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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608545/an-alternative-pathway-to-eusociality-exploring-the-molecular-and-functional-basis-of-fortress-defense
#1
Sarah P Lawson, Leah Sigle, Abigail Lind, Andrew W Legan, Jessica N Mezzanotte, Hans-Willi Honegger, Patrick Abbot
Some animals express a form of eusociality known as 'fortress defense', in which defense rather than brood care is the primary social act. Aphids are small plant-feeding insects, but like termites, some species express division of labor and castes of aggressive juvenile 'soldiers'. What is the functional basis of fortress defense eusociality in aphids? Previous work showed that the acquisition of venoms might be a key innovation in aphid social evolution. We show that the lethality of aphid soldiers derives in part from the induction of exaggerated immune responses in insects they attack...
June 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526450/the-association-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the%C3%A2-oxytocin-receptor-and-g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-6-grk6-genes-with-oxytocin-dosing-requirements-and-labor-outcomes
#2
Chad A Grotegut, Emily Ngan, Melanie E Garrett, Marie Lynn Miranda, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Geeta K Swamy
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a potent uterotonic agent that is widely used for induction and augmentation of labor. Oxytocin has a narrow therapeutic index and the optimal dosing for any individual woman varies widely. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) or in the gene encoding G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6), which regulates desensitization of the oxytocin receptor, could explain variation in oxytocin dosing and labor outcomes among women being induced near term...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461768/cervical-elastography-during-pregnancy-clinical-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Malgorzata Swiatkowska-Freund, Krzysztof Preis
Uterine cervix is a part of the uterus responsible for maintaining pregnancy till term. As long as the cervix remains long and firm and its internal orifice (os) is closed, it can withstand enlargement of the uterine contents and resultant growing pressure. Mechanical properties of the cervix change during pregnancy; the cervix ripens prior to delivery, then effaces and dilates with contractions of the uterus. Ripening of the cervix can be assessed using the Bishop score and ultrasonographically determined length of the cervical canal and internal os...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444286/screening-for-preeclampsia-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#4
Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo, David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Michael J Barry, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Ann E Kurth, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, William R Phillips, Maureen G Phipps, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Preeclampsia affects approximately 4% of pregnancies in the United States. It is the second leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide and may lead to serious maternal complications, including stroke, eclampsia, and organ failure. Adverse perinatal outcomes for the fetus and newborn include intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, and stillbirth. Many of the complications associated with preeclampsia lead to early induction of labor or cesarean delivery and subsequent preterm birth...
April 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264638/to-ignore-or-not-to-ignore-placental-calcifications-on-prenatal-ultrasound-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Fadi G Mirza, Labib M Ghulmiyyah, Hani Tamim, Maha Makki, Dima Jeha, Anwar Nassar
OBJECTIVE: The human placenta is known to calcify with advancing gestational age, and, in fact, the presence of significant calcifications is one of the components of grade III placenta, typical of late gestation. As such, the presence of significant placental calcifications often prompts obstetric providers to expedite delivery. This practice has been attributed, in part, to the presumed association between grade III placenta and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Such approach, however, can be the source of major anxiety and may lead to unnecessary induction of labor, with its associated predisposition to cesarean delivery as well as a myriad of maternal and neonatal morbidities...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773807/outcomes-of-pregnancies-for-women-undergoing-endoscopy-while-they-were-pregnant-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#6
Jonas F Ludvigsson, Benjamin Lebwohl, Anders Ekbom, Ravi Pokala Kiran, Peter H R Green, Jonas Höijer, Olof Stephansson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopy is an integral part of the investigation and management of gastrointestinal disease. We aimed to examine outcomes of pregnancies for women who underwent endoscopy during their pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study, linking data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (for births from 1992 through 2011) with those from the Swedish Patient Registry. We identified 3052 pregnancies exposed to endoscopy (2025 upper endoscopies, 1109 lower endoscopies, and 58 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies)...
