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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352371/innate-and-adaptive-t-cells-in-influenza-disease
#1
REVIEW
Simone Nüssing, Sneha Sant, Marios Koutsakos, Kanta Subbarao, Thi H O Nguyen, Katherine Kedzierska
Influenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized...
January 20, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352084/detection-of-human-bocavirus-species-2-and-3-in-bivalve-shellfish-in-italy
#2
G La Rosa, G Purpari, A Guercio, S Di Bella, F Gucciardi, Y T R Proroga, M Pisanu, S Della Libera, M Iaconelli, E Suffredini
Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been shown to be a common cause of respiratory infections and gastroenteritis in children. Recently, HBoVs have been detected in sewage and river waters in Italy and worldwide. However, no studies are yet available on their presence in other water environments and in bivalve molluscs.In this study, 316 bivalve shellfish samples collected in three Italian regions over a six-year period (2012-2017) were analyzed by nested PCR and sequencing using broad-range primer pairs targeting the capsid proteins VP1/VP2 of HBoV...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351747/combination-of-pelargonium-sidoides-and-coptis-chinensis-root-inhibits-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-mediated-inflammatory-response-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Sang Mi Park, Byung-Gu Min, Ji Yun Jung, Kyung Hwan Jegal, Chul Won Lee, Kwang Youn Kim, Young Woo Kim, Youn-Woong Choi, Il Je Cho, Sae Kwang Ku, Sang Chan Kim
BACKGROUND: Pelargonium sidoides (PS) and Coptis chinensis root (CR) have traditionally been used to treat various diseases, including respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, dysmenorrhea, and hepatic disorders. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of a combination of PS and CR in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The in vitro effects of PS + CR on the induction of inflammation-related proteins were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264...
January 19, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#4
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350841/epidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-influenza-viruses-in-burkina-faso-sub-saharan-africa
#5
Armel M Sanou, Sampoko Carine M Wandaogo, Armel Poda, Laure Tamini, Anselme E Kyere, Tani Sagna, Macaire S Ouedraogo, Maude Pauly, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller, Zekiba Tarnagda, Chantal J Snoeck
BACKGROUND: The importance of influenza viruses in respiratory infections in sub-Saharan Africa has been historically overlooked, including in Burkina Faso. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the prevalence and seasonal occurrence of influenza viruses in children under five years old, at risk of influenza-related complications, presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). The study also aimed at identifying the periods with increased influenza transmission for vaccination recommendations in Burkina Faso...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350791/comparison-of-outpatient-medically-attended-and-community-level-influenza-like-illness-new-york-city-2013-2015
#6
Kate E Russell, Ashley Fowlkes, Melissa S Stockwell, Celibell Y Vargas, Lisa Saiman, Elaine L Larson, Philip LaRussa, Steve Di Lonardo, Michael Popowich, Kirsten St George, Andrea Steffens, Carrie Reed
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States is primarily conducted through medical settings despite a significant burden of non-medically attended ILI. OBJECTIVES: To assess consistency between surveillance for respiratory viruses in outpatient and community settings using ILI surveillance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) and the Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community (MoSAIC) Study...
January 19, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350418/species-differences-in-circulation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-children-with-common-respiratory-adenovirus-infections
#7
Haruna Nakamura, Takao Fujisawa, Shigeru Suga, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Mizuho Nagao, Masahiro Ito, Hitoshi Ochiai, Masami Konagaya, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause severe inflammatory respiratory infections, but previous epidemiological studies lacked analysis of the characteristics of the inflammation. METHODS: Consecutive patients <13 years old with acute febrile illness during a 2-year period were tested. HAdV strains were isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs, and molecular identification was performed by hexon, fiber and species-specific PCR methods. Blood inflammatory markers, including the white blood cell (WBC) count, CRP and 29 cytokines, were measured...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350143/adenovirus-type-4-respiratory-infections-among-civilian-adults-northeastern-united-states-2011-20151
#8
Adriana E Kajon, Daryl M Lamson, Camden R Bair, Xiaoyan Lu, Marie L Landry, Marilyn Menegus, Dean D Erdman, Kirsten St George
Human adenovirus type 4 (HAdV-4) is most commonly isolated in military settings. We conducted detailed molecular characterization on 36 HAdV-4 isolates recovered from civilian adults with acute respiratory disease (ARD) in the northeastern United States during 2011-2015. Specimens came from college students, residents of long-term care facilities or nursing homes, a cancer patient, and young adults without co-morbidities. HAdV-4 genome types 4a1 and 4a2, the variants most frequently detected among US military recruits in basic training before the restoration of vaccination protocols, were isolated in most cases...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348203/infectious-virus-in-exhaled-breath-of-symptomatic-seasonal-influenza-cases-from-a-college-community
