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Substance use disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351384/association-with-deviant-peers-across-adolescence-subtypes-developmental-patterns-and-long-term-outcomes
#1
Julia Price, Deborah A G Drabick, Ty A Ridenour
Indices of deviant peer group involvement are inconsistent and confound type, frequency, and severity of deviant peer behaviors. These measurement approaches thus obfuscate potential meaningful differences in deviant peer involvement in terms of subtypes, developmental patterns, and long-term outcomes. The current study employed latent class analysis to derive subtypes of deviant peer involvement and examined relations to substance use disorder in adulthood, a common outcome of deviant peer involvement. Youth (76% Caucasian) completed assessments across four time points: ages 10-12 years (Time 1; N = 775, 71% male), 12-14 years (Time 2; n = 649, 72% male), 16 years (Time 3; n = 613, 73% male), and 22 years (Time 4; n = 425, 71% male)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351141/an-exploration-of-emergency-physicians-attitudes-toward-patients-with-substance-use-disorder
#2
Cecelia Kathleen Mendiola, Giorgio Galetto, Michael Fingerhood
OBJECTIVES: Much is known about some healthcare professionals' attitudes toward patients with substance use disorders, but few studies have specifically looked at emergency department (ED) physicians. Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to be people who chronically, frequently use the ED, and thus ED physicians are in a unique position to provide early identification and intervention for people struggling with addiction. The purpose of this study was to understand ED physicians' attitudes toward patients with substance use disorder with the aim of decreasing stigma and improving the care of ED patients with substance use disorder...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351138/the-effect-of-melatonin-upon-postacute-withdrawal-among-males-in-a-residential-treatment-program-m-paws-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#3
Corry D Bondi, Khalid M Kamal, David A Johnson, Paula A Witt-Enderby, Vincent J Giannetti
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effect of melatonin (5 mg) compared with placebo as an adjuvant treatment along with current behavioral and pharmacotherapy for 28 days on weekly self-reported severity of anxiety, depression, stress, and sleep complaints, and also how sleep is affecting daily life in males 18 years of age and older in recovery from substance use at a residential program in south-western Pennsylvania. BACKGROUND: Individuals in recovery experience a variety of symptoms including, but are not limited to, anxiety, depression, sleep difficulties, and stress...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346701/identifying-prevalence-and-characteristics-of-behavioral-health-education-in-family-medicine-clerkships-a-cera-study
#4
Mario P DeMarco, Renée M Betancourt, Kelly M Everard, Kent D W Bream
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many patients with behavioral health disorders do not seek or receive adequate care for their conditions. Among those that do, most will receive care in a primary care setting. To best meet this need, clinicians will need to demonstrate proficiency of behavioral health skills and evidence-based practices. We sought to explore the degree to which these skills are being taught in family medicine clerkships. METHODS: The Council of Academic Family Medicine's (CAFM) Educational Research Alliance (CERA) 2016 survey of clerkship directors (CDs) was sent to 141 CDs at US and Canadian medical schools with a required family medicine run course...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345992/the-effect-of-patient-navigation-on-the-likelihood-of-engagement-in-clinical-care-for-hiv-infected-individuals-leaving-jail
#5
Janet J Myers, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Kimberly A Koester, Mark Morewitz, Rebecca Packard, Kate Monico Klein, Milton Estes, Brie Williams, Alissa Riker, Jacqueline Tulsky
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of patient navigation-enhanced case management in supporting engagement in HIV care upon release from jail relative to existing services. METHODS: We randomized 270 HIV-infected individuals to receive navigation-enhanced case management for 12 months or standard case management for 90 days following release from jail between 2010 and 2013. Participants were interviewed at 2, 6, and 12 months after release. We abstracted medical data from jail and city health records...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345150/an-initial-assessment-of-the-utility-of-validated-alcohol-and-drug-screening-tools-in-predicting-30-day-readmission-to-adult-general-medicine-wards
#6
Steven P Gerke, Jon D Agley, Cynthia Wilson, Ruth A Gassman, Philip Forys, David W Crabb
