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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339281/bifidogenic-effects-of-cordyceps-sinensis-fungal-exopolysaccharide-and-konjac-glucomannan-after-ultrasound-and-acid-degradation
#1
Ang-Xin Song, Yu-Heng Mao, Ka-Chai Siu, Jian-Yong Wu
The bifidogenic effects of exopolysaccharide (EPS) of a medicinal fungus (Cordyceps sinensis) and a well-known food polysaccharide konjac glucomannan (KGM) with different molecular weight (MW) ranges were evaluated through in vitro experiments in liquid cultures of Bifidobacteria. Native EPS and KGM were partially degraded with power ultrasound (US) to improve the water solubility, and further hydrolysed with trifluoroacetic acid to much lower MW. The acid-hydrolysed fractions (EPS-AH and KGM-AH) supported the growth of all five tested bifidobacterial species, while the US-degraded high MW fractions, EPS-US and KGM-US, could only slightly supported the growth of some species...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305697/trp-residue-at-subsite-%C3%A2-5-plays-a-critical-role-in-the-substrate-binding-of-two-protistan-gh26-%C3%AE-mannanases-from-a-termite-hindgut
#2
Yunhan Hsu, Hirohiko Koizumi, Masato Otagiri, Shigeharu Moriya, Manabu Arioka
Symbiotic protists in the hindgut of termites provide a novel enzymatic resource for efficient lignocellulytic degradation of plant biomass. In this study, two β-mannanases, RsMan26A and RsMan26B, from a symbiotic protist community of the lower termite, Reticulitermes speratus, were successfully expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Biochemical characterization experiments demonstrated that both RsMan26A and RsMan26B are endo-acting enzymes and have a very similar substrate specificity, displaying a higher catalytic efficiency to galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) and glucomannan than to β-1,4-mannan and highly substituted galactomannan from guar gum...
January 5, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299181/antioxidant-agents-against-trichothecenes-new-hints-for-oxidative-stress-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Qinghua Wu, Xu Wang, Eugenie Nepovimova, Yun Wang, Hualin Yang, Li Li, Xiujuan Zhang, Kamil Kuca
Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by fungi of genus Fusarium. Due to high toxicity and widespread dissemination, T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are considered to be the most important compounds of this class. Trichothecenes generate free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation, decrease levels of antioxidant enzymes, and ultimately lead to apoptosis. Consequently, oxidative stress is an active area of research on the toxic mechanisms of trichothecenes, and identification of antioxidant agents that could be used against trichothecenes is crucial for human health...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258196/mussel-inspired-fabrication-of-konjac-glucomannan-poly-lactic-acid-cryogels-with-enhanced-thermal-and-mechanical-properties
#4
Lin Wang, Yi Yuan, Ruo-Jun Mu, Jingni Gong, Yongsheng Ni, Xin Hong, Jie Pang, Chunhua Wu
Three-dimensional nanofibers cryogels (NFCs) with both thermally-tolerant and mechanically-robust properties have potential for wide application in biomedical or food areas; however, creating such NFCs has proven to be extremely challenging. In this study, konjac glucomannan (KGM)/poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-based novel NFCs were prepared by the incorporation of the mussel-inspired protein polydopamine (PDA) via a facile and environmentally-friendly electrospinning and freeze-shaping technique. The obtained KGM/PLA/PDA (KPP) NFCs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compressive and tensile test...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228039/biochemical-studies-of-two-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases-from-the-white-rot-fungus-heterobasidion-irregulare-and-their-roles-in-lignocellulose-degradation
#5
Bing Liu, Åke Olson, Miao Wu, Anders Broberg, Mats Sandgren
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) are important redox enzymes produced by microorganisms for the degradation of recalcitrant natural polysaccharides. Heterobasidion irregulare is a white-rot phytopathogenic fungus that causes wood decay in conifers. The genome of this fungus encodes 10 putative Auxiliary Activity family 9 (AA9) LPMOs. We describe the first biochemical characterization of H. irregulare LPMOs through heterologous expression of two CBM-containing LPMOs from this fungus (HiLPMO9H, HiLPMO9I) in Pichia pastoris...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202887/the-effects-of-gelled-konjac-glucomannan-fibre-on-appetite-and-energy-intake-in-healthy-individuals-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#6