#9
Jing Yan, Michael Grantham, Jovan Pantelic, P Jacob Bueno de Mesquita, Barbara Albert, Fengjie Liu, Sheryl Ehrman, Donald K Milton
Little is known about the amount and infectiousness of influenza virus shed into exhaled breath. This contributes to uncertainty about the importance of airborne influenza transmission. We screened 355 symptomatic volunteers with acute respiratory illness and report 142 cases with confirmed influenza infection who provided 218 paired nasopharyngeal (NP) and 30-minute breath samples (coarse >5-µm and fine ≤5-µm fractions) on days 1-3 after symptom onset. We assessed viral RNA copy number for all samples and cultured NP swabs and fine aerosols...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346614/influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-against-influenza-a-h3n2-hospitalizations-in-children-in-hong-kong-in-a-prolonged-season-2016-17
#10
Susan S Chiu, Mike Y W Kwan, Shuo Feng, Joshua S C Wong, Chi-Wai Leung, Eunice L Y Chan, Kwok-Hung Chan, Tak-Keung Ng, Wing-Kin To, Benjamin J Cowling, J S Malik Peiris
Background: Influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulated for 12 consecutive months in Hong Kong in 2016-2017, peaking in late June and July 2017. The objective of our study was to estimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in preventing hospitalizations in children in Hong Kong. Methods: We conducted a test-negative study between September 1 2016 and August 31 2017, enrolling children 6 months to 17 years of age hospitalized for an acute respiratory infection. Influenza was diagnosed by PCR on nasopharyngeal aspirates...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344471/a-6-month-old-girl-with-incontinentia-pigmenti-presenting-as-status-epilepticus
#11
Moon Young Seo, Su Jeong You, Soung Hee Kim, Woo Ho Cho, Jong Hee Chae
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome. Its initial diagnosis is based primarily on characteristic papulovesicular skin lesions and early-onset neonatal seizures. In contrast to typical early neurologic manifestations, we encountered a normally developed 6-month-old female patient with hyperpigmented whorls on her body. Following respiratory syncytial virus infection and fever, the patient exhibited status epilepticus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging studies of the patient were compatible with the findings of acute encephalopathy in IP...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344064/occult-acute-macular-neuroretinopathy
#12
Michael S Vaphiades, Brendan Grondines
A 19-year-old Caucasian woman developed an upper respiratory infection, took a cold formulation containing 5 mg of phenylephrine, and developed a very rare and unusual form of acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) that could not be detected on fundoscopic examination, visual fields, nor electrophysiological testing. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed a lesion limited to the fovea. This case illustrates the value of SD-OCT, in light of otherwise normal testing, in a variant of AMN the authors call "occult AMN"...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342954/a-built-in-cpg-adjuvant-in-rsv-f-protein-dna-vaccine-drives-a-th1-polarized-and-enhanced-protective-immune-response
#13
Yao Ma, Yue-Ying Jiao, Yun-Zhou Yu, Nan Jiang, Ying Hua, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Yuan-Hui Fu, Xiang-Lei Peng, Yan-Peng Zheng, Larry J Anderson, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute lower respiratory infection in children. However, there is no licensed vaccine available. Here, we investigated the effect of five or 20 copies of C-Class of CpG ODN (CpG-C) motif incorporated into a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein on the vaccine-induced immune response. The addition of CpG-C motif enhanced serum binding and virus-neutralizing antibody responses in BALB/c mice immunized with the DNA vaccines...
January 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341100/underdiagnosis-of-influenza-virus-infection-in-hospitalized-older-adults
#14
Lauren Hartman, Yuwei Zhu, Kathryn M Edwards, Marie R Griffin, H Keipp Talbot
OBJECTIVE: To describe factors associated with provider-ordered influenza testing among hospitalized adults. DESIGN: Information on patient demographics, symptoms, and provider-ordered influenza testing were collected by questionnaire and chart review. We conducted prospective laboratory-based surveillance using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the gold-standard for diagnosis of influenza, to determine how patient characteristics and provider-ordered testing impacted accurate influenza diagnosis...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339536/length-of-stay-and-hospital-revisit-after-bacterial-tracheostomy-associated-respiratory-tract-infection-hospitalizations
#15
Christopher J Russell, Mary R Mamey, Joyce Y Koh, Sheree M Schrager, Michael N Neely, Susan Wu
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with longer length of stay (LOS) and higher 30-day hospital revisit rates for children hospitalized with bacterial tracheostomy-associated respiratory tract infections (bTARTIs). METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study using administrative data from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2007 and 2014 of patients 30 days to 17 years old with a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI or a principal discharge diagnosis of bTARTI symptoms with a secondary diagnosis of bTARTI...
