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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043231/voriconazole-plus-caspofungin-for-treatment-of-invasive-fungal-infection-in-children-with-acute-leukemia
#1
Kyu Ho Lee, Young Tae Lim, Jeong Ok Hah, Yu Kyung Kim, Chae Hoon Lee, Jae Min Lee
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a life-threatening problem in immunocompromised patients. Despite timely diagnosis and appropriate antifungal therapy, clinical outcomes of IFIs remain unsatisfactory, necessitating treatment with a combination of antifungal agents. Therefore, childhood leukemic patients treated with voriconazole plus caspofungin were evaluated for the safety and efficacy of the combination antifungal therapy to treat IFIs. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records were retrieved for patients admitted to the Pediatric Department of Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea, between April 2009 and May 2013...
September 2017: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038263/in-vitro-combination-of-isavuconazole-with-echinocandins-against-azole-susceptible-and-resistant-aspergillus-spp
#2
A Raffetin, V Courbin, V Jullien, E Dannaoui
The in vitro combinations of isavuconazole with echinocandins were evaluated against 30 Aspergillus spp. by a two-dimensional checkerboard microdilution method and an agar-based diffusion method. With the checkerboard method, the three combinations showed indifferent interactions for all the strains. With the agar-based method, indifferent interactions were found for all the strains for isavuconazole-micafungin and isavuconazole-anidulafungin. For the isavuconazole-caspofungin combination, indifference was found in 24/30 strains, synergy in 4/30 strains, and antagonism in 2/30 strains...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994001/comparison-between-etest-and-broth-microdilution-methods-for-testing-itraconazole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-susceptibility-to-antifungal-combinations
#3
Laura Bedin Denardi, Jéssica Tairine Keller, Maria Isabel de Azevedo, Vanessa Oliveira, Fernanda Baldissera Piasentin, Cecília Bittencourt Severo, Janio Morais Santurio, Sydney Hartz Alves
The checkerboard broth microdilution assay (BMD) is the most frequently used method for the in vitro evaluation of drug combinations. However, its use to evaluate the effect of antifungal drugs on filamentous fungi is sometimes associated with endpoint-reading difficulties, and different degrees of interaction are assigned to the same drug combination. We evaluated combinations of the azoles, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole, with the echinocandins, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, against 15 itraconazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical strains via the checkerboard BMD and Etest assay...
October 9, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993334/choosing-optimal-antifungal-agents-to-prevent-fungal-infections-in-non-neutropenic-critically-ill-patients-trial-sequential-analysis-network-meta-analysis-and-pharmacoeconomic-analysis
#4
Yan Wang, Jiao Xie, Yuanming Xing, Lu Chen, Ying Li, Ti Meng, Weihua Dong, Xue Wang, Yalin Dong
The use of antifungal interventions in critically ill patients prior to invasive fungal infection (IFI) being microbiologically confirmed as well as the preferred drug are still controversial. A systematic literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have compared untargeted antifungal treatments applied to non-neutropenic critically ill patients. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and proven IFI rates. A random-effects model was used with trial sequential analyses (TSA), a network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to obtain indirect evidence, and a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model was completed from the patient perspective over a lifetime horizon...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992253/in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-patterns-of-planktonic-and-sessile-candida-kefyr-clinical-isolates
#5
Fruzsina Nagy, Aliz Bozó, Zoltán Tóth, Lajos Daróczi, László Majoros, Renátó Kovács
The activity of fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin and micafungin was determined using XTT-based fungal damage assays against planktonic cells, early and mature biofilms of Candida kefyr. Median MICs of planktonic cells were 0.25 mg/l, 0.25 mg/l, 0.5 mg/l, and 0.06 mg/l for fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively. Fluconazole showed at least 50% fungal damage at ≥4 mg/l (51.5% ± 6.63% to 78.38% ± 1.44%) and at ≥128 mg/l (57.88% ± 9.2% to 67.25% ± 9...
August 4, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992138/antifungal-susceptibilities-to-amphotericin-b-triazoles-and-echinocandins-of-77-clinical-isolates-of-cryptic-aspergillus-species-in-multicenter-surveillance-in-korea
#6
Eun Jeong Won, Jong Hee Shin, Soo Hyun Kim, Min Ji Choi, Seung A Byun, Mi-Na Kim, Wee-Gyo Lee, Kyungwon Lee, Young Uh, Myung Geun Shin, Soon Pal Suh
We investigated the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of cryptic Aspergillus species from nine Korean hospitals. Based on the CLSI epidemiological cutoff values, resistance rates to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin were as follows: A. awamori (34 isolates; all 0%), A. tubingensis (22; 0%, 4.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0%, respectively), A. sydowii (16; 0%, 6.3%, 0%, 0%, and 6.3%), A. lentulus (2; 50%, 0%, 100%, 50%, and 0%), and A. tamarii (2; all 0%). A. calidoustus (one isolate) showed resistance to multiple drugs...