February 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766983/factors-associated-with-cesarean-delivery-during-labor-in-primiparous-women-assisted-in-the-brazilian-public-health-system-data-from-a-national-survey
#7
Marcos Augusto Bastos Dias, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Arthur Orlando Corrêa Schilithz, Marcos Nakamura-Pereira, Maria do Carmo Leal
BACKGROUND: The rate of cesarean delivery (CD) in Brazil has increased over the past 40 years. The CD rate in public services is three times above the World Health Organization recommended values. Among strategies to reduce CD, the most important is reduction of primary cesarean. This study aimed to describe factors associated with CD during labor in primiparous women with a single cephalic pregnancy assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS). METHODS: This study is part of the Birth in Brazil survey, a national hospital-based study of 23,894 postpartum women and their newborns...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756534/antenatal-fetal-surveillance-assessment-of-the-afv
#8
REVIEW
Dawn S Hughes, Everett F Magann
The evaluation of amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is an established part of the antenatal surveillance of pregnancies at risk for an adverse pregnancy outcome. The two most commonly used ultrasound techniques to estimate AFV are the amniotic fluid index (AFI) and the single deepest pocket (SDP). Four studies have defined normal AFVs, and although their normal volumes have similarities, there are also differences primarily due to the statistical methodology used in each study. Dye-determined AFV correlates with ultrasound estimates for normal fluid volumes but correlates poorly for oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios...
January 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465453/women-s-voices-in-maternity-care-the-triad-of-shared-decision-making-informed-consent-and-evidence-based-practices
#9
Jennifer E Moore
The United States is the only industrialized nation that has experienced dramatic increases in the use of maternity interventions resulting in poor birth outcomes. It is speculated that the increased rates of maternal mortality and other outcomes are attributed to the current maternity model of care focused on the overuse of interventions, such as induction of labor, in otherwise healthy pregnant women. The overuse of induction of labor to artificially speed up the birth process has been linked to an increase in preterm and cesarean births...
July 2016: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103111/preventive-induction-of-labor-for-non-urgent-indications-at-term-and-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes
#10
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lin Zhang, Hao Zhang, Jun Zhang, Jin Wen Zhang, Jiang Feng Ye, D Ware Branch
BACKGROUND: Induction of labor (IOL) is a common practice in many parts of the world. However, the benefits and risks of preventive IOL for the mother and baby have yet to be critically assessed. This study is to investigate the effects of preventive IOL for non-urgent indications at term on maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: In this study, we applied a propensity score model to mimic a randomized clinical trial. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between women with preventive IOL at 37-39 weeks of gestation and women with ongoing pregnancy (expectant management)...
April 21, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26930514/intrapartum-and-postpartum-transfers-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-from-out-of-hospital-birth-settings-a-retrospective-case-series
#11
Tiffany Lundeen
INTRODUCTION: This study describes the reasons for and outcomes of maternal transfers from private homes and freestanding birthing suites to a large academic hospital in order to better understand and meet the needs of transferring women and their families. METHODS: The convenience sample included all adult women admitted to the labor and birth unit or emergency room within a 5-year period who: 1) had planned to give birth out-of-hospital but developed complications at term before the onset of labor and were admitted to the hospital for labor induction; 2) had planned to give birth at home or in a birthing suite but transferred to the hospital during labor; or 3) arrived at the hospital for care within 24 hours after a planned birth at home or in a birthing suite...
March 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851941/qualitative-analysis-of-programmatic-initiatives-to-text-patients-with-mobile-devices-in-resource-limited-health-systems
#12
Sachin K Garg, Courtney R Lyles, Sara Ackerman, Margaret A Handley, Dean Schillinger, Gato Gourley, Veenu Aulakh, Urmimala Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Text messaging is an affordable, ubiquitous, and expanding mobile communication technology. However, safety net health systems in the United States that provide more care to uninsured and low-income patients may face additional financial and infrastructural challenges in utilizing this technology. Formative evaluations of texting implementation experiences are limited. We interviewed safety net health systems piloting texting initiatives to study facilitators and barriers to real-world implementation...
February 6, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341067/other-mechanical-methods-for-pre-induction-cervical-ripening
#13
REVIEW
Danielle Durie, Aminatu Lawal, Phillip Zegelbone
Pre-induction cervical ripening is an important part of the labor induction process in women with an unfavorable cervix. This can be achieved either by pharmacologic or mechanical methods of cervical ripening. While the Foley catheter is the most commonly used mechanical method for labor induction, other mechanical methods are also available. This article reviews the safety profiles of osmotic dilators, extra-amniotic saline infusion, double-balloon catheters, and also compares their efficacy to that of other mechanical and pharmacologic cervical ripening methods...
