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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810506/controls-on-anastomosis-in-lowland-river-systems-towards-process-based-solutions-to-habitat-conservation
#1
Paweł Marcinkowski, Robert C Grabowski, Tomasz Okruszko
Anastomosing rivers were historically common around the world before extensive agricultural and industrial development in river valleys. Few lowland anastomosing rivers remain in temperate zones, and the protection of these river-floodplain systems is an international conservation priority. However, the mechanisms that drive the creation and maintenance of multiple channels, i.e. anabranches, are not well understood, particularly for lowland rivers, making it challenging to identify effective management strategies...
August 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805708/correlation-of-leukocyte-telomere-length-measurement-methods-in-patients-with-dyskeratosis-congenita-and-in-their-unaffected-relatives
#2
Payal P Khincha, Casey L Dagnall, Belynda Hicks, Kristine Jones, Abraham Aviv, Masayuki Kimura, Hormuzd Katki, Geraldine Aubert, Neelam Giri, Blanche P Alter, Sharon A Savage, Shahinaz M Gadalla
Several methods have been employed to measure telomere length (TL) in human studies. It has been difficult to directly compare the results from these studies because of differences in the laboratory techniques and output parameters. We compared TL measurements (TLMs) by the three most commonly used methods, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), flow cytometry with fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow FISH) and Southern blot, in a cohort of patients with the telomere biology disorder dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and in their unaffected relatives (controls)...
August 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803200/ecological-state-of-a-mountain-river-before-and-after-a-large-flood-implications-for-river-status-assessment
#3
Hanna Hajdukiewicz, Bartłomiej Wyżga, Antoni Amirowicz, Paweł Oglęcki, Artur Radecki-Pawlik, Joanna Zawiejska, Paweł Mikuś
Assessment of the ecological status of rivers is key to monitoring the achievement of the environmental goal of the EU Water Framework Directive and the success of restoration projects. In summer of 2009 and 2010, repeated assessments of physical habitat conditions and of fish and benthic invertebrate communities were performed at low-flow conditions in 10 unmanaged and 10 channelized cross-sections of the Biała River, Polish Carpathians. Between the two surveys, an 80-year flood occurred, significantly affecting habitat characteristics and river communities...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802893/complex-mixtures-of-dissolved-pesticides-show-potential-aquatic-toxicity-in-a-synoptic-study-of-midwestern-u-s-streams
#4
Lisa H Nowell, Patrick W Moran, Travis S Schmidt, Julia E Norman, Naomi Nakagaki, Megan E Shoda, Barbara J Mahler, Peter C Van Metre, Wesley W Stone, Mark W Sandstrom, Michelle L Hladik
Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May-August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site...
August 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802108/do-environmental-factors-affect-male-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas-response-to-estrone-part-2-temperature-and-food-availability
#5
N W Shappell, D J Feifarek, D C Rearick, S E Bartell, H L Schoenfuss
Fish are subject to constantly changing environmental conditions and food availability, factors that may impact their response to endocrine disruptors (EDs). This may, in part, explain outcome discrepancies between field studies and laboratory exposures to EDs. This study assessed whether standard laboratory conditions for fish exposures adequately represent effects of ED exposure at two environmentally realistic temperatures. The impact of temperature and food availability on male fathead minnow response to estrone (E1) exposure was studied in two experiments (3×2×2 factorial design) with three E1 concentrations (range 0-135ng/L); two temperatures (18°C and 26°C, the latter the prescribed laboratory temperature), and two feeding treatments (full fed vs...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791680/immigrant-reproductive-dysfunction-facilitates-ecological-speciation
#6
Ola Svensson, Johanna Gräns, Malin C Celander, Jonathan Havenhand, Erica H Leder, Kai Lindström, Sofie Schöld, Cock van Oosterhout, Charlotta Kvarnemo
The distributions of species are not only determined by where they can survive - they must also be able to reproduce. Although immigrant inviability is a well-established concept, the fact that immigrants also need to be able to effectively reproduce in foreign environments has not been fully appreciated in the study of adaptive divergence and speciation. Fertilization and reproduction are sensitive life history stages that could be detrimentally affected for immigrants in non-native habitats. We propose that 'immigrant reproductive dysfunction' is a hitherto overlooked aspect of reproductive isolation caused by natural selection on immigrants...
