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Substance use disorders

Andrew S Hwang, Steven J Atlas, Johan Hong, Jeffrey M Ashburner, Adrian H Zai, Richard W Grant, Clemens S Hong
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the attributes of patients who require more effort to manage may improve risk adjustment approaches and lead to more efficient resource allocation, improved patient care and health outcomes, and reduced burnout in primary care clinicians. OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize high-effort patients from the physician's perspective. DESIGN: Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-nine primary care physicians in an academic primary care network...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Ruth Howard, Thanos Karatzias, Kevin Power, Adam Mahoney
PURPOSE: Despite empirical evidence suggesting complex associations between psychological trauma, substance misuse, and violent offending, there is a dearth of research investigating these associations in the female prison population. METHODS: A cross-sectional, interview-format questionnaire study was undertaken with a sample of 89 female prisoners. History of traumatic events, DSM-5 PTSD, drug use, and offending behaviour were assessed. RESULTS: Traumatic experiences had occurred in 97...
October 21, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Adrian Meule, Martina de Zwaan, Astrid Müller
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct and constitutes a common risk factor for a range of behaviors associated with poor self-control (e.g., substance use or binge eating). The short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15) measures impulsive behaviors related to attentional (inability to focus attention or concentrate), motor (acting without thinking), and non-planning (lack of future orientation or forethought) impulsivity. Eating-related measures appear to be particularly related to attentional and motor impulsivity and recent findings suggest that interactive effects between these two facets may play a role in eating- and weight-regulation...
October 5, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Tian Hua, Kiran Vemuri, Mengchen Pu, Lu Qu, Gye Won Han, Yiran Wu, Suwen Zhao, Wenqing Shui, Shanshan Li, Anisha Korde, Robert B Laprairie, Edward L Stahl, Jo-Hao Ho, Nikolai Zvonok, Han Zhou, Irina Kufareva, Beili Wu, Qiang Zhao, Michael A Hanson, Laura M Bohn, Alexandros Makriyannis, Raymond C Stevens, Zhi-Jie Liu
Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the principal target of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a psychoactive chemical from Cannabis sativa with a wide range of therapeutic applications and a long history of recreational use. CB1 is activated by endocannabinoids and is a promising therapeutic target for pain management, inflammation, obesity, and substance abuse disorders. Here, we present the 2.8 Å crystal structure of human CB1 in complex with AM6538, a stabilizing antagonist, synthesized and characterized for this structural study...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Marion Tegethoff, Esther Stalujanis, Angelo Belardi, Gunther Meinlschmidt
BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities. METHODS: This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13-18 years), a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report...
2016: PloS One
B Hehlen, M Al-Sabbagh, A Al-Zein, J Hlinka
The fluctuations of electric polarization in a disordered ferroelectric substance, relaxor crystal PbMg_{1/3}Nb_{2/3}O_{3} (PMN), were studied using a nonlinear inelastic light-scattering technique, hyper-Raman scattering, within a 5-100  cm^{-1} spectral interval and in a broad temperature range from 20 to 900 K. The split ferroelectric mode reveals a local anisotropy of up to about 400 K. Spectral anomalies observed at higher temperatures are explained as due to avoided crossing of the single primary polar soft mode with a temperature-independent, nonpolar spectral feature near 45  cm^{-1}, known from Raman scattering...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Erik David Storholm, Michael J Silverberg, Derek D Satre
Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatment initiation among a diverse sample of HIV-positive women (n = 228) and a demographically similar cohort of HIV-negative women (n = 693). Diagnoses and service utilization data were obtained from electronic health records of members of a large integrated healthcare system in Northern California. HIV-positive women were less likely to initiate SUD treatment...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Abdullah Turhan, Simone Onrust, Peter Ten Klooster, Marcel Pieterse
AIMS: To test effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs (HSD) program on tobacco and alcohol use in Dutch secondary special education (SE) schools, and whether this depends on subtypes of SE-schools and the level of implementation. DESIGN: In a quasi-experimental design with baseline and post-treatment follow-up 35 classes (N = 363) were allocated arbitrarily or depending on teacher motivation to either intervention condition (N = 205) or usual curriculum (N = 158)...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
Mutlu Mete, Unal Sakoglu, Jeffrey S Spence, Michael D Devous, Thomas S Harris, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have yielded significant advances in the understanding of neural processes relevant to the development and persistence of addiction. However, these advances have not explored extensively for diagnostic accuracy in human subjects. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical approach, using a machine learning framework, to correctly classify brain images of cocaine-dependent participants and healthy controls. In this study, a framework suitable for educing potential brain regions that differed between the two groups was developed and implemented...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Alessandro Minarini, Silvia Ferrari, Martina Galletti, Nina Giambalvo, Daniela Perrone, Giulia Rioli, Gian Maria Galeazzi
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely known for its role as a mucolytic and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. There is increasing interest in the use of NAC in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. The rationale for the administration of NAC in psychiatric conditions is based on its role as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, and its action as a modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: This study reviews the available data regarding the use of NAC in different psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, autism, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Teresa M Attina, Russ Hauser, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Patricia A Hunt, Jean-Pierre Bourguignon, John Peterson Myers, Joseph DiGangi, R Thomas Zoeller, Leonardo Trasande
BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison. METHODS: We used existing models for assessing epidemiological and toxicological studies to reach consensus on probabilities of causation for 15 exposure-response relations between substances and disorders...