September 12, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992116/in-vitro-activity-of-echinocandins-against-562-clinical-yeast-isolates-from-a-romanian-multicentre-study
#7
Mihai Mares, Bogdan Minea, Valentin Nastasa, Irina Rosca, Andra-Cristina Bostanaru, Iosif Marincu, Vasilica Toma, Violeta Corina Cristea, Carmen Murariu, Mariana Pinteala
The study presents the echinocandin susceptibility profile of a multi-centre collection of pathogenic yeast isolates from Romanian tertiary hospitals. The 562 isolates were identified using ID32C strips, MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequencing. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of caspofungin (CAS), micafungin (MCA), and anidulafungin (ANI) were assessed and interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines. Minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined by plating content from the clear MIC wells. The activity was considered fungicidal at MFC/MIC ≤ 4...
August 4, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992058/species-distribution-virulence-factors-and-antifungal-susceptibility-among-candida-parapsilosis-complex-isolates-from-clinical-specimens-at-siriraj-hospital-thailand-from-2011-to-2015
#8
Sujiraphong Pharkjaksu, Piriyaporn Chongtrakool, Kamol Suwannakarn, Popchai Ngamskulrungroj
The Candida parapsilosis complex has been described as the second or third most common yeast species isolated from patients with bloodstream infections worldwide. This complex consists of three species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. The distribution of species in this complex has never been studied in Thailand. Here we investigated the molecular epidemiology, in vitro on virulence factors, and antifungal susceptibility profiles of isolates of these three species collected from patients in Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, from 2011 to 2015...
September 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988900/biofilm-forming-capacity-of-blood-borne-candida-albicans-strains-and-effects-of-antifungal-agents
#9
Hanni Turan, Müge Demirbilek
Infections related to Candida albicans biofilms and subsequent antifungal resistance have become more common with the increased use of indwelling medical devices. Regimens for preventing fungal biofilm formation are needed, particularly in high-risk patients. In this study, we investigated the biofilm formation rate of multiple strains of Candida albicans (n=162 clinical isolates), their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and the efficacy of certain antifungals for preventing biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was graded using a modified Christensen's 96-well plate method...
October 5, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978595/hiv-related-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-managed-with-caspofungin-and-veno-venous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-rescue-therapy
#10
Nathaniel Lee, David Lawrence, Brijesh Patel, Stephane Ledot
Patients with pneumocystis pneumonia have a risk of progressing to acute respiratory failure necessitating admission to intensive care. The case described is of a patient with a newly diagnosed HIV infection presenting with pneumocystis pneumonia. Despite initiating the appropriate pharmacological treatment the patient's clinical condition deteriorated, and required both rescue pharmacological therapy with echinocandins as well as respiratory support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. The patient recovered well on ventilator and circulatory support despite a long weaning process complicated by sequelae common to pneumocystis pneumonia...
October 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973097/association-between-fungal-contamination-and-eye-bank-prepared-endothelial-keratoplasty-tissue-temperature-dependent-risk-factors-and-antifungal-supplementation-of-optisol-gentamicin-and-streptomycin
#11
Kimberly M Brothers, Robert M Q Shanks, Susan Hurlbert, Regis P Kowalski, Elmer Y Tu
Importance: Fungal contamination and infection from donor tissues processed for endothelial keratoplasty is a growing concern, prompting analysis of donor tissues after processing. Objective: To determine whether eyebank-processed endothelial keratoplasty tissue is at higher risk of contamination than unprocessed tissue and to model eyebank processing with regard to room temperature exposure on Candida growth in optisol-gentamicin and streptomycin (GS) with and without antifungal supplementation...
September 28, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971865/the-gastrointestinal-tract-is-a-major-source-of-echinocandin-drug-resistance-in-a-murine-model-of-candida-glabrata-colonization-and-systemic-dissemination
#12
Kelley R Healey, Yoji Nagasaki, Matthew Zimmerman, Milena Kordalewska, Steven Park, Yanan Zhao, David S Perlin
Candida species are a part of the human microbiome and can cause systemic infection upon immune suppression. C. glabrata infections are increasing and have greater rates of antifungal resistance compared to other species. Here, we present a C. glabrata gastrointestinal (GI) colonization model to explore whether colonized yeast exposed to caspofungin, an echinocandin antifungal, develop characteristic resistance mutations, and upon immunosuppression, breakthrough causing systemic infection. Daily therapeutic dosing (5 mg/kg) of caspofungin resulted in no reduction in fecal burdens, organ breakthrough rates similar to control groups, and resistance rates (0-10%) similar to those reported clinically...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956459/empirical-antifungal-treatment-for-diagnosed-and-undiagnosed-invasive-fungal-disease-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#13
Qi Deng, Hai-Rong Lv, Xue-Mei Lin, Ming-Feng Zhao, Li Geng, Yu-Ming Li
BACKGROUND: Empirical antifungal therapy is effective in some patients with risk factors for invasive fungal disease (IFD) who do not qualify for the EORTC/MSG criteria for IFD, but who fail to respond to anti-bacterial and anti-viral therapy. OBJECTIVE: This retrospective single-center study investigated the epidemiology of IFD and empirical antifungal therapy in patients with hematological malignancies. METHODS: This study recruited 893 patients with hematologic malignancies who had failed to respond to anti-bacterial and anti-viral treatment and received antifungal therapy, but not for antifungal prophylaxis...
