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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139216/patterns-and-drivers-of-fish-extirpations-in-rivers-of-the-american-southwest-and-southeast
#1
John S Kominoski, Albert Ruhí, Megan M Hagler, Kelly Petersen, John L Sabo, Tushar Sinha, Arumugam Sankarasubramanian, Julian D Olden
Effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity requires spatially explicit investigations of how dams and hydroclimatic alterations among climate regions may interact to drive species to extinction. We investigated how dams and hydroclimatic alterations interact with species ecological and life history traits to influence past extirpation probabilities of native freshwater fishes in the Upper and Lower Colorado River (CR), Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT), and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) basins...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128774/the-effect-of-hydraulic-retention-time-in-onsite-wastewater-treatment-and-removal-of-pharmaceuticals-hormones-and-phenolic-utility-substances
#2
H Ejhed, J Fång, K Hansen, L Graae, M Rahmberg, J Magnér, E Dorgeloh, G Plaza
Micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, hormones and phenolic utility chemicals in sewage water are considered to be an emerging problem because of increased use and observed adverse effects in the environment. The study provides knowledge on the removal efficiency of micropollutants with a range of physical and chemical properties in three commercially available onsite wastewater treatment facilities (OWTFs), tested on influent wastewater collected from 2500 person equivalents in Bildchen, Germany. A longer hydraulic retention time would in theory be expected to have a positive effect, and this study presents results for three different OWTFs in full-scale comparable tests under natural conditions...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116415/a-microfluidic-device-for-quantitative-investigation-of-zebrafish-larvae-s-rheotaxis
#3
Amir Reza Peimani, Georg Zoidl, Pouya Rezai
Zebrafish is a model organism for various sensory-motor biological studies. Rheotaxis, or the ability of zebrafish to orient and swim against the water stream, is a common behavior that involves multiple sensory-motor processes such as their lateral line and visual systems. Due to the lack of a controllable and easy-to-use assay, zebrafish rheotaxis at larval stages is not well-understood. In this paper, we report a microfluidic device that can be used to apply the flow stimulus precisely and repeatedly along the longitudinal axis of individual zebrafish larvae to study their coaxial rheotaxis...
November 7, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114261/low-genetic-diversity-and-structuring-of-the-arapaima-osteoglossiformes-arapaimidae-population-of-the-araguaia-tocantins-basin
#4
Carla A Vitorino, Fabrícia Nogueira, Issakar L Souza, Juliana Araripe, Paulo C Venere
The arapaima, Arapaima gigas, is a fish whose populations are threatened by both overfishing and the ongoing destruction of its natural habitats. In the Amazon basin, varying levels of population structure have been found in A. gigas, although no data are available on the genetic diversity or structure of the populations found in the Araguaia-Tocantins basin, which has a topographic profile, hydrological regime, and history of fishing quite distinct from those of the Amazon. In this context, microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and connectivity of five wild A...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110100/gills-as-morphological-biomarkers-in-extensive-and-intensive-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum-1792-production-technologies
#5
Emilia Strzyżewska-Worotyńska, Józef Szarek, Izabella Babińska, Dominika Gulda
We investigated environmental impacts on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at fish farms with either extensive technology, in a flow-through system (FTS, n = 3), or intensive technology, in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS, n = 3). All fish were fed the same rations. Fish were caught in spring and autumn (body mass, 501-750 g) from these six farms. We performed macroscopic (intact fish) and microscopic (gills stained with haematoxylin/eosin) examinations. Lesions were categorised based on the type and location of structural abnormalities...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098994/correlation-of-cutaneous-sensitivity-and-cytokine-response-in-children-with-asthma
#6
Meenu Singh, Amit Agarwal, Bishnupada Chatterjee, Anil Chauhan, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Nandini Paul
BACKGROUND: Food allergy occurs in a significant portion of pediatric asthma. Various cells and their mediators/cytokines play a pivotal role in orchestrating the airway inflammatory response in asthma. OBJECTIVE: To study the cutaneous hypersensitivity, Th1, Th2, and Th17 response of pediatric population with asthma and genetic predisposition to atopy, by determining total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level in response to various food allergens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty asthmatic children with a history of worsening symptoms by various food allergens (study group) and twenty healthy children (control group) were included...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092091/impact-of-flow-diversion-by-run-of-river-dams-on-american-dipper-diet-and-mercury-exposure
#7
Veronica M Silverthorn, Christine A Bishop, Timothy Jardine, John E Elliott, Christy A Morrissey
Run-of-river dams produce lower greenhouse gas emissions than large hydropower projects, but there is a paucity of research on their potential ecotoxicological impacts through disruption of natural flow regimes. We used stable isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(34) S) to reconstruct diet and trace methylmercury in a predatory river-resident passerine, the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), at 7 regulated and 6 free-flowing mountain streams in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Assimilated diets were comparable among regulated and unregulated streams, dominated by benthic macroinvertebrates and resident freshwater fish, with negligible contributions from anadromous Pacific salmon...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091835/biomarker-and-histopathological-responses-of-lates-calcarifer-on-exposure-to-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-chlorpyrifos
#8
S R Marigoudar, D Mohan, A Nagarjuna, P Karthikeyan
Bioassay tests on fingerlings (3.0 ± 0.5cm) of euryhyaline fish Lates calcarifer were conducted using customized continuous flow through system and derived 96h acute toxicity value for chlorpyrifos (CPF). Based on the measured concentration of CPF mean median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.07µg/l with lower and upper 95% confidence limits (0.95 and 1.19µg/l). No observed Effect Concentration (NOEC), Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and chronic values were found to be 0.4, 0.09 and 0.07µg/l respectively...