January 16, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339515/mers-cov-and-h5n1-influenza-virus-antagonize-antigen-presentation-by-altering-the-epigenetic-landscape
#16
Vineet D Menachery, Alexandra Schäfer, Kristin E Burnum-Johnson, Hugh D Mitchell, Amie J Eisfeld, Kevin B Walters, Carrie D Nicora, Samuel O Purvine, Cameron P Casey, Matthew E Monroe, Karl K Weitz, Kelly G Stratton, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Lisa E Gralinski, Thomas O Metz, Richard D Smith, Katrina M Waters, Amy C Sims, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Ralph S Baric
Convergent evolution dictates that diverse groups of viruses will target both similar and distinct host pathways to manipulate the immune response and improve infection. In this study, we sought to leverage this uneven viral antagonism to identify critical host factors that govern disease outcome. Utilizing a systems-based approach, we examined differential regulation of IFN-γ-dependent genes following infection with robust respiratory viruses including influenza viruses [A/influenza/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1-VN1203) and A/influenza/California/04/2009 (H1N1-CA04)] and coronaviruses [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV)]...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339097/safety-and-preliminary-efficacy-of-venetoclax-with-decitabine-or-azacitidine-in-elderly-patients-with-previously-untreated-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-a-non-randomised-open-label-phase-1b-study
#17
Courtney D DiNardo, Keith W Pratz, Anthony Letai, Brian A Jonas, Andrew H Wei, Michael Thirman, Martha Arellano, Mark G Frattini, Hagop Kantarjian, Relja Popovic, Brenda Chyla, Tu Xu, Martin Dunbar, Suresh K Agarwal, Rod Humerickhouse, Mack Mabry, Jalaja Potluri, Marina Konopleva, Daniel A Pollyea
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients (aged ≥65 years) with acute myeloid leukaemia have poor outcomes and no effective standard-of-care therapy exists. Treatment with hypomethylating agents such as azacitidine and decitabine is common, but responses are modest and typically short-lived. The oral anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 protein inhibitor, venetoclax, has shown promising single-agent activity in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia and preclinical data suggested synergy between hypomethylating agents and venetoclax, which led to this combination phase 1b study...
January 12, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338717/risk-factors-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in%C3%A2-children-under-five-years-attending-the-bamenda-regional-hospital-in-cameroon
#18
Alexis A Tazinya, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Lawrence T Mbuagbaw, Martin Abanda, Julius Atashili, Marie Therese Obama
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children worldwide. About 6.6 million children less than 5 years of age die every year in the world; 95% of them in low-income countries and one third of the total deaths is due to ARI. This study aimed at determining the proportion of acute respiratory infections and the associated risk factors in children under 5 years visiting the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study involving 512 children under 5 years was carried out from December 2014 to February 2015...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337417/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-a-local-area-in-japan-2006-2015-an-epidemiological-and-clinical-study-of-108-patients
#19
Naoko Matsui, Hiroyuki Nodera, Daisuke Kuzume, Naoki Iwasa, Yuki Unai, Waka Sakai, Yoshimichi Miyazaki, Hiroki Yamazaki, Yusuke Osaki, Takahiro Furukawa, Masahiro Yamasaki, Yuishin Izumi, Susumu Kusunoki, Kokichi Arisawa, Ryuji Kaji
BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Fisher syndrome (FS) have been conducted in Europe and America. In contrast, epidemiological studies are rare in Asia where the GBS subtypes differ from those in Western countries. This study was undertaken to clarify the incidence of GBS and FS in a local area in Japan as well as their seasonal trends. METHODS: Seventy-one GBS and 37 FS patients were recorded from 2006 to 2015 in an area of approximately 1...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335323/antibiotic-prescribing-quality-for-children-in-primary-care-an-observational-study
#20
Megan Rose Williams, Giles Greene, Gurudutt Naik, Kathryn Hughes, Christopher C Butler, Alastair D Hay
BACKGROUND: Overuse and inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics is driving antibiotic resistance. GPs often prescribe antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in young children despite their marginal beneficial effects. AIM: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing for common infections in young children attending primary care and to investigate influencing factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: An observational, descriptive analysis, including children attending primary care sites in England and Wales...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
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