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A Kritikos, D Neofytos, N Khanna, P W Schreiber, K Boggian, J Bille, J Schrenzel, K Mühlethaler, R Zbinden, T Bruderer, D Goldenberger, G Pfyffer, A Conen, C Van Delden, S Zimmerli, D Sanglard, D Bachmann, O Marchetti, F Lamoth
OBJECTIVES: Echinocandins represent the first-line treatment of candidemia. Acquired echinocandin resistance is mainly observed among Candida albicans and glabrata and is associated with FKS hotspot mutations. The commercial Sensititre YeastOneTM (SYO) kit is widely used for antifungal susceptibility testing, but interpretive clinical breakpoints are not well defined. We determined echinocandins epidemiological cut-off values (ECV) for C. albicans/glabrata tested by SYO and assessed their ability to identify FKS mutants in a national survey of candidemia...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Laíse Diana Dos Santos Brandão, Douglas Boniek, Maria Aparecida de Resende Stoianoff, Flávia Maria Rezende da Mata, Paulo Roberto Medeiros de Azevedo, José Veríssimo Fernandes, Vânia Sousa Andrade
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an inflammatory disease of the vulva and vagina caused by different yeasts of the genus Candida which is responsible for infection in pregnant patients who attended Maternidade Escola Januário Cicco, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. From 41 samples, 19 yeasts were identified phenotypically as Candida albicans, and one as C. glabrata which is reported as the non-albicans species most frequently isolated from vulvovaginitis. The susceptibility to selected antifungal agents (fluocytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin and micafungin) was determined, and the association between patient related signs and symptoms aided the construction of an epidemiological profile...
June 16, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Adane Bitew, Yeshiwork Abebaw
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a global issue of concern due to its association with economic costs, sexually transmitted infections, and ascending genital tract infection. The aim of this study was to determine species distribution and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 at the Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia. Vaginal swabs collected from study subjects that were clinically diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis were cultured...
June 15, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Nicholas D Beyda, Jonathan Amadio, Jose R Rodriguez, Karen Malinowski, Kevin W Garey, Audrey Wanger, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner
BACKGROUND: The T2Candida assay is a novel, non-culture based assay for the diagnosis of candidemia directly from whole blood. The impact of antifungals on the performance of the T2Candida assay and blood culture bottles have not been well described. In this study, the performance of the T2Candida assay was compared to that of blood culture in detecting Candida spp. in spiked blood cultures with or without the presence of antifungals. METHODS: Clinical bloodstream isolates of Candida spp...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Saeid Mahdavi Omran, Maryam Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam Zuashkiani, Vahid Moqarabzadeh, Mojtaba Taghizadeh-Armaki
Background: Candida -associated denture stomatitis (CADS) is a common fungal infection in people who wear dentures. The main objective of this study was to make molecular identification of causative agents of CADS and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) in the Iranian patients with denture stomatitis. Methods: A total of 134 Candida spp. were obtained from patients with denture stomatitis. The Candida spp. were identified using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) involving the universal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4) primers, which were subjected to digestion with MspI and BlnI restriction enzymes...
2018: BioMed Research International
Thierry Gustot, Rob Ter Heine, Elisa Brauns, Frédéric Cotton, Frédérique Jacobs, Roger J Brüggemann
Background: Controversies remain over caspofungin dosage adjustments in cirrhosis, particularly Child-Pugh (CP) B or C. The product information for of caspofungin recommends a maintenance dose reduction from 50 to 35 mg for patients with CP-B cirrhosis. Objectives: To quantify the impact of cirrhosis and the severity of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of caspofungin. Patients and methods: We performed PK studies of a single 70 mg dose of caspofungin in patients with decompensated CP-B (n = 10) or CP-C (n = 10) cirrhosis and of multiple doses in 21 non-cirrhotic ICU patients with hypoalbuminaemia...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Qian-Ting Yang, Ya-Jing Zhai, Lu Chen, Tao Zhang, Yan Yan, Ti Meng, Lei-Chao Liu, Li-Mei Chen, Xue Wang, Ya-Lin Dong
Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent licensed as a first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis in patients with moderate to severe illness or recent exposure to azoles. In this study we developed a whole-body physiology-based pharmacokinetics (WB-PBPK) model to predict the pharmacokinetics (PK) of caspofungin, and combined with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to optimize clinical dosage regimens of caspofungin in different kinds of patients. A WB-PBPK model of caspofungin was built and validated with raw data from 4 previous trials of general patients, intensive care unit (ICU) patients with Child-Pugh B, ICU patients on continuous renal replacement therapy, mild and moderate hepatic insuffciency (HI) patients...