August 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781958/highly-sensitive-protein-detection-by-biospecific-afm-based-fishing-with-pulsed-electrical-stimulation
#7
Tatyana O Pleshakova, Kristina A Malsagova, Anna L Kaysheva, Arthur T Kopylov, Vadim Yu Tatur, Vadim S Ziborov, Sergey L Kanashenko, Rafael A Galiullin, Yuri D Ivanov
We report here the highly sensitive detection of protein in solution at concentrations from 10(-15) to 10(-18) m using the combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and mass spectrometry. Biospecific detection of biotinylated bovine serum albumin was carried out by fishing out the protein onto the surface of AFM chips with immobilized avidin, which determined the specificity of the analysis. Electrical stimulation was applied to enhance the fishing efficiency. A high sensitivity of detection was achieved by application of nanosecond electric pulses to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite placed under the AFM chip...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770087/cryptic-lineage-divergence-in-marine-environments-genetic-differentiation-at-multiple-spatial-and-temporal-scales-in-the-widespread-intertidal-goby-gobiosoma%C3%A2-bosc
#8
Borja Milá, James L Van Tassell, Jatziri A Calderón, Lukas Rüber, Rafael Zardoya
The adaptive radiation of the seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae: Gobiosomatini) represents a classic example of how ecological specialization and larval retention can drive speciation through local adaptation. However, geographically widespread and phenotypically uniform species also do occur within Gobiosomatini. This lack of phenotypic variation across large geographic areas could be due to recent colonization, widespread gene flow, or stabilizing selection acting across environmental gradients. We use a phylogeographic approach to test these alternative hypotheses in the naked goby Gobiosoma bosc, a widespread and phenotypically invariable intertidal fish found along the Atlantic Coast of North America...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766116/sardine-oil-loaded-vanillic-acid-grafted-chitosan-microparticles-a-new-functional-food-ingredient-attenuates-myocardial-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-cardiomyoblast-cell-lines-h9c2
#9
K V Vishnu, K K Ajeesh Kumar, Niladri S Chatterjee, R G K Lekshmi, P R Sreerekha, Suseela Mathew, C N Ravishankar
Fish oil has been widely recognized as an excellent dietary source of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA. However, it can undergo oxidation easily resulting in the formation of toxic off flavor compounds such as hydroperoxides. These compounds adversely affect the nutritional quality and may induce several stress reactions in body. To solve this problem, a new antioxidant bio-material, vanillic acid-grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch), was synthesized and used as a wall material for microencapsulation of fish oil...
August 2, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764408/information-theory-and-robotics-meet-to-study-predator-prey-interactions
#10
Daniele Neri, Tommaso Ruberto, Gabrielle Cord-Cruz, Maurizio Porfiri
Transfer entropy holds promise to advance our understanding of animal behavior, by affording the identification of causal relationships that underlie animal interactions. A critical step toward the reliable implementation of this powerful information-theoretic concept entails the design of experiments in which causal relationships could be systematically controlled. Here, we put forward a robotics-based experimental approach to test the validity of transfer entropy in the study of predator-prey interactions...
July 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762176/a-salty-landscape-of-fear-responses-of-fish-and-zooplankton-to-freshwater-salinization-and-predatory-stress
#11
William D Hintz, Rick A Relyea
Predator-prey relationships are altered by anthropogenic contaminants. Road salt is a widespread contaminant among freshwater ecosystems, yet a relatively understudied subject in community ecology. Unknown is whether road salt salinization interacts with predatory stress to influence the growth, behavior, or reproduction of freshwater organisms. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zooplankton (Daphnia pulex), we exposed them to variable levels of road salt (NaCl) crossed with the presence or absence of alarm cues or kairomones...
July 31, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760441/retinal-metabolism-a-comparative-look-at-energetics-in-the-retina
#12
REVIEW
Michael W Country
The retina is part of the central nervous system, and shares the characteristically high metabolism of the brain. The high energy demand of the retina is normally matched with a large supply of metabolites. When supply does not equal demand (e.g. if retinal blood flow is impaired), retinal neurons are at risk of excitotoxic cell death and vision is impaired or lost. Understanding the energetic budget of the retina is therefore crucial for understanding the pathology and treatment of retinal disease. In this minireview I give an overview of the energetics of the retina, with a focus on lessons learnt from comparative physiology...
July 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759763/trends-in-biomarkers-biotic-indices-and-fish-population-size-revealed-contrasting-long-term-effects-of-recycled-water-on-the-ecological-status-of-a-mediterranean-river
#13
Nicole Colin, Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Mario Monroy, Martí Ortega-Ribera, Mireia Llorente, Adolfo de Sostoa
Recycled water is important for maintaining river flow in semi-arid regions. However, it has ecological risk, as suggested by comparison of habitat and white and red blood cell count in two wild fish species (Barbus meridionalis and Squalius laietanus) before and after an input of recycled water in Ripoll River (NE Spain) in 2009. Due to the lack of normal ranges for blood variables in wild fish, we surveyed seasonally the same river reaches in 2013 to test if blood alterations from 2009 compromised the viability of the fish populations...
July 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750285/modelling-food-web-mediated-effects-of-hydrological-variability-and-environmental-flows
#14
REVIEW
Barbara J Robson, Rebecca E Lester, Darren S Baldwin, Nicholas R Bond, Romain Drouart, Robert J Rolls, Darren S Ryder, Ross M Thompson
Environmental flows are designed to enhance aquatic ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms; however, to date most attention has been paid to the effects on habitat quality and life-history triggers, especially for fish and vegetation. The effects of environmental flows on food webs have so far received little attention, despite food-web thinking being fundamental to understanding of river ecosystems. Understanding environmental flows in a food-web context can help scientists and policy-makers better understand and manage outcomes of flow alteration and restoration...
