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Neurodevelopmental disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#1
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915901/possible-effects-of-an-early-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-patients-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-the-state-of-art
#2
REVIEW
Stefano Stagi, Perla Scalini, Giovanni Farello, Alberto Verrotti
Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a relatively uncommon and heterogeneous endocrine disorder presenting in childhood with short stature. However, during the neonatal period, the metabolic effects of GHD may to require prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. An increasing amount of data suggests the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment of GHD because of its auxological, metabolic, and neurodevelopmental features with respect to the patients diagnosed and treated later in life...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915839/risk-of-mortality-among-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-or-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-their-first-degree-relatives-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#3
Ferrán Catalá-López, Brian Hutton, Matthew J Page, Manuel Ridao, Jane A Driver, Adolfo Alonso-Arroyo, Jaume Forés-Martos, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Eduard Vieta, Alfonso Valencia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders that may persist into adulthood. ASD and ADHD tend to run in families and may have a significant negative impact on the health and longevity of those with the disorder and their relatives. The aim of this study will be to analyze the risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with ASD or ADHD and their first-degree relatives. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies...
September 15, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915148/adult-fmr1-knockout-mice-present-with-deficiencies-in-hippocampal-interleukin-6-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-expression
#4
Samantha L Hodges, Suzanne O Nolan, Joseph H Taube, Joaquin N Lugo
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a single genetic mutation in the FMR1 gene. Mutations in the FMR1 gene are the largest monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and thus both disorders share many of the same cognitive and behavioral impairments. There is increasing evidence suggesting that dysregulated immune responses play a role in the pathophysiology of ASD; however, the association between FXS and altered immunity requires further investigation. This study examined whether Fmr1 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice on a FVB/NJ background strain had altered cytokine expression at baseline levels in the hippocampus...
September 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913834/which-children-and-young-people-are-excluded-from-school-findings-from-a-large-british-birth-cohort-study-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of-parents-and-children-alspac
#5
A Paget, C Parker, J Heron, S Logan, W Henley, A Emond, T Ford
BACKGROUND: Exclusion from school is increasingly recognized as pertinent to child health. National educational data reveal that boys, children who are looked-after, living in poverty, have special educational needs, or from certain ethnic minorities, are disproportionately excluded from school. As population-based data on the wider characteristics of excluded children are scarce, we aimed to describe predictors of school exclusion in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
September 14, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912494/oxytocin-receptor-polymorphisms-are-differentially-associated-with-social-abilities-across-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#6
Danielle A Baribeau, Annie Dupuis, Tara A Paton, Stephen W Scherer, Russell J Schachar, Paul D Arnold, Peter Szatmari, Rob Nicolson, Stelios Georgiades, Jennifer Crosbie, Jessica Brian, Alana Iaboni, Jason Lerch, Evdokia Anagnostou
Oxytocin is a pituitary neuropeptide that affects social behaviour. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) have been shown to explain some variability in social abilities in control populations. Whether these variants similarly contribute to the severity of social deficits experienced by children with neurodevelopmental disorders is unclear. Social abilities were assessed in a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 341) or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n = 276) using two established social measures...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912422/children-and-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-cannot-move-to-the-beat
#7
Frédéric Puyjarinet, Valentin Bégel, Régis Lopez, Delphine Dellacherie, Simone Dalla Bella
Children and adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) fail in simple tasks like telling whether two sounds have different durations, or in reproducing single durations. The deficit is linked to poor reading, attention, and language skills. Here we demonstrate that these timing distortions emerge also when tracking the beat of rhythmic sounds in perceptual and sensorimotor tasks. This contrasts with the common observation that durations are better perceived and produced when embedded in rhythmic stimuli...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911050/motor-abnormalities-from-neurodevelopmental-to-neurodegenerative-through-functional-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#8