Previous studies have identified drug and alcohol use as risk factors for readmission using claims data, but not by using substance use screening scores. This preliminary study tested the hypothesis that prevalence of 30-day readmission would be higher among patients screening positive on the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-10) or the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) tools at intake than among the general patient population. Social workers screened 4708 adult inpatients using prescreening questions followed by the AUDIT-10 and/or DAST-10...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344419/dendrobium-sources-of-active-ingredients-to-treat-age-related-pathologies
#7
REVIEW
Veronika Cakova, Frederic Bonte, Annelise Lobstein
Dendrobium represents one of the most important orchid genera, ornamentally and medicinally. Dendrobiums are sympodial epiphytic plants, which is a name they are worthy of, the name coming from Greek origin: "dendros", tree, and "bios", life. Dendrobium species have been used for a thousand years as first-rate herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They are source of tonic, astringent, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory substances, and have been traditionally used as medicinal herbs in the treatment of a variety of disorders, such as, nourishing the stomach, enhancing production of body fluids or nourishing Yin...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343261/prenatal-exposure-to-perfluoroalkyl-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substances-and-childhood-atopic-dermatitis-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study
#8
Qian Chen, Rong Huang, Li Hua, Yifeng Guo, Lisu Huang, Yanjun Zhao, Xia Wang, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been reported to suppress immune function. However, previous studies on prenatal exposure to PFASs and allergic disorders in offspring provided inconsistent results. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal exposure to PFASs and childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) in offspring up to 24 months of age. METHODS: A prospective birth cohort study involving 1056 pregnant women was conducted in two hospitals in Shanghai from 2012 to 2015...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342480/phenolic-compounds-as-arginase-inhibitors-new-insights-regarding-endothelial-dysfunction-treatment
#9
Bruno Rodrigo Minozzo, Daniel Fernandes, Flávio Luís Beltrame
Endothelial dysfunction is characterised by the low bioavailability of nitric oxide with a relevant negative impact on the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway. The loss of nitric oxide/cGMP signaling may be caused by an increased arginase activity. Plant-derived substances, especially polyphenols, are compounds that have the potential to inhibit arginase activity and they may represent an attractive therapeutic option to combat clinical outcomes related to endothelial dysfunction. An extensive review was carried out using all available data published in English in the Pubmed database, and without restriction regarding the year of publication...
January 17, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339146/microspheres-as-intraocular-therapeutic-tools-in-chronic-diseases-of-the-optic-nerve-and-retina
#10
Irene Bravo-Osuna, Vanessa Andrés-Guerrero, Alicia Arranz-Romera, Sergio Esteban-Pérez, Irene T Molina-Martínez, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell
Pathologies affecting the optic nerve and the retina are one of the major causes of blindness. These diseases include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and glaucoma, among others. Also, there are genetic disorders that affect the retina causing visual impairment. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases of the posterior segment are increased as most of them are related with the elderly. Even with the access to different treatments, there are some challenges in managing patients suffering retinal diseases...
January 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338955/declining-health-related-quality-of-life-in-the-u-s
#11
Mark Olfson, Melanie Wall, Shang-Min Liu, Michael Schoenbaum, Carlos Blanco
INTRODUCTION: Despite recent declining mortality of the U.S. population from most leading causes, uncertainty exists over trends in health-related quality of life. METHODS: The 2001-2002 and 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Surveys on Alcohol and Related Conditions U.S. representative household surveys were analyzed for trends in health-related quality of life (n=79,402). Health-related quality of life was measured with the Short Form-6 Dimension scale derived from the Short Form-12...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338328/avoidance-meaning-and-grief-psychosocial-factors-influencing-engagement-in-hiv-care
#12
Georgia J Michlig, Ryan P Westergaard, Yukyan Lam, Azal Ahmadi, Gregory D Kirk, Andrew Genz, Jeanne Keruly, Heidi Hutton, Pamela J Surkan
Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy has rendered HIV a chronic illness, inconsistent engagement in HIV care by key populations limits its public health impact. Poor engagement in care is especially prevalent among vulnerable populations with mental health and substance use disorders. Beyond structural and health system considerations, psychosocial factors may present challenges to sustained engagement. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 31 primarily African American, urban-based individuals, many with past or current drug use and mental disorders, living with HIV...