September 28, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948652/pharmacokinetic-changes-of-antibiotic-antiviral-antituberculosis-and-antifungal-agents-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-critically-ill-adult-patients
#14
REVIEW
J Hahn, J H Choi, M J Chang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving system used for critically ill patients with cardiac and/or respiratory failure. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs can change in patients undergoing ECMO, which can result in therapeutic failure or drug toxicity requiring further management of drug complications. In this review, we discussed changes in the PK of antibiotic, antiviral, antituberculosis and antifungal agents administered to adult patients on ECMO...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940753/prevalence-virulence-factors-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-spp-isolated-from-bloodstream-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-brazil
#15
Heliara Maria Spina Canela, Bárbara Cardoso, Lucia Helena Vitali, Harnoldo Colares Coelho, Roberto Martinez, Márcia Eliana da Silva Ferreira
Candida spp. are responsible for 80% of all systemic fungal infections and are associated with high mortality rates. This study characterised 79 bloodstream isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. orthopsilosis, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis from patients in a Brazilian hospital. The susceptibility to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole was determined; virulence factor production was assessed based on haemolysin, phospholipase and proteinase activities, and the patients' clinical characteristics were analysed...
September 22, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895709/recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-treatment-for-intracardiac-vegetation-in-a-very-low-birth-weight-infant
#16
Abdurrahman A Ozdemir
Developing treatment options have resulted in prolonged admission and increased bacterial and fungal nosocomial infections as well as improved survival in neonatal intensive care unit. Invasive fungal infections in newborns are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and can cause endorgan dissemination such as endocarditis, endophthalmitis, septic arthritis, obstructive nephropathy and meningitis. Endocarditis requires aggressive systemic antifungal therapy and sometimes surgical intervention in neonates...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886952/clinical-manifestations-of-candidemia-caused-by-uncommon-candida-species-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-the-isolates-in-a-regional-hospital-in-taiwan-2007-2014
#17
Wei-Lun Liu, Chih-Cheng Lai, Ming-Chi Li, Chi-Jung Wu, Wen-Chien Ko, Yi-Li Hung, Hung-Jen Tang, Po-Ren Hsueh
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study investigated clinical manifestations of candidemia caused by uncommon Candida species and antifungal susceptibility of the isolates in a regional hospital in Taiwan. METHODS: The uncommon Candida species was initially defined as Candida species other than C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata complex, C. parapsilosis complex and C. krusei. All uncommon Candida isolates were identified and confirmed by molecular methods. In vitro susceptibility testing of the uncommon Candida species to nine antifungal agents was conducted using the broth microdilution method with the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) system (Trek Diagnostic Systems, Ltd...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884772/afm-combined-to-atr-ftir-reveals-candida-cell-wall-changes-under-caspofungin-treatment
#18
Fabienne Quilès, Isabelle Accoceberry, Célia Couzigou, Grégory Francius, Thierry Noël, Sofiane El-Kirat-Chatel
Fungal pathogens from Candida genus are responsible for severe life-threatening infections and the antifungal arsenal is still limited. Caspofungin, an antifungal drug used for human therapy, acts as a blocking agent of the cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the β-1,3-glucan-synthase encoded by FKS genes. Despite its efficiency, the number of genetic mutants that are resistant to caspofungin is increasing. An important challenge to improve antifungal therapy is to understand cellular phenomenon that are associated with drug resistance...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874131/a-chronic-hemodialysis-patient-with-isolated-pulmonary-valve-infective-endocarditis-caused-by-non-albicans-candida-a-rare-case-and-literature-review
#19
Chih-Hao Chang, Myo-Ming Huang, Dong-Feng Yeih, Kuo-Cheng Lu, Yi-Chou Hou
BACKGROUND: Isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis caused by Candida is rare in chronic hemodialysis patients. The 2009 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines suggest the combined use of surgery and antibiotics to treat candidiasis; however, successful nonsurgical treatment of Candida endocarditis has been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease was admitted to our hospital after experiencing disorientation for 5 days...
September 6, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870262/virulence-factors-antifungal-susceptibility-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-azole-resistance-among-candida-parapsilosis-complex-isolates-recovered-from-clinical-specimens
#20
Sourour Neji, Ines Hadrich, Houaida Trabelsi, Salma Abbes, Fatma Cheikhrouhou, Hayet Sellami, Fattouma Makni, Ali Ayadi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the biofilm formation, the extracellular enzymatic activities of 182 clinical isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex. METHODS: Molecular identification of the C. parapsilosis species complex was performed using PCR RFLP of SADH gene and PCR sequencing of ITS region. The susceptibility of ours isolates to antifungal agents and molecular mechanisms underlying azole resistance were evaluated. RESULTS: 63...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
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