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Substance use disorders

Noam Zilberman, Gal Yadid, Yaniv Efrati, Yehuda Neumark, Yuri Rassovsky
Substance-related and behavioral addictions are extremely prevalent and represent a major public health concern. In the ongoing attempt to understand the addictive personality, contradictory results have arisen from studies that have explored personality traits in different addiction populations. The diversity across addiction types suggests that some of these inconsistencies stem from distinct personalities underlying each addiction. The present study compares the personality profiles of several addictions, representing both substance (drugs and alcohol) and behavioral (gambling and sex) subtypes...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Nicolas Hoertel, Hadi Faiz, Guillaume Airagnes, Carlos Blanco, Rachel Pascal De Raykeer, Silvia Franco, Géraldine Ducoutumany, Cédric Lemogne, Frédéric Limosin
BACKGROUND: Heavy drinkers are at high risk for suicide attempt and suicide. Multiple factors, when examined in isolation, have been implicated in the risk of suicide attempt in this population. In this report, we present a comprehensive model of the 3-year risk of suicide attempt in heavy drinkers using a longitudinal nationally representative study, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; wave 1, 2001-2002; wave 2, 2004-2005). METHODS: We used structural equation modeling to simultaneously examine effects of four broad groups of clinical factors previously identified as potential predictors of attempted suicides: 1) alcohol use disorder severity, 2) severity of comorbidity, 3) sociodemographic characteristics and 4) help-seeking for alcohol problems...
March 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Víviam Vargas Barros, Emérita Sátiro Opaleye, Marcelo Demarzo, Sarah Bowen, Daniela Fernández Curado, Helena Hachul, Ana Regina Noto
INTRODUCTION: Dispositional mindfulness can be described as the mental ability to pay attention to the present moment, non-judgmentally. There is evidence of inverse relation between dispositional mindfulness and insomnia and substance use, but as of yet, no studies evaluating the specific association between dispositional mindfulness and the components of hypnotic use disorder. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between dispositional mindfulness and the components of dependence among female chronic hypnotic users...
2018: PloS One
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. Strategies using antioxidants to improve neurological functions after stroke have, thus, gained significant attention. Ocimum basilicum L. is used traditionally to treat CNS disorders. Its antioxidant capacity is well established. Our laboratory has reported protective effects of pre-treatment with O. basilicum in experimental stroke, but its curative (post-treatment) effects in ischemic stroke have not been documented. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of O...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Florian Ferreri, Alexis Bourla, Stephane Mouchabac, Laurent Karila
Background: New technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping , a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence-can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
V Clergue-Duval, E Pot, J Azuar
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) are fully concerned with the care of patients suffering from addiction and must have the support of a specialized network. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of the addict follow-up care by GPs, their use of addictological care facilities and their needs in communicating with specialists. METHODS: Private and salaried GPs working in the 9th, 10th, 18th and 19th districts of Paris were contacted by phone, and a questionnaire was sent to those who agreed to respond...
March 12, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Nickolas Zaller, Sarah Martino, David H Cloud, Erin McCauley, Andrew Heise, David Seal
The United States (US) is in the midst of an epidemic of opioid use; however, overdose mortality disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, more than half of state prisoners and approximately two-thirds of county jail detainees report issues with substance use. Overdose is one of the leading causes of mortality among individuals released from correctional settings. Even though the criminal justice (CJ) system interacts with a disproportionately high number of individuals at risk of opioid use and overdose, few CJ agencies screen for opioid use disorder (OUD)...