May 31, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Jamille Alencar Sales, Maria Lucilene Queiroz da Silva, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Lucas de Alencar Pereira, Waldemiro Aquino Pereira-Neto, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
PURPOSE: Antifungal resistance and several putative virulence factors have been associated with the pathogenicity of the Candida parapsilosis species complex. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility, the production of virulence factors and the pathogenicity of the C. parapsilosis complex. METHODOLOGY: Overall, 49 isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 19 C. orthopsilosis and nine C. metapsilosis were used. The planktonic and biofilm susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was assessed using a broth microdilution assay...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
N Aslani, M Abastabar, M T Hedayati, T Shokohi, S R Aghili, K Diba, T Hosseini, B Bahrami, A Ebrahimpour, M Salehi, M Taheri Sarvtin, I Haghani, M Vafaei Moghaddam
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the prevalence and susceptibility profiles of Candida species isolated from the dental plaque of Iranian immunocompetent patients. As a biofilm, Candida species are responsible for several disorders common to the oral cavity including gingivitis, dental caries, periodontitis, and the less common severe systemic infections specifically in immunosuppressed individuals. METHOD: PCR-RFLP was performed to identify yeasts isolated from the dental plaques of 40 immunocompetent patients...
May 24, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Ludmilla Tonani, Natália Silva Morosini, Henrique Dantas de Menezes, Maria Emília Nadaletto Bonifácio da Silva, Mark Wainwright, Gilberto Úbida Leite Braga, Marcia Regina von Zeska Kress
Neoscytalidium spp. are ascomycetous fungi consisting of pigmented and hyaline varieties both able to cause skin and nail infection. Their color-based identification is inaccurate and may compromise the outcome of the studies with these fungi. The aim of this study was to genotype 32 isolates morphologically identified as Neoscytalidiumdimidiatum or N. dimidiatum var. hyalinum by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), differentiate the two varieties by their sequence types, evaluate their susceptibility to seven commercial antifungal drugs [amphotericin B (AMB), voriconazole (VOR), terbinafine (TER), 5-flucytosine (5FC), ketoconazole (KET), fluconazole (FLU), and caspofungin (CAS)], and also to the antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) with the phenothiazinium photosensitizers (PS) methylene blue (MB), new methylene blue (NMBN), toluidine blue O (TBO) and the pentacyclic derivative S137...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
Célia F Rodrigues, Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Mariana Henriques
Candidiases are the most recurrent fungal infections, especially among immunosuppressed patients. Although Candida albicans is still the most widespread isolated species, non-Candida albicans Candida species have been increasing. The goal of this work was to determine the susceptibility of C. glabrata biofilms to echinocandins and to evaluate their effect on the biofilm matrix composition, comparing the results with other Candida species. Drug susceptibilities were assessed through the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of caspofungin (Csf) and micafugin (Mcf)...
May 25, 2018: Biofouling
Benoit Pilmis, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Alexandre Alanio, Emilie Catherinot, Anne Scemla, Vincent Jullien, Stéphane Bretagne, Olivier Lortholary
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) affects lungs and disseminates mostly in patients with neutropenia and/or receiving immunosuppressive and steroid therapies. Despite progress in diagnosis and therapy of IA, it is still characterized by a high mortality rate. Currently, voriconazole is considered as the standard therapy for invasive aspergillosis. Over the recent years, triazole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates have emerged in the environment due to the use of fungicidal agricultural products with the risk of developing IA related to a resistant isolate...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Julian Hösl, André Gessner, Nahed El-Najjar
A simple and precise ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of five anti-infective agents used to treat severe infections [three antibiotics (daptomycin, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin) and two antifungals (isavuconazole, caspofungin)] in human plasma. Sample preparation was based on protein precipitation with ice cold methanol. All five agents were analyzed with the corresponding isotopically labeled internal standards. All analytes were detected in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) using API 4000 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer with electrospray (ESI) source operating in positive mode...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Xiaojuan Wang, Jian Bing, Qiushi Zheng, Feifei Zhang, Jingbo Liu, Huizhen Yue, Li Tao, Han Du, Yina Wang, Hui Wang, Guanghua Huang
The emerging human fungal pathogen Candida auris has been recognized as a multidrug resistant species and is associated with high mortality. This fungus was first described in Japan in 2009 and has been reported in at least 18 countries on five continents. In this study, we report the first isolate of C. auris from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of a hospitalized woman in China. Interestingly, this isolate is susceptible to all tested antifungals including amphotericin B, fluconazole, and caspofungin...