July 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747533/species-integrity-enhanced-by-a-predation-cost-to-hybrids-in-the-wild
#15
P Anders Nilsson, Kaj Hulthén, Ben B Chapman, Lars-Anders Hansson, Jakob Brodersen, Henrik Baktoft, Jerker Vinterstare, Christer Brönmark, Christian Skov
Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre- and/or post-zygotic reproductive barriers. Ecological selection, including predation, is often presumed to contribute to reduced hybrid fitness, but field evidence for a predation cost to hybridization remains elusive...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737485/risk-taking-during-feeding-between-and-within-population-variation-and-repeatability-across-contexts-among-wild-zebrafish
#16
Tamal Roy, Rohitashva Shukla, Anuradha Bhat
Behavioral responses are shaped by a complex interplay of extrinsic factors, such as predation and flow conditions, and intrinsic properties such as metabolic state. We investigated variations in boldness among four populations of zebrafish collected from widely varying habitat conditions across India. We measured feeding latencies of fish in four contexts: in a novel environment; in an environment with refuge and predators; in the presence of a shoal; and in the presence of a shoal and predators. The population from a high-flow and high-predation habitat was significantly bolder than populations from low-predation and low-flow/stagnant habitats...
July 24, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737155/dawestrema-cycloancistrium-monogenea-from-the-head-pores-of-arapaimas
#17
Cláudia Portes Santos, Maralina Torres da Silva, Franti Ek Moravec
Arapaima gigas is one of the main cultured fish species in South America, and monogenean parasites of this species cause large economic losses to fish farmers. During surveys of the parasites of cultured arapaimas from Mexiana Island in the Amazon River Delta, Rio Branco, in northwestern Brazilian Amazonia, and Yurimaguas, Peru, the monogenean Dawestrema cycloancistrium was found in the gills of A. gigas as well as in previously unreported sites, i.e. the head pores and chambers. The aim of this study was to investigate the transmission route of this parasite and its geographical distribution as well as to describe its morphology as observed by light and confocal imaging...
July 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733994/seasonal-recruitment-and-survival-strategies-of-palisada-cervicornis-comb-nov-ceramiales-rhodophyta-in-coral-reefs
#18
Ligia Collado-Vides, Alain Duran, Elizabeth Armenis, Valéria Cassano, Deron Burkepile, Andrew A Shantz, Laura Palma, Jhoana Díaz-Larrea, Abel Sentíes, Mutue Toyota Fujii
As marine tropical ecosystems deteriorate and lose biodiversity, their communities are shifting to being dominated by a few species, altering ecosystem's functioning and services. Macroalgae are becoming dominant on coral reefs, and are frequently observed outcompeting corals. Turf algal assemblages are the base of energy flow in these systems and one of the most abundant types of macroalgae on coral reefs, but little is known about their biology and diversity. Through molecular and morphological analyses, we identified the turf-forming species Laurencia cervicornis, and by studying seasonal recruitment and the impact of herbivorous fishes on its abundance, we describe its survival strategy...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731541/demography-and-genome-divergence-of-lake-and-stream-populations-of-an-east-african-cichlid-fish
#19
Bernd Egger, Marius Rösti, Astrid Böhne, Olivia Roth, Walter Salzburger
Disentangling the processes and mechanisms underlying divergent selection in diversification is facilitated by the comparative study of replicate population pairs that have diverged along a similar environmental gradient. Such a setting is realized in a cichlid fish from southern Lake Tanganyika, Astatotilapia burtoni, which occurs both within the lake proper as well as in various affluent rivers. Previous studies demonstrated that independent lake and stream populations show respectively similar adaptations to the two habitat regimes...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730668/recurrent-triploid-digynic-conceptions-and-mature-ovarian-teratomas-are-they-different-manifestations-of-the-same-genetic-defect
#20
Yassemine Khawajkie, William Buckett, Ngoc Minh Phuong Nguyen, Nawel Mechtouf, Asangla Ao, Jocelyne Arseneau, Rima Slim
Miscarriages affect 15% of clinically recognized pregnancies. Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined by the occurrence of at least two consecutive pregnancy losses and affects 1% to 5% of couples trying to conceive. In an attempt to categorize patients with RM and identify the mechanisms leading to their miscarriages, we first used flow cytometry to assess the ploidy of 93 products of conception (POCs) from 53 patients with RM (≥ 3 miscarriages). We identified a single patient with four triploid POCs. We then used fluorescent in situ hybridization to confirm the triploidies and fluorescent microsatellite genotyping with distal and pericentromeric markers to determine their parental origin and the mechanisms leading to their formation...
July 21, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
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