February 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Henning Hachtel, Cieran Harries, Stefan Luebbers, James Rp Ogloff
OBJECTIVE: People affected by schizophrenia spectrum disorders are at a higher risk of offending violently. This study aims to investigate risk factors in relation to the peri-diagnostic period and possible predictors of post-diagnostic violence of people diagnosed for the first time in the public mental health system. METHODS: The study compared various risk factors for post-diagnostic violence in patients ( n = 1453) diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
March 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Rebecca M Schwartz, Rehana Rasul, Samantha M Kerath, Alexis R Watson, Wil Lieberman-Cribbin, Bian Liu, Emanuela Taioli
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of displacement due to Hurricane Sandy on mental health outcomes among residents of the greater New York City (NYC) area. DESIGN: Prospective, cross sectional. SETTING: NYC area residents, including Queens, Staten Island, and Long Island. PARTICIPANTS: In a 4.25 year period (June 2012 to September 2016), a convenience sample of 1,615 adult residents from the greater NYC area completed validated measures of hurricane exposure (including displacement), perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as well as indicators of alcohol, illicit substance, and tobacco use...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Reshma Malick
Prevention in the community and at the workplace is a vital component in substance use disorder treatment and management. Mobilizing the community, creating awareness that addiction to substances is a disease, that it is treatable and that treatment is available are all essential. A cost-effective prevention and treatment approach plays a major role in creating drug free communities. Workplace prevention policies to prevent and manage substance use disorders leads to safer work environments, better motivated teams of workers and a productive workforce...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Deepak Jayarajan, Preeti Jacob
Substance use disorders in children and adolescents are a significant cause of concern as they can have long term implications in practically every sphere. The etiological factors that contribute to substance use disorders are complex and the formulation must amalgamate and synthesize all the different factors including the predisposing, perpetuating, precipitating and protective factors in order to plan management. Interventions must stem from this comprehensive formulation and must be child-focused, multidisciplinary, multisystemic, with strong family participation and community involvement...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Prasanthi Nattala, Pratima Murthy, K S Meena
A major goal of long-term management of substance use disorders is to empower recovering individuals in resisting drug use when confronted with real-world high-risk situations (cues). Since opportunities to reproduce and learn from real-life situations are limited in treatment settings, the key is to bring those real-world drug use cues to the treatment setting through vicarious learning. Cue-exposure approaches achieve this by presenting these cues while the usual drug-use response is prevented. This provides opportunity to practice how to deal with the cues before being discharged from the treatment setting...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Gitanjali Narayanan, Shaima Naaz
Recent research points to a shift from categorical diagnoses to a dimensional understanding of psychopathology and mental health disorders. In parallel, there has been a rise in newer psychosocial treatment modalities, which are inherently transdiagnostic. Transdiagnostic approaches are those that identify core vulnerabilities and apply universal principles to therapeutic treatment. As treatment of substance use disorders (SUD) must invariably accommodate such vulnerabilities, clinicians are finding such interventions useful...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Sinu Ezhumalai, D Muralidhar, R Dhanasekarapandian, Bala Shanti Nikketha
Over the past four decades, psychiatric social workers have been conducting group interventions for persons with substance use disorders at NIMHANS. In this article, the authors highlight the brief history of group therapy, differences between group therapy and group work, and purpose and indicators of group therapy. This article sheds light on practical aspects of conducting group interventions for persons with substance use disorders and skills required by the group therapist for conducting the same andbenefits of attending group interventions...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Manju George, Shreemit Maheshwari, Suhas Chandran, Suman S Rao, Manohar J Shivanand, T S Sathyanarayana Rao
Addiction is the term employed not only for excess consumption of substances, but also for problem behaviours like eating disorders, pathological gambling, computer addiction and pathological preoccupation with video games and sexual acts. No clear diagnostic criterion has been established with validity for behavioral addictions. Sexual addiction, including addiction to pornography is not included as a separate entity because of a lack of strong empirical evidence in this area. Different scales can be used for assessment of sexual addiction...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
T S Sathyanarayana Rao, Shreemit Maheshwari, Manju George, Suhas Chandran, Shivanand Manohar, Suman S Rao
Substance abuse and addictive disorders are very common in the community. Patients with addictive disorders frequently experience sexual dysfunctions and chronic use of substances tends to adversely affect all stages of sexual response, in both male and female abusers. An important aspect in the management of sexual dysfunction is psychosocial intervention. In addictive disorders, sexual dysfunction is of high clinical relevance, as it often leads to treatment non adherence and sexual or marital disharmony...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Hargun Ahluwalia, Tanya Anand, L N Suman
Substance abuse is a family disease that adversely impacts both the user and the user's family. The family can act as a risk factor for the development of substance abuse among children and adults. The family can also be involved in therapy to either help the recovery process or prevent substance abuse. Marital and family therapy have been found to be effective in reducing the severity of substance use, lowering marital and family conflict, improving family communication and cohesion as well as effective parenting practices...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
B N Subodh, Nidhi Sharma, Raghav Shah
Management of patients with dual diagnosis (Mental illness and substance use disorders) is a challenge. A lack of improvement in either disorder can lead to a relapse in both. The current consensus opinion favours an integrated approach to management of both the disorders wherein the same team of professionals manages both the disorders in the same setting. The role of pharmacotherapy for such dual diagnosis patients is well established but the non-pharmacological approaches for their management are still evolving...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Jamuna Rajeswaran, Cathyln Niranjana Bennett
Substance use disorders are frequently associated with neuropsychological deficits. A comprehensive assessment of attention, memory, executive functions, language and mental speed is often warranted. Cognitive rehabilitation is a therapy programme designed as an intervention to help people with cognitive, behaviour and emotional deficits. Using systematic approaches such as cognitive retraining and EEG neurofeedback, the individuals are helped to be integrated into society.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Malika Verma, Ajay Vijayakrishnan
Psychoanalytic psychotherapy can afford a viable treatment option for certain carefully chosen patients whose needs go beyond the immediate control of substance use. Though the evidence base specifically for addictions is lacking, an emerging body of evidence has demonstrated good effect in the commonly seen co-morbid conditions such as depression, anxiety and personality pathology.
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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