October 29, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084212/a-method-to-quantify-mechanobiologic-forces-during-zebrafish-cardiac-development-using-4-d-light-sheet-imaging-and-computational-modeling
#9
Vijay Vedula, Juhyun Lee, Hao Xu, C-C Jay Kuo, Tzung K Hsiai, Alison L Marsden
Blood flow and mechanical forces in the ventricle are implicated in cardiac development and trabeculation. However, the mechanisms of mechanotransduction remain elusive. This is due in part to the challenges associated with accurately quantifying mechanical forces in the developing heart. We present a novel computational framework to simulate cardiac hemodynamics in developing zebrafish embryos by coupling 4-D light sheet imaging with a stabilized finite element flow solver, and extract time-dependent mechanical stimuli data...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082344/egg-development-and-larvae-and-juveniles-morphology-of-carp-cyprinus-carpio-in-korean
#10
Jae Min Park, Seong Jun Mun, Hu Sun Yim, Kyeong Ho Han
This study was conducted to observe egg and larvae morphological development of carp to obtain basic data for resource conservation and taxonomic research. Brood carp used in the research (total length 67.3-75.5 cm, average 71.0±3.45 cm) were bred in a circular rearing aquarium (600×300×100 cm) using a running water system from January to July, 2015. Breeding water temperature was maintained at 23.0-25.0℃(average 24.0℃). Fertilized carp eggs were translucent and globular, and their size was 1.75-1.89 mm (average 1...
September 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077219/avoidance-threshold-to-oil-water-soluble-fraction-by-a-juvenile-marine-teleost-fish
#11
Guy Claireaux, Pierre QuÉAu, Stefano Marras, StÉPhane Le Floch, Anthony P Farrell, Annabelle Nicolas-Kopec, Philippe Lemaire, Paolo Domenici
When oil spills occur, behavior is the first line of defense for a fish to avoid being contaminated. Here, we determined the avoidance threshold of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of oil using a dual flow choice box. Our experiment revealed that a plume of 20%-diluted WSF (total PAH concentration: 8.54 μg L(-1) ) triggered a significant avoidance response that was detected within 7.5 minutes of introducing WSF-contaminated water in the experimental set-up. However, the ecological relevance of seabass capacity to detect and avoid WSF remains to be established...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075852/responses-of-medullary-lateral-line-units-of-the-rudd-scardinius-erythrophthalmus-and-the-nase-chondrostoma-nasus-to-vortex-streets
#12
Jan Winkelnkemper, Simon Kranz, Horst Bleckmann
Fish use their mechanosensory lateral line amongst others for the detection of vortices shed by an upstream object and/or for the detection of vortices caused by the tail fin movements of another fish. Thus, vortices are one type of hydrodynamic stimuli to which fish are exposed in their natural environment. We investigated the responses of medullary lateral line units of common rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, and common nase, Chondrostoma nasus (Cyprinidae), to water flow (9.5-13.3 cm(-1)) that contained vortices (a Kármán vortex street) shed by an upstream cylinder (diameter 2 cm)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075176/retinal-and-cortical-blood-flow-dynamics-following-systemic-blood-neural-barrier-disruption
#13
Flora Hui, Christine T O Nguyen, Zheng He, Algis J Vingrys, Rachel Gurrell, Rebecca L Fish, Bang V Bui
To consider whether imaging retinal vasculature may be used as a marker for cortical vessels, we compared fluorescein angiography flow dynamics before and after pharmacological disruption of blood-neural barriers. Sodium fluorescein (1%, 200 μl/kg) was intravenously delivered in anesthetized adult Long Evans rats (n = 44, brain = 18, retina = 26). In the brain cohort, a cranial window was created to allow direct visualization of surface cortical vessels. Video fluorescein angiography was captured using a rodent retinal camera at 30 frames/second and fluorescence intensity profiles were evaluated for the time to reach 50% brightness (half-rise), 50% decay (half-fall), and the plateau level of remnant fluorescence (offset, %)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072702/a-novel-lnc-pcf-promotes-the-proliferation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activated-epithelial-cells-by-targeting-mir-344a-5p-to-regulate-map3k11-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
Huizhu Liu, Bingsi Wang, Jinjin Zhang, Songzi Zhang, Youlei Wang, Jie Zhang, Changjun Lv, Xiaodong Song
Emerging evidence suggests that microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) play important roles in disease development. However, the mechanism underlying mRNA interaction with miRNA and lncRNA in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unknown. This study presents a novel lnc-PCF that promotes the proliferation of TGF-β1-activated epithelial cells through the regulation of map3k11 by directly targeting miR-344a-5p during pulmonary fibrogenesis. Bioinformatics and in vitro translation assay were performed to confirm whether or not lnc-PCF is an actual lncRNA...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053706/solea-senegalensis-sperm-cryopreservation-new-insights-on-sperm-quality