Fei Au-Yeung, Elena Jovanovski, Alexandra L Jenkins, Andreea Zurbau, Hoang V T Ho, Vladimir Vuksan
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a viscous dietary fibre that can form a solid, low-energy gel when hydrated and is commonly consumed in a noodle form (KGM-gel). Increased meal viscosity from gel-forming fibres have been associated with prolonged satiety, but no studies to date have evaluated this effect with KGM-gel. Thus, our objective was to evaluate subsequent food intake and satiety of KGM-gel noodles when replacing a high-carbohydrate preload, in a dose-response manner. Utilising a randomised, controlled, cross-over design, sixteen healthy individuals (twelve females/four males; age: 26·0 (sd 11·8) years; BMI: 23·1 (sd 3·2) kg/m2) received 325 ml volume-matched preloads of three KGM-gel noodle substitution levels: (i) all pasta with no KGM-gel (1849 kJ (442 kcal), control), half pasta and half KGM-gel (1084 kJ (259 kcal), 50-KGM) or no pasta and all KGM-gel (322 kJ (77 kcal), 100-KGM)...
December 5, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182557/effect-of-dietary-acidolysis-oxidized-konjac-glucomannan-supplementation-on-serum-immune-parameters-and-intestinal-immune-related-gene-expression-of-schizothorax-prenanti
#7
Mingrui Chen, Shuyao Wang, Xue Liang, Donghui Ma, Li He, Yaowen Liu
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary acidolysis-oxidized konjac glucomannan (A-OKGM) (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6%) supplementation on the immunity and expression of immune-related genes in Schizothorax prenanti. After feeding for eight weeks, the serum and guts were used for measurement of biochemical parameters, and immune-related gene expression in the gut were also analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). C-reactive protein and IgM levels were significantly higher in the A-OKGM fed groups than in the control group, regardless of the dosage...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177717/biochemical-characterization-of-a-thermostable-endomannanase-endoglucanase-from-dictyoglomus-turgidum
#8
Francesca Anna Fusco, Raffaele Ronca, Gabriella Fiorentino, Emilia Pedone, Patrizia Contursi, Simonetta Bartolucci, Danila Limauro
Dictyoglomus turgidum is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium that shows an array of putative glycoside hydrolases (GHs) encoded by its genome, a feature that makes this microorganism very interesting for biotechnological applications. The aim of this work is the characterization of a hyperthermophilic GH5, Dtur_0671, of D. turgidum, annotated as endoglucanase and herein named DturCelB in agreement to DturCelA, which was previously characterized. The synthetic gene was expressed in Escherichia coli...
November 25, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169946/preparation-and-characterization-of-chitosan-collagen-peptide-oxidized-konjac-glucomannan-hydrogel
#9
Liangling Liu, Huigao Wen, Ziqie Rao, Chen Zhu, Meng Liu, Lian Min, Lihong Fan, Shengxiang Tao
In this paper, the microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was used as a catalyst to graft the collagen peptide (COP) molecules on the amino group of chitosan to obtain water-soluble chitosan-collagen peptide (CS-COP) derivatives. The preparation of composite hydrogel was via the Schiff-base reaction between the amino of CS-COP and the aldehyde of oxidized konjac glucomannan (OKGM). The hydrogels were characterized by various techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155734/structural-characterization-of-mannan-cell-wall-polysaccharides-in-plants-using-pace
#10
Venkataramana R Pidatala, Amir Mahboubi, Jenny C Mortimer
Plant cell wall polysaccharides are notoriously difficult to analyze, and most methods require expensive equipment, skilled operators, and large amounts of purified material. Here, we describe a simple method for gaining detailed polysaccharide structural information, including resolution of structural isomers. For polysaccharide analysis by gel electrophoresis (PACE), plant cell wall material is hydrolyzed with glycosyl hydrolases specific to the polysaccharide of interest (e.g., mannanases for mannan). Large format polyacrylamide gels are then used to separate the released oligosaccharides, which have been fluorescently labeled...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153955/characterization-of-ph-tolerant-and-thermostable-gh-134-%C3%AE-1-4-mannanase-ssgh134-possessing-carbohydrate-binding-module-10-from-streptomyces-sp-nrrl-b-24484