May 18, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jae Jung Kim, Eduardo Reátegui, Alex Hopke, Fatemeh Jalali, Maedeh Roushan, Patrick S Doyle, Daniel Irimia
Neutrophils are the first white blood cells to respond to microbes and to limit their invasion of the body. However, the growth of the microbes into colonies often challenges the neutrophils ability to contain them. To study the interactions between neutrophils and microbial colonies, we designed an assay for arranging microbes in clusters of controlled size (i.e. living colloids). The patterned microbes in the living colloid are mechanically trapped inside the wells and fully accessible to neutrophils. Using the assay, we studied the interactions between human neutrophils and Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus, two common human pathogens...
May 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Rachna Singh, Anjna Kumari, Karminder Kaur, Parul Sethi, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The role of penetration limitation in Candida biofilm-associated antifungal resistance remains unclear. Most of the previous work has been done on Candida albicans, although non-albicans (NAC) species are also implicated in invasive candidiasis and the biofilm matrix has been shown to vary amongst different species. Only a few studies have evaluated clinical isolates. This study aimed to determine the relevance of penetration limitation in the antifungal resistance of biofilms formed by C. albicans and NAC clinical isolates, using an agar disk diffusion assay...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Wulin Shan, Chunyang Dai, Jingsong Kan, Ming Li, Meiling Yin
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections often occur in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report an infection case caused by Geotrichum capitatum in a severe aplastic anemia patient. METHODS: Identification of the pathogenic bacteria was done by sequencing and mass spectrometric analysis. RESULTS: The fungal infection was isolated from blood cultures. The pathogenic bacteria were identified as Geotrichum capitatum. The infection was primarily cured by voriconazole and caspofungin monotherapy...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Subramanian Swaminathan, Shweta Kamat, Nalini Adele Pinto
The importance of antifungal agents and their clinical implications has received little attention in comparison to antibiotics, particularly in the health-care setting. However, apart from bacterial infections rising in hospitals, the incidences of fungal infections are growing with the development of resistance to conventional antifungal agents. Newer antifungal agents such as echinocandins (ECs) have been extensively studied over the past decade and are recognised as a superior treatment compared with prior antifungals as a first line of therapy in tertiary institutions...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Wissame Mazari, Zahia Boucherit-Otmani, Imad Abdelhamid El Haci, Amine Ilahi, Kebir Boucherit
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of yeasts in dental chair unit waterlines (DCUWLs) and to test their ability to form biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen dental waterlines were analysed by culture in liquid Sabouraud in order to allow the quantification and the purification of isolated yeasts from their internal surfaces. All isolates were identified by standard laboratory procedures, including CHROMagar Candida medium for orientation, commercial yeast identification system Api Candida, MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequencing...
May 4, 2018: International Dental Journal
Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Somayeh Sharifynia, Yasemin Öz, Müge Aslan, Nuray Gündoğdu, Ayşe Serin, Haleh Rafati, Faezeh Mohammadi, Dilek Yeşim-Metin, Aylin Döğen, Macit Ilkit, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto is an emerging cause of hospital-acquired Candida infections, predominantly in southern Europe, South America, and Asia. We investigated the genetic diversity and antifungal susceptibility profile of 170 independent C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains obtained from patients with candidemia who were treated at the Ege University Hospital in Izmir, Turkey, between 2006 and 2014. The identity of each strain was confirmed via PCR amplification and digestion of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene...
May 3, 2018: Mycopathologia
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