taking the antibiotic clarithromycin. Clarithromycin is a frequently used antibiotic, but it can lead to a rare but significant psychiatric complication in the form of a manic episode. Mania is commonly associated with bipolar disorder, but the causes can be pharmacological, metabolic or neurologic, particularly when it occurs in patients who themselves or whose families have no past history of psychiatric illness. New-onset mania calls for detailed clinical and laboratory testing and neuro-imaging so that somatic causes can be ruled out...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479710/accurate-delineation-of-glioma-infiltration-by-advanced-pet-mr-neuro-imaging-frontier-study-a-diagnostic-study-protocol
#15
Niels Verburg, Petra J W Pouwels, Ronald Boellaard, Frederik Barkhof, Otto S Hoekstra, Jaap C Reijneveld, W Peter Vandertop, Pieter Wesseling, Philip C de Witt Hamer
BACKGROUND: Glioma imaging, used for diagnostics, treatment planning, and follow-up, is currently based on standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities (T1 contrast-enhancement for gadolinium-enhancing gliomas and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity for nonenhancing gliomas). The diagnostic accuracy of these techniques for the delineation of gliomas is suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of advanced neuroimaging compared with standard MRI modalities for the detection of diffuse glioma infiltration within the brain...
October 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473128/the-second-report-of-a-new-hypomyelinating-disease-due-to-a-defect-in-the-vps11-gene-discloses-a-massive-lysosomal-involvement
#16
Konstanze Hörtnagel, Inge Krägeloh-Mann, Antje Bornemann, Miriam Döcker, Saskia Biskup, Heidi Mayrhofer, Florian Battke, Gabriele du Bois, Klaus Harzer
Vesicular protein sorting-associated proteins (VPS, including VPS11) are indispensable in the endocytic network, in particular the endosome-lysosome biogenesis. Exome sequencing revealed the homozygous variant p.Leu387_ Gly395del in the VPS11 gene in two siblings. On immunoblotting, the mutant VPS11 protein showed a distinctly reduced immunostaining intensity. The children presented with primary and severe developmental delay associated with myoclonic seizures, spastic tetraplegia, trunk and neck hypotonia, blindness, hearing loss, and microcephaly...
November 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446514/perfusion-weighted-mri-parameters-for-prediction-of-early-progressive-infarction-in-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#17
Hoon Kim, Yerim Kim, Young Woo Kim, Seong Rim Kim, Seung Ho Yang
OBJECTIVE: Early progressive infarction (EPI) is frequently observed and related to poor functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction caused by MCA occlusion. We evaluated the perfusion parameters of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a predictor of EPI. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with acute MCA territory infarction caused by MCA occlusion. EPI was defined as a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale increment ≥2 points during 24 hours despite receiving standard treatment...
July 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413248/unsupervised-fetal-cortical-surface-parcellation
#18
Sonia Dahdouh, Catherine Limperopoulos
At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393078/seizures-in-the-peripartum-period-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-management
#19
A G M Aya, B Ondze, J Ripart, P Cuvillon
The occurrence of seizures in the peripartum period is a rare but particularly challenging situation. Seizures in the peripartum period could result from three categories of conditions: first and most frequent is the exacerbation of a known pre-existing seizure disorder, mainly epilepsy. A therapeutic evaluation is needed; second is the new onset of seizures due to a non-pregnancy-related problem. An accurate diagnosis and a specific treatment are required; third is range of pregnancy-related conditions. The present review focuses on this third category, with a special attention to disorders occurring in the peripartum period...
October 2016: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351758/-pain-as-an-experience-constituting-body-and-identity
#20
O Friedrich, L Tambornino
This article focuses on the philosophical perspective of what pain actually is, how pain is defined and what functions pain has. It is unclear, for example, whether pain generally correlates with physical harm, if it is categorically unpleasant, if it can be objectified and how observable neuronal processes correlate with different experiences of pain. Particular attention is paid to investigations concerning neuro-imaging, as well as phenomenological and psychoanalytical considerations. The different functions of pain are presented, especially regarding the extent to which pain represents an experience that constitutes both the body and the identity...
August 2016: Der Schmerz
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