October 17, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Evelien A P Poelen, Esmée P Schijven, Roy Otten, Robert Didden
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the role of the personality dimensions anxiety sensitivity, negative thinking, impulsivity and sensation seeking (as assessed by the revised version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale; SURPS) in substance use in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). METHOD: We tested the relationship between level of ID and SURPS personality dimensions and the relationship between SURPS personality dimensions and severity of alcohol and drug use...
October 17, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed L Ashour, Mansour Sobeh, Hesham A El-Beshbishy, Abdel Nasser Singab, Michael Wink
BACKGROUND: The Australian plant Eremophila maculata F. Muell (Scrophulariaceae) is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant. PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of a methanol extract from E. maculata leaves (EMM) both in vitro and in vivo (rats) experiments. Detailed phytochemical study was done on the extract followed by molecular docking experiments on TNF-α ascertain the efficacy of the isolated compounds...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ashley L Greene, Nicholas R Eaton
BACKGROUND: Structural models of psychopathology indicate that common mental disorder comorbidity reflects latent transdiagnostic factors. Multiple studies have replicated transdiagnostic internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisociality-, and impulsivity-related disorders) factors; other studies support distress and fear sub-factors of internalizing. These factors show a high degree of temporal stability. Recently, a bifactor conceptualization of multivariate comorbidity has emerged, positing the existence of an orthogonal general psychopathology factor that saturates all diagnoses in addition to internalizing/distress/fear and externalizing, although no studies have examined the temporal stability of the factors in this competing model over time among adults...
September 28, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Julie Dupouy, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre, Stéphane Oustric
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Pain
Julia König, Jerry Wells, Patrice D Cani, Clara L García-Ródenas, Tom MacDonald, Annick Mercenier, Jacqueline Whyte, Freddy Troost, Robert-Jan Brummer
The gastrointestinal tract consists of an enormous surface area that is optimized to efficiently absorb nutrients, water, and electrolytes from food. At the same time, it needs to provide a tight barrier against the ingress of harmful substances, and protect against a reaction to omnipresent harmless compounds. A dysfunctional intestinal barrier is associated with various diseases and disorders. In this review, the role of intestinal permeability in common disorders such as infections with intestinal pathogens, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and food allergies will be discussed...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Rachel Sayko Adams, John D Corrigan, Beth A Mohr, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
This study examines whether the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-deployment binge drinking is independent of screening positive for mental health problems among male and female service members. Data are from the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study of Army members returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq in fiscal years 2008-2011. The sample consists of 240,694 male and 26,406 female active duty members who completed initial and follow-up questionnaires. The initial questionnaire, completed at the end of deployment, included screens for TBI and mental health problems (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, harmful thoughts)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Isabelle Biseul, Romain Icick, Perrine Seguin, Frank Bellivier, Jan Scott
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the feasibility and acceptability of an integrated group therapy (called HABIT) for comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUD) (BD-ASUD), a disabling clinical presentation for which no specific treatment has been validated. The 14-session HABIT programme employs psychoeducation-oriented cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) followed by mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) therapy. METHOD: Potential group participants were recruited from adult clients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of BD and an ASUD who were referred by their treating clinician...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Jenneke van Ditzhuijzen, Margreet Ten Have, Ron de Graaf, Peter Lugtig, Carolus H C J van Nijnatten, Wilma A M Vollebergh
Research in the field of mental health consequences of abortion is characterized by methodological limitations. We used exact matching on carefully selected confounders in a prospective cohort study of 325 women who had an abortion of an unwanted pregnancy and compared them 1-to-1 to controls who did not have this experience. Outcome measures were incidence and recurrence of common DSM-IV mental disorders (mood, anxiety, substance use disorders, and the aggregate measure 'any mental disorder') as measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) version 3...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Margaret L Griffin, Katherine A McDermott, R Kathryn McHugh, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Grit is an emerging concept in positive psychology, defined as the ability to be persistent and focused in pursuit of long-term goals. This concept has received a great deal of interest recently because of its robust ability to predict success and well-being across a wide variety of domains. The study aim was to examine the clinical relevance of the construct of grit among patients with substance use disorders. METHODS: Inpatients on a detoxification unit were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2015 (N = 673)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
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