#15
Marta F Riesco, Catarina Oliveira, Florbela Soares, Paulo J Gavaia, María T Dinis, Elsa Cabrita
Cryopreservation of Senegalese sole sperm can represent an alternative to overcome some reproductive problems of this species. However, it is important to guarantee the safe use of cryopreserved sperm by selecting an appropriate protocol according to a high demand quality need to be ensured. It has been demonstrated that traditional assays such as motility and viability do not provide enough information to identify specific damage caused by cryopreservation process (freezing and thawing). Specific tests, including lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, should be performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052211/technical-review-cytogenetic-tools-for-studying-mitotic-chromosomes
#16
Václaclav Bačovský, Roman Hobza, Boris Vyskot
Significant advances in chromosome preparation and other techniques have greatly increased the potential of plant cytogenetics in recent years. Increase in longitudinal resolution using DNA extended fibers as well as new developments in imaging and signal amplification technologies have enhanced the ability of FISH to detect small gene targets. The combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization with immunocytochemistry allows the investigation of cell events, chromosomal rearrangements and chromatin features typical for plant nuclei...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050153/-study-on-the-differentiation-of-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-chondrocytes-induced-by-tgf-beta-3
#17
D B Liu, X S Han, W L Huang, J Deng, R F She
Objective: To explore the methods for the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) into chondrocytes induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 3 in vitro, and search for a reliable seed cell for the regeneration and repair of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis. Methods: SD rat femoral and tibial BMMSCs were cultured by the whole bone marrow adherent method, and then the purity was identified by flow cytometry. P3 generation cells were induced and differentiated into chondrocytes by the induction of differentiation medium containing TGF-beta 3, and cell chondrogenic differentiation ability at different induction time points was detected...
September 26, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048813/-determination-of-three-tranquillizer-residues-in-animal-foods-by-quechers-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#18
You Zou, Linzhi Shao, Simin Chen, Shaolun Ouyang, Feng Lin
A method for simultaneous determination of chlorpromazine, diazepam and metolazone residues in porcine muscle, fish, liver and kidney was developed using QuEChERS and HPLC-MS/MS technique. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and cleaned up with C18, N-propylethylendiamine (PSA) and NH2 sorbents after using Na2SO4 as dehydrating agent. The analytes were separated by a special C18 column, Atlantis T3, and gradiently eluted with a mixed solution of 5 mmol/L formic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0...
August 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043783/marine-mammal-microbiota-yields-novel-antibiotic-with-potent-activity-against-clostridium-difficile
#19
Jessica L Ochoa, Laura M Sanchez, Byoung-Mo Koo, Jennifer S Doherty, Manohary Rajendram, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Carol A Gross, Roger G Linington
The recent explosion of research on the microbiota has highlighted the important interplay between commensal microorganisms and the health of their cognate hosts. Metabolites isolated from commensal bacteria have been demonstrated to possess a range of antimicrobial activities, and it is widely believed that some of these metabolites modulate host behavior, affecting predisposition to disease and pathogen invasion. Our access to the local marine mammal stranding network and previous successes in mining the fish microbiota poised us to test the hypothesis that the marine mammal microbiota is a novel source of commensal bacteria-produced bioactive metabolites...
October 18, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038311/integration-of-swimming-kinematics-and-ram-suspension-feeding-in-a-model-american-paddlefish-polyodon-spathula
#20
Grant E Haines, S Laurie Sanderson
Ram suspension-feeding fishes swim with an open mouth to force water through the oral cavity and extract prey items that are too small to be pursued individually. Recent research has indicated that, rather than using a dead-end mechanical sieve, American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula Walbaum) employ vortical cross-step filtration. In this filtration mechanism, vortical flow that is generated posterior to the branchial arches organizes crossflow filtration processes into a spatial structure across the gill rakers...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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