#11
Kiyota Sakai, Saran Kimoto, Yuta Shinzawa, Miho Minezawa, Kengo Suzuki, Sadanari Jindou, Masashi Kato, Motoyuki Shimizu
A GH 134 β-1,4-mannanase SsGH134 from Streptomyces sp. NRRL B-24484 possesses a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) 10 and a glycoside hydrolase 134 domain at the N- and C-terminal regions, respectively. Recombinant SsGH134 expressed in E. coli. SsGH134 was maximally active within a pH range of 4.0-6.5 and retained >80% of this maximum after 90 min at 30°C within a pH range of 3.0-10.0. The β-1,4-mannanase activity of SsGH134 towards glucomannan was 30% of the maximal activity after an incubation at 100°C for 120 min, indicating that SsGH134 is pH-tolerant and thermostable β-1,4-mannanase...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076996/a-review-on-konjac-glucomannan-gels-microstructure-and-application
#12
REVIEW
Dan Yang, Yi Yuan, Lin Wang, Xiaoshan Wang, Ruojun Mu, Jie Pang, Jianbo Xiao, Yafeng Zheng
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has attracted extensive attention because of its biodegradable, non-toxic, harmless, and biocompatible features. Its gelation performance is one of its most significant characteristics and enables wide applications of KGM gels in food, chemical, pharmaceutical, materials, and other fields. Herein, different preparation methods of KGM gels and their microstructures were reviewed. In addition, KGM applications have been theoretically modeled for future uses.
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072072/acemannan-and-fructans-from-aloe-vera-aloe-barbadensis-miller-plants-as-novel-prebiotics
#13
Maria Paz Quezada, Carlos Salinas, Martin Gotteland, Liliana Cardemil
The nutraceutical properties of Aloe vera have been attributed to a glucomannan known as acemannan. Recently information has been published about the presence of fructans in Aloe vera but there are no publications about acemannan and fructans as prebiotic compounds. This study investigated in vitro the prebiotic properties of these polysaccharides. Our results demonstrated that fructans from Aloe vera induced bacterial growth better than inulin (commercial FOS). Acemannan stimulated bacterial growth less than fructans, and as much as commercial FOS...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057953/structural-and-electronic-determinants-of-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenase-reactivity-on-polysaccharide-substrates
#14
T J Simmons, K E H Frandsen, L Ciano, T Tryfona, N Lenfant, J C Poulsen, L F L Wilson, T Tandrup, M Tovborg, K Schnorr, K S Johansen, B Henrissat, P H Walton, L Lo Leggio, P Dupree
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are industrially important copper-dependent enzymes that oxidatively cleave polysaccharides. Here we present a functional and structural characterization of two closely related AA9-family LPMOs from Lentinus similis (LsAA9A) and Collariella virescens (CvAA9A). LsAA9A and CvAA9A cleave a range of polysaccharides, including cellulose, xyloglucan, mixed-linkage glucan and glucomannan. LsAA9A additionally cleaves isolated xylan substrates. The structures of CvAA9A and of LsAA9A bound to cellulosic and non-cellulosic oligosaccharides provide insight into the molecular determinants of their specificity...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917879/laccase-tempo-oxidation-in-the-production-of-mechanically-strong-arabinoxylan-and-glucomannan-aerogels
#15
Kirsti Parikka, Ida Nikkilä, Leena Pitkänen, Abdul Ghafar, Tuula Sontag-Strohm, Maija Tenkanen
New wheat arabinoxylan and konjac glucomannan hydrogels and aerogels were prepared by hemiacetal crosslinking induced by laccase/TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) -catalysed oxidation, which selectively converts the primary hydroxyl groups to aldehydes. The degree of oxidation of the product aldehydes was ca. 10% of the total carbohydrates of the polysaccharides, and the determination of storage and viscous moduli of the oxidised samples showed that they had formed true hydrogels. Two freezing methods for the hydrogels, conventional freezing and ice crystal templating, were investigated for aerogel production, the ice crystal templated products especially were mechanically strong in compression test against the ice crystals' growth direction...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821095/an-o-acetyl-glucomannan-from-the-rhizomes-of-curculigo-orchioides-structural-characterization-and-anti-osteoporosis-activity-in-vitro