Victor Peralta, Manuel J Cuesta
Background: Motor abnormalities (MAs) of severe mental disorders have been traditionally neglected both in clinical practice and research, although they are an increasing focus of attention because of their clinical and neurobiological relevance. For historical reasons, most of the literature on MAs has been focused to a great extent on schizophrenia, and as a consequence their prevalence and featural properties in other psychiatric or neuropsychiatric disorders are poorly known. In this article, we evaluated the extent to which catatonic, extrapyramidal and neurological soft signs, and their associated clinical features, are present transdiagnostically...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910526/genetic-rodent-models-of-brain-disorders-perspectives-on-experimental-approaches-and-therapeutic-strategies
#9
Christopher M McGraw, Christopher S Ward, Rodney C Samaco
Neurobehavioral disorders comprised of neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disorders together represent leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Despite significant academic research and industry efforts to elucidate the disease mechanisms operative in these disorders and to develop mechanism-based therapies, our understanding remains incomplete and our access to tractable therapeutic interventions severely limited. The magnitude of these short-comings can be measured by the growing list of disappointing clinical trials based on initially promising compounds identified in genetic animal models...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910243/fluoride-exposure-and-reported-learning-disability-diagnosis-among-canadian-children-implications-for-community-water-fluoridation
#10
Amanda M Barberio, Carlos Quiñonez, F Shaun Hosein, Lindsay McLaren
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have connected increased fluoride exposure with increased risk of neurodevelopmental-related outcomes, such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and lower IQ in children. Our primary objective was to examine the association between fluoride exposure and reported diagnosis of a learning disability among a population-based sample of Canadian children aged 3-12 years. METHODS: We analyzed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905997/children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-and-disabilities-a-population-based-study-of-healthcare-service-utilization-using-administrative-data
#11
Rubab G Arim, Anton R Miller, Anne Guèvremont, Lucyna M Lach, Jamie C Brehaut, Dafna E Kohen
AIM: The aim of this study was to identify children with neurodevelopmental disorders and disabilities (NDD/D) and compare their healthcare service utilization to children without NDD/D using provincial linked administrative data. METHOD: The sample included children aged 6 to 10 years (n=183 041), who were registered with the British Columbia Medical Services Plan. Diagnostic information was used for the identification and classification of NDD/D in six functional domains...
September 14, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903621/virtual-environments-as-an-assessment-modality-with-pediatric-asd-populations-a-brief-report
#12
Tyler C Duffield, Thomas D Parsons, Allisen Landry, Shaza Karam, Tiffany Otero, Sarah Mastel, Trevor A Hall
Virtual environments (VEs) have demonstrated promise as a neuropsychological assessment modality and may be well suited for the evaluation of children suspected of having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some recent studies indicate their potential for enhancing reliability, ecologically validity, and sensitivity over traditional neuropsychological evaluation measures. Although research using VEs with ASD is increasing to the degree that several reviews of the literature have been conducted, the reviews to date lack rigor and are not necessarily specific to cognitive or neuropsychological assessment as many focus on intervention...
September 13, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902840/maternal-gut-bacteria-promote-neurodevelopmental-abnormalities-in-mouse-offspring
#13
Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Yeong Shin Yim, Soyoung Ha, Koji Atarashi, Tze Guan Tan, Randy S Longman, Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman, Gloria B Choi, Jun R Huh
Maternal immune activation (MIA) contributes to behavioural abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in both primate and rodent offspring. In humans, epidemiological studies suggest that exposure of fetuses to maternal inflammation increases the likelihood of developing autism spectrum disorder. In pregnant mice, interleukin-17a (IL-17a) produced by T helper 17 (TH17) cells (CD4(+) T helper effector cells involved in multiple inflammatory conditions) induces behavioural and cortical abnormalities in the offspring exposed to MIA...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902835/reversing-behavioural-abnormalities-in-mice-exposed-to-maternal-inflammation
#14
Yeong Shin Yim, Ashley Park, Janet Berrios, Mathieu Lafourcade, Leila M Pascual, Natalie Soares, Joo Yeon Kim, Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Ari Waisman, Dan R Littman, Ian R Wickersham, Mark T Harnett, Jun R Huh, Gloria B Choi