January 17, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338020/autonomic-stress-reactivity-and-craving-in-individuals-with-problematic-internet-use
#13
Tania Moretta, Giulia Buodo
The link between autonomic stress reactivity and subjective urge/craving has been less systematically examined in behavioral addictions (i.e. problematic Internet use) than in substance use disorders. The present study investigated whether problematic Internet users (PU) show enhanced autonomic stress reactivity than non-PU, indexed by lower Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and higher Skin Conductance Level (SCL) reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whether greater reactivity is related to stronger Internet craving, and whether problematic Internet usage is associated with some dysfunctional psychological features...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337907/few-sex-differences-in-hospitalized-suicide-attempters-aged-70-and-above
#14
Stefan Wiktorsson, Therese Rydberg Sterner, Madeleine Mellqvist Fässberg, Ingmar Skoog, Anne Ingeborg Berg, Paul Duberstein, Kimberly Van Orden, Margda Waern
Relatively little research attention has been paid to sex issues in late life suicidal behaviour. The aim was to compare clinical characteristics of women and men aged 70+ who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt. We hypothesized higher depression and anxiety scores in women, and we expected to find that men would more often attribute the attempt to health problems and compromised autonomy. Participants (56 women and 47 men, mean age 80) were interviewed by a psychologist. In addition to psychiatric and somatic health assessments, participants responded to an open-ended question concerning attributions of the attempt...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337399/impact-of-pregnancy-on-psychoactive-substance-use-among-women-with-substance-use-disorders-recruited-in-addiction-specialized-care-centers-in-france
#15
Liselotte Pochard, Julie Dupouy, Elisabeth Frauger, Adeline Giocanti, Joëlle Micallef, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
Pregnancy can be a motivation for decrease in drug abusing but may also represent a period of high vulnerability for relapse.We aimed to assess psychoactive substance use among women with substance use disorders followed in addiction care centers in France. We analyzed data from women aged 15-44 years included in the 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medication survey' (OPPIDUM), an annualcross-sectional survey collecting details on psychoactive substances used. Characteristics of women included in 2005 to 2012 yearly surveys were compared depending on their pregnant or not pregnant status...
January 16, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337238/advantages-of-the-alpha-lipoic-acid-association-with-chlorpromazine-in-a-model-of-schizophrenia-induced-by-ketamine-in-rats-behavioral-and-oxidative-stress-evidences
#16
Luis Rafael Leite Sampaio, Francisco Maurício Sales Cysne Filho, Jamily Cunha de Almeida, Danilo Dos Santos Diniz, Cláudio Felipe Vasconcelos Patrocínio, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Danielle S Macêdo, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder reported to compromise about 1% of the world's population. Although its pathophysiological process is not completely elucidated, evidence showing the presence of an oxidative imbalance has been increasingly highlighted in the literature. Thus, the use of antioxidant substances may be of importance for schizophrenia treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavioral and oxidative alterations by the combination of chlorpromazine (CP) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, in the ketamine (KET) model of schizophrenia in rats...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336871/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-gene-by-an-insertion-deletion-in-the-promoter-region
#17
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Daniel Almeida, Raoul Belzeaux, Ipek Yalcin, Gustavo Turecki
Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) regulates reward, hedonic tone and emotions. At therapeutic level, on-going clinical trials are assessing the potential of targeting the KOR for the management of depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. However, genetic polymorphisms in the KOR gene that potentially contribute to its implication in these phenotypes have been poorly studied. Here we investigated an insertion-deletion in the promoter region of KOR (rs35566036), recently associated with alcohol addiction, in a cohort of depressed subjects who died by suicide, as well as psychiatrically healthy individuals...
January 11, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334879/the-extent-to-which-psychiatrists-diagnose-and-treat-substance-use-disorders
#18
Tami L Mark, Angélica Meinhofer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334513/opioid-use-disorders-attributed-to-tramadol-among-egyptian-university-students
#19
Medhat M Bassiony, Mohamed Abdelghani, Ghada M Salah El-Deen, Mervat S Hassan, Hayam El-Gohari, Usama M Youssef
BACKGROUND: Tramadol use is an overwhelming problem in Egypt with tremendous medical and social consequences especially among youth. Use liability among Egyptian university students is underevaluated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use among students from Zagazig University, Egypt. METHODS: A cross-sectional study included a total of 1135 undergraduate students, from 10 colleges in Zagazig University. Participants were randomly selected and assessed for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test-Extended (DUDIT-E)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333890/cigarette-smoking-and-quit-attempts-among-latinos-in-substance-use-disorder-treatment
#20
Anna Pagano, Noah Gubner, Thao Le, Joseph Guydish
BACKGROUND: Differences in tobacco use behaviors have been identified between Latinos and non-Latino whites in the general US population. Little is known about cigarette smoking and quitting behaviors of Latinos in treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs), who represent two major tobacco-vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVES: To compare, in a national sample of persons enrolled in SUD treatment, demographic, drug use, and smoking and quitting prevalence and behaviors between Latinos and non-Latino whites...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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