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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685375/drug-susceptibility-profile-of-candida-glabrata-clinical-isolates-from-iran-and-genetic-resistant-mechanisms-to-caspofungin
#1
Saeid Amanloo, Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Mohammad Ghahri, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh
BACKGROUND: Candida glabrata is a yeast that can cause hazardous fungal infections with high mortality and drug resistance. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the profile of drug susceptibility in clinical isolates of C. glabrata and review the resistance mechanisms to caspofungin. METHODS: A total of 50 C. glabrata clinical isolates from Iran were tested for in vitro susceptibilities to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole...
April 20, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675561/de-escalation-of-antifungal-treatment-in-critically-ill-patients-with-suspected-invasive-candida-infection-incidence-associated-factors-and-safety
#2
Karim Jaffal, Julien Poissy, Anahita Rouze, Sébastien Preau, Boualem Sendid, Marjorie Cornu, Saad Nseir
BACKGROUND: Antifungal treatment is common in critically ill patients, but only a small proportion of patients receiving antifungals have a proven fungal infection. However, antifungal treatment has side effects such as toxicity, emergence of resistance, and high cost. Moreover, empirical antifungal treatment is still a matter for debate in these patients. Our study aimed to determine the incidence, associated factors, and safety of de-escalation of antifungals in critically ill patients...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642649/portrait-of-matrix-gene-expression-in-candida-glabrata-biofilms-with-stress-induced-by-different-drugs
#3
Célia F Rodrigues, Mariana Henriques
(1) Background: Candida glabrata is one of the most significant Candida species associated with severe cases of candidiasis. Biofilm formation is an important feature, closely associated with antifungal resistance, involving alterations of gene expression or mutations, which can result in the failure of antifungal treatments. Hence, the main goal of this work was to evaluate the role of a set of genes, associated with matrix production, in the resistance of C. glabrata biofilms to antifungal drugs. (2) Methods: the determination of the expression of BGL2 , XOG1 , FKS1 , FKS2 , GAS2 , KNH1 , UGP1 , and MNN2 genes in 48-h biofilm's cells of three C...
April 10, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628014/invasive-candidiasis-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-2-tertiary-care-centers
#4
Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Hussam Sakkijha, Raymond Khan, Tarek Aldabbagh, Aron Toledo, Pendo Ntinika, Sameera M Al Johani, Yaseen M Arabi
BACKGROUND: Invasive candidiasis is not uncommon in critically ill patients but has variable epidemiology and outcomes between intensive care units (ICUs). This study evaluated the epidemiology, characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with invasive candidiasis at 6 ICUs of 2 tertiary care centers. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of all adults admitted to 6 ICUs in 2 different hospitals between August 2012 and May 2016 and diagnosed to have invasive candidiasis by 2 intensivists according to predefined criteria...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618069/genetic-diversity-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-albicans-isolated-from-iranian-patients
#5
Somayeh Sharifynia, Sasan Rezaie, Abdolreza Mohamadnia, Vida Mortezaee, Atefe Hadian, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
A total of 105 independent Candida albicans strains isolated from patients in Iran were investigated. According to CLSI documents M27-A3 and M27-S4, the 24 h geometric mean MICs of caspofungin, itraconazole, and fluconazole were 0.27, 3.19, and 11.91 μg/ml, respectively. Microsatellites analysis of CEF3, CAIII, LOC4 Loci identified 93 different allelic genotypes clustered apart into six different clades. Antifungal susceptibility was not linked with the source of isolation and the corresponding genotype of C...
March 29, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610199/absence-of-azole-or-echinocandin-resistance-in-candida-glabrata-isolates-in-india-despite-background-prevalence-of-strains-with-defects-in-dna-mismatch-repair-pathway
#6
Ashutosh Singh, Kelley R Healey, Priyanka Yadav, Gargi Upadhyaya, Neelam Sachdeva, Smita Sarma, Anil Kumar, Bansidhar Tarai, David S Perlin, Anuradha Chowdhary
Candida glabrata infections are increasing world-wide and exhibit greater rates of antifungal resistance than other species. DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene deletions, such as msh2Δ , in C. glabrata resulting in a mutator phenotype has recently been reported to facilitate rapid acquisition of antifungal resistance. This study determined the antifungal susceptibility profile of 210 C. glabrata isolates, in 10 hospitals in India and investigated the impact of novel MSH 2 polymorphisms on mutation potential. No echinocandin or azole resistant strains were detected among C...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610196/fungicidal-potency-and-mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-defensins-against-multi-drug-resistant-candida-species
#7
Virginia Basso, Angie Garcia, Dat Q Tran, Justin B Schaal, Patti Tran, Diana Ngole, Younus Aqeel, Prasad Tongaonkar, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Systemic candidiasis is a growing health care concern becoming even more challenging due to the growing frequency of infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Candida spp Thus there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches to candidiasis, including strategies bioinspired by insights into natural host defense against fungal pathogens. The antifungal properties of θ-defensins, macrocyclic peptides expressed in tissues of Old World monkeys, were investigated against a panel of drug sensitive and drug resistant clinical isolates of C...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601449/antifungal-treatment-and-outcome-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-population-based-observational-study-of-the-german-neonatal-network
#8
Ingmar Fortmann, Annika Hartz, Pia Paul, Ferdinand Pulzer, Andreas Müller, Ralf Böttger, Hans Proquitté, Kristin Dawczynski, Arne Simon, Jan Rupp, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel, Christoph Härtel
INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic proof of fungal infection in preterm infants is difficult. Antifungal treatment (AFT) is often initiated empirically when infants with suspected infection do not improve despite broad spectrum antibiotic therapy. It was the aim of our study to determine the rate of exposure to empirical AFT in a large cohort of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) of the German Neonatal Network (GNN) and to address associated risks and outcomes. METHODS: The epidemiological database consisted of n= 13...