Viral infection during pregnancy is correlated with increased frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders, and this is studied in mice prenatally subjected to maternal immune activation (MIA). We previously showed that maternal T helper 17 cells promote the development of cortical and behavioural abnormalities in MIA-affected offspring. Here we show that cortical abnormalities are preferentially localized to a region encompassing the dysgranular zone of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1DZ). Moreover, activation of pyramidal neurons in this cortical region was sufficient to induce MIA-associated behavioural phenotypes in wild-type animals, whereas reduction in neural activity rescued the behavioural abnormalities in MIA-affected offspring...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902714/altered-subcellular-localization-of-fragile-x-mental-retardation-signaling-partners-and-targets-in-superior-frontal-cortex-of-individuals-with-schizophrenia
#15
S Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Paul D Thuras
Schizophrenia is a severe, debilitating, neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 1% of the world's population. Recent findings from our laboratory have identified reduced levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and several downstream FMRP targets in superior frontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that altered subcellular expression of FMRP and its signaling partners may explain these changes. In the current study we employed subcellular fractionation and western blotting to determine levels of FMRP, phosphorylated-FMRP as well as selected signaling partners [protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit (PP2AC), p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K), and amyloid-β A4 precursor protein (APP)] in the total homogenate, nuclear, and rough endoplasmic reticulum fractions in superior frontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia versus controls (N=12/group)...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902066/latent-class-analysis-of-adhd-neurodevelopmental-and-mental-health-comorbidities
#16
Benjamin Zablotsky, Matthew D Bramlett, Susanna N Visser, Melissa L Danielson, Stephen J Blumberg
OBJECTIVE: Many children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience co-occurring neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, and those who do often exhibit higher levels of impairment than children with ADHD alone. This study provides a latent class analysis (LCA) approach to categorizing children with ADHD into comorbidity groups, evaluating condition expression and treatment patterns in each group. METHODS: Parent-reported data from a large probability-based national sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome) were used for an LCA to identify groups of children with similar groupings of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric comorbidities among children with current ADHD (n = 2495)...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901728/gaba-type-a-receptor-trafficking-and-the-architecture-of-synaptic-inhibition
#17
REVIEW
Joshua M Lorenz-Guertin, Tija C Jacob
Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABAA R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABAA Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900386/altered-developmental-expression-of-the-astrocyte-secreted-factors-hevin-and-sparc-in-the-fragile-x-mouse-model
#18
Jessica Wallingford, Angela L Scott, Kelly Rodrigues, Laurie C Doering
Astrocyte dysfunction has been indicated in many neurodevelopmental disorders, including Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). FXS is caused by a deficiency in fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP regulates the translation of numerous mRNAs and its loss disturbs the composition of proteins important for dendritic spine and synapse development. Here, we investigated whether the astrocyte-derived factors hevin and SPARC, known to regulate excitatory synapse development, have altered expression in FXS. Specifically, we analyzed the expression of these factors in wild-type (WT) mice and in fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) knock-out (KO) mice that lack FMRP expression...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900061/-microglia-in-brain-development
#19
Masaki Ueno
Microglia, traditionally known as resident immune cells in the brain, have been recently identified as one of the important cell types engaging in the formation and maintenance of neural circuitry, especially during the development. In this review, I describe the diversity of microglial functions revealed in different phases of development, ranging from neurogenesis to circuit formation. In particular, microglia possess dual functions in supporting the survival of neuronal structures or neural cells themselves, and removing excess neural components...
September 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899869/autism-like-behavior-caused-by-deletion-of-vaccinia-related-kinase-3-is-improved-by-trkb-stimulation
#20
Myung-Su Kang, Tae-Yong Choi, Hye Guk Ryu, Dohyun Lee, Seung-Hyun Lee, Se-Young Choi, Kyong-Tai Kim
Vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are multifaceted serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in various aspects of cell signaling, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neuronal development and differentiation. However, the neuronal function of VRK3 is still unknown despite its etiological potential in human autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we report that VRK3-deficient mice exhibit typical symptoms of autism-like behavior, including hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviors, reduced social interaction, and impaired context-dependent spatial memory...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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