#16
Xueqian Wang, Mengliu Zhang, Dawei Zhang, Shumei Wang, Chunyan Yan
Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in bone mass and bone mineral density, which weakens the bone. Due to the side effects associated with drugs that are currently used to treat this disease, an increasing number of studies have focused on the research of effective ingredients derived from natural products. In particular, polysaccharides extracted from Chinese herbal medicines have received increasing attention. In this study, we isolated a homogeneous polysaccharide (COP90-1) from the dried rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides, a famous traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used in China, and determined its structure using the combined methods of chemical and spectral analyses...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821076/confirmation-and-measurement-of-hydrophobic-interaction-in-sol-gel-system-of-konjac-glucomannan-with-different-degree-of-deacetylation
#17
Chen Xin, Jian Chen, Hongshan Liang, Jiawei Wan, Jing Li, Bin Li
Fluorescence measurement was used as a tool to study the hydrophobic interaction in sol-gel system of konjac glucomannan (KGM) with different degree of deacetylation (DD). In the concentration from 0 to 10g/L, I1/I3 ratio of native KGM declined from 1.75 to 1.25. Before and after heating, the critical associating concentration of the native KGM was 0.60g/L and 0.95g/L respectively, but this value of deacetylated KGM (DD=32.58%) was 0.58g/L and 0.45g/L respectively. The addition of Na2SO4 and NaSCN exhibited more significant influence on deacetylated KGM compared with native KGM...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821062/cell-wall-polysaccharides-from-pulp-and-peel-of-cubiu-a-pectin-rich-fruit
#18
Cristiane Colodel, Rosane Maria das Graças Bagatin, Talita Maria Tavares, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz
To investigate the polysaccharides of cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum D.) fruits, pulp and peel were subjected to sequential extractions using different solvents, giving rise to pectins heterogeneous with respect to their structural characteristics, xylan, arabinogalactoxyloglucans and glucomannans. Chemical, physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses were used to characterize the polysaccharides obtained. Pectins with uronic acid content of commercial grade were obtained from the peel of cubiu fruits using water (25°C and 100°C) and EDTA and from its pulp using water (100°C)...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772883/high-strength-konjac-glucomannan-silver-nanowires-composite-films-with-antibacterial-properties
#19
Jia Lei, Lei Zhou, Yongjian Tang, Yong Luo, Tao Duan, Wenkun Zhu
Robust, high-strength and environmentally friendly antibacterial composite films were prepared by simply blending konjac glucomannan (KGM) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) in an aqueous system. The samples were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and antimicrobial tests. The results showed that there was a high ratio of Ag NWs uniformly distributed in the composite films, which was vital for mechanical reinforcement and stable antibacterial properties...
May 12, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739406/structural-characterization-and-properties-of-konjac-glucomannan-and-zein-blend-films
#20
Kai Wang, Kao Wu, Man Xiao, Ying Kuang, Harold Corke, Xuewen Ni, Fatang Jiang
A series of konjac glucomannan (KGM)/zein blend films were successfully prepared with zein in proportions 0-30%. The hydrophobicity of blend films were significantly stronger than pure KGM film, indicated by increased contact angle, swelling and solubility properties, and moisture absorption. Moreover, other properties including mechanical, thermal, water vapor and oxygen barrier were also found to be increased. FTIR indicated that hydrogen bond interactions and Maillard reaction occurred between KGM and zein molecules, and microstructural observations indicated that the aggregated zein was homogeneously dispersed in the KGM continuous matrix...
December 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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