March 29, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596219/efficacy-and-safety-of-echinocandins-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-children-a-meta-analysis
#9
Magdalini Tsekoura, Maria Ioannidou, Zoi-Dorothea Pana, Anna-Bettina Haidich, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Elias Iosifidis, George Kolios, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: Echinocandins are recommended for the treatment of suspected or confirmed invasive candidiasis (IC) in adults. Less is known about the use of echinocandins for the management of IC in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the overall efficacy and safety of echinocandin class in neonatal and pediatric patients with IC. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Central, Scopus and Clinical trial registries were searched up to July 27, 2017. Eligible studies were randomized trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and safety of any echinocandin versus agents of other antifungal classes for the treatment of IC in pediatric patients...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592837/a-proposal-of-antifungal-epidemiological-cut-off-values-against-histoplasma-capsulatum-var-capsulatum-based-on-the-susceptibility-of-isolates-from-hiv-infected-patients-with-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-northeastern-brazil
#10
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Maria Lucilene Queiroz da Silva, Débora Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
Epidemiological cutoff values (ECV) have been used as a tool to detect the acquisition of resistance mechanisms to antifungal drugs. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological cutoff values for classic antifungals against Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum isolates from HIV-infected patients with the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis. Initially, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for amphotericin B, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin against 138 isolates of H...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588355/correction-for-yang-et-al-tolerance-to-caspofungin-in-candida-albicans-is-associated-with-at-least-three-distinctive-mechanisms-that-govern-expression-of-fks-genes-and-cell-wall-remodeling
#11
Feng Yang, Lulu Zhang, Hironao Wakabayashi, Jason Myers, Yuanying Jiang, Yongbing Cao, Cristina Jimenez-Ortigosa, David S Perlin, Elena Rustchenko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580699/evaluation-of-two-commercial-methods-for-the-susceptibility-testing-of-candida-species-vitek-2-%C3%A2-and-sensititre-yeastone-%C3%A2
#12
Ricardo Andreotti Siqueira, Andre Mario Doi, Paulo Petrus de Petrus Crossara, Paula Celia Mariko Koga, Alexandre Gimenes Marques, Fabiane Gomes Nunes, Jacyr Pasternak, Marines Dalla Valle Martino
BACKGROUND: An increased incidence of fungal infections caused by Candida species, especially Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, which are less susceptible to azoles, has been observed. Standardized susceptibility testing is essential for clinical management and for monitoring the epidemiology of resistance. AIMS: We evaluated the performance of two different susceptibility testing commercial methods, Vitek 2® and Sensititre YeastOne® , and compared them with the standard broth microdilution method (CLSI)...
March 23, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578522/histological-quantification-to-determine-lung-fungal-burden-in-experimental-aspergillosis
#13
Dylan J Stolz, Ethan M Sands, Nansalmaa Amarsaikhan, Angar Tsoggerel, Steven P Templeton
The quantification of lung fungal burden is critical for the determination of the relative levels of immune protection and fungal virulence in mouse models of pulmonary fungal infection. Although multiple methods are used to assess fungal burden, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of fungal DNA has emerged as a technique with several advantages over previous culture-based methods. Currently, a comprehensive assessment of lung pathology, leukocyte recruitment, fungal burden, and gene expression in mice with invasive aspergillosis (IA) necessitates the use of a significant number of experimental and control animals...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573075/plasmodium-falciparum-infection-transmitted-by-transfusion-a-cause-of-hemophagocytic-syndrome-after-bone-marrow-tranplantation-in-a-non-endemic-country
#14
Saloua Ladeb, Nour Ben Abdejlil, Najla Fakhfakh, Amel Lakhal, Dorra Belloumi, Leila Ben Hamed, Aicha Kallel, Lamia Torjman, Rym El Fatimi, Slama Hmida, Kalthoum Kallel, Tarek Ben Othman
A 27-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia underwent bone marrow transplantation from his HLA identical brother in July 2016. Conditioning included ATGAM 30 mg/kg for 3 days and Cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg for 4 days. The patient received several platelet and red blood cell transfusions before and after the conditioning. The patient received broad spectrum antibiotics and caspofungin because persistant febrile neutropenia without bacteriological or mycological documentation. Hemophagocytic syndrome was diagnosed on day +12...