October 2015: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26278635/assessment-of-the-cervix-in-pregnant-women-using-shear-wave-elastography-a-feasibility-study
#14
Marie Muller, Dora Aït-Belkacem, Mahdieh Hessabi, Jean-Luc Gennisson, Gilles Grangé, François Goffinet, Edouard Lecarpentier, Dominique Cabrol, Mickaël Tanter, Vassilis Tsatsaris
The quantitative assessment of the cervix is crucial for the estimation of pre-term delivery risk and the prediction of the success of labor induction. We conducted a cross-sectional study using shear wave elastography based on the supersonic shear imaging technique. The shear wave speed (SWS) of the lower anterior part of the cervix was quantified over an 8-mm region of interest in 157 pregnant women. Cervical SWS is slightly but significantly reduced in patients diagnosed with pre-term labor and in patients who actually delivered pre-term...
November 2015: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26255426/-periodontal-health-during-pregnancy-and-the-dental-health-of-the-child
#15
S Blumer, B Peretz, L Costa
Several studies have shown an association between local/systemic infections and preterm-low birth weight (PTLBW), and it might be an important part of the etiology. Oral Infections such as periodontitis may act as a distant reservoir of microbes, microbial products and inflammatory mediators. These might influence pregnancy and contribute to restriction of fetal growth and induction of early labor and PTB. Enamel formation of the primary teeth begins at 11-14 weeks of fetal life and is completed by the end of 3rd postnatal month...
April 2015: Journal of the Israel Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26251994/transient-elastography-to-assess-the-cervical-ripening-during-pregnancy-a-preliminary-study
#16
L Peralta, F S Molina, J Melchor, L F Gómez, P Massó, J Florido, G Rus
Purpose: To explore the feasibility of transient elastography (TE) to quantify cervical stiffness changes during normal pregnancy and its spatial variability. Materials and Methods: TE was used to quantify the cervical stiffness in four anatomical regions. 42 women between 17 and 43 years of age and at 6 - 41 weeks of gestation were studied. The stiffness was related to gestational age at the time of examination, interval from ultrasound examination to delivery and cervical length to evaluate the potential of TE to assess cervical ripening...
August 7, 2015: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26104648/management-of-preeclampsia
#17
Gustaaf Albert Dekker
Most patients with a pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder have no clinical symptoms. So it can only be reliably detected by repetitive searches (screening) for the early signs and symptoms in the 2nd half of pregnancy. Adequate and proper prenatal care is the most important part of management of preeclampsia. Maternal antenatal monitoring includes identifying women at increased risk, early detection of preeclampsia by recognizing clinical signs and symptoms, and to observe progression of the condition to the severe state...
July 2014: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25479883/an-off-line-automated-preconcentration-system-with-ethylenediaminetriacetate-chelating-resin-for-the-determination-of-trace-metals-in-seawater-by-high-resolution-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#18
Tomoharu Minami, Wataru Konagaya, Linjie Zheng, Shotaro Takano, Masanobu Sasaki, Rena Murata, Yuzuru Nakaguchi, Yoshiki Sohrin
A novel automated off-line preconcentration system for trace metals (Al, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in seawater was developed by improving a commercially available solid-phase extraction system SPE-100 (Hiranuma Sangyo). The utilized chelating resin was NOBIAS Chelate-PA1 (Hitachi High-Technologies) with ethylenediaminetriacetic acid and iminodiacetic acid functional groups. Parts of the 8-way valve made of alumina and zirconia in the original SPE-100 system were replaced with parts made of polychlorotrifluoroethylene in order to reduce contamination of trace metals...
January 7, 2015: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25458805/-elastography-of-cervix-to-predict-delay-from-induction-to-delivery
#19
L Sonnier, P Bouhanna, C Arnou, P Rozenberg
OBJECTIVE: Induction of labor for medical indications has become a routine practice. To date, the Bishop score remains as the standard method to predict the duration of induced labor. Elastography is an objective method of assessing the relative consistency of tissues. Therefore, we sought to assess strain elastography of cervix to predict delay from induction to delivery in pregnant women with a low Bishop score. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ultrasound elastography was immediately performed before induction of labor for medical indications among patients with a singleton pregnancy at>36 weeks of gestation and a Bishop score<6...
December 2014: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25120367/double-balloon-tamponade-in-the-management-of-postpartum-hemorrhage-a-case-series
#20
Salih Burçin Kavak, Ebru Çelik Kavak, Ismail Demirel, Raşit Ilhan
UNLABELLED: To show the efficacy of double-balloon cervical ripening catheter in the management of postpartum hemorrhage originating from the lower segment of the uterus or the upper parts of the vagina. METHODS: Patients with intractable bleeding from the lower segment of the uterus and the upper parts of the vagina after Cesarean or vaginal deliveries were treated by double-balloon cervical ripening catheter. RESULTS: Double-balloon catheter was used in seven patients, and it was properly placed in all of them...
2014: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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