March 23, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572043/bioluminescence-imaging-increases-in-vivo-screening-efficiency-for-antifungal-activity-against-device-associated-candida-albicans-biofilms
#15
Greetje Vande Velde, Soňa Kucharíková, Patrick Van Dijck, Uwe Himmelreich
Fungal infections are a major problem for a growing number of mostly immune-compromised patients. Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and deep tissue infections of which the majority is associated with biofilm formation on medical implants. The animal models that are currently in use to test antifungal drugs are limited to ex vivo analyses, requiring host sacrifice that excludes longitudinal monitoring of dynamic processes during biofilm formation in the live host. As a solution, we introduce non-invasive, dynamic imaging and quantification of C...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560304/two-cases-of-fungal-keratitis-caused-by-metarhizium-anisopliae
#16
Abigail L Goodman, Shawn R Lockhart, Colleen B Lysen, Lars F Westblade, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Eileen M Burd
We present two cases of keratitis due to Metarhizium anisopliae in geographically separated areas of the United States. The isolates were microscopically similar but morphologically different and were identified by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Both isolates had low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values to caspofungin and micafungin, but high MIC values to amphotericin B. The morphologic and antifungal susceptibility differences between the two isolates indicate possible polyphylogeny of the group.
September 2018: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551905/posaconazole-achieves-prompt-recovery-of-voriconazole-induced-liver-injury-in-a-case-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#17
Javier Martínez-Casanova, Nuria Carballo, Sonia Luque, Luisa Sorli, Santiago Grau
Azole antifungals have frequently been linked to the presence of hepatotoxicity, but there is scarce information on cross-toxicity between these drugs or on the possibility of using some of them when this type of toxicity occurs. We report the case of a 64-year-old man with invasive aspergillosis (IA) leading to spondylodiscitis with neurological involvement. Early management included intravenous (iv) voriconazole, which had to be interrupted after 1 week due to liver damage. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of voriconazole showed that the plasma concentration was within the therapeutic range...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551442/isavuconazole-a-new-broad-spectrum-azole-part-2-pharmacokinetics-and-clinical-activity
#18
REVIEW
M-P Ledoux, J Denis, Y Nivoix, R Herbrecht
Isavuconazole, the active moiety of its prodrug isavuconazonium, is a new extended-spectrum triazole whose activity against yeasts, molds, including Aspergillus and mucorales, and dimorphic fungi has been shown in vitro and in preclinical models. The most relevant pharmacokinetics features are water-solubility of the prodrug, rapid cleavage of the prodrug into active moiety and cleavage product by plasmatic esterases, high oral bioavailability of isavuconazole with an extensive penetration into most tissues and a good safety profile even in case of renal impairment...
March 15, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536323/susceptibility-profile-of-echinocandins-azoles-and-amphotericin-b-against-yeast-phase-of-talaromyces-marneffei-isolated-from-hiv-infected-patients-in-guangdong-china
#19
H-L Lei, L-H Li, W-S Chen, W-N Song, Y He, F-Y Hu, X-J Chen, W-P Cai, X-P Tang
Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) can cause talaromycosis, a fatal systemic mycosis, in patients with AIDS. With the increasing number of talaromycosis cases in Guangdong, China, we aimed to investigate the susceptibility of 189 T. marneffei clinical strains to eight antifungal agents, including three echinocandins (anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin), four azoles (posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and fluconazole), and amphotericin B, with determining minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) by Sensititre YeastOne™ YO10 assay in the yeast phase...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530844/potent-activity-of-luliconazole-lanoconazole-and-eight-comparators-against-molecularly-characterized-fusarium-species
#20
Mahdi Abastabar, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Mohammad Vafaei Moghaddam, G Sybren de Hoog, Iman Haghani, Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Roshanak Daie Ghazvini, Reza Kachuei, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Koichi Makimura, Jacques F Meis, Hamid Badali
A collection of clinical (n=47) and environmental (n=79) Fusarium isolates were tested against 10 antifungal drugs, including two novel imidazoles. Luliconazole and lanoconazole demonstrated very low GM MIC values of 0.005 μg/ml and 0.013 μg/ml, respectively, in comparison with 0.51 μg/ml for micafungin, 0.85 μg/ml for efinaconazole, 1.12 μg/ml for natamycin, 1.18 μg/ml for anidulafungin, 1.31 μg/ml for voriconazole, 1.35 μg/ml for caspofungin, 1.9 μg/ml for amphotericin B and 4.08 μg/ml for itraconazole...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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