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Acute respiratory infection

Justin S Merkow, Erik J Nelson
BACKGROUND Providing anesthesia to immunocompromised patients introduces unique challenges, including difficulty in detecting respiratory infections. Detailed preoperative evaluation and preparation for perioperative complications is crucial. Human metapneumovirus is a common but lesser known respiratory virus that can lead to pneumonia and respiratory compromise and is challenging to detect in the immunocompromised patient. CASE REPORT We present a case of an immunocompromised individual scheduled for umbilical hernia repair who developed severe bronchospasm and intraoperative respiratory failure after induction of general anesthesia...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Hadil Ak AlOtair, Abdulaziz H Alzeer, Mohammed A Abdou, Shaden O Qasrawi
Central alveolar hypoventilation is rarely encountered. This case report describes a young woman who was recently diagnosed with hypertension and ischemic heart disease. She presented to the emergency room with hypercapnic respiratory failure, for which she was mechanically ventilated. This was preceded by an acute upper respiratory tract infection. She was initially suspected to have Guillain-Barré syndrome, but further investigations ruled out neuromuscular or autoimmune disorders. Sleep-related hypoventilation was suspected after she experienced recurrent apneas at night that resulted in re-intubation...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Jeffrey Earl Gotts, Lauren F Chun, Jason Abbott, Xiaohui Fang, Naoki Takasaki, Stephen L Nishimura, Matthew L Springer, Suzaynn F Schick, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
Evidence is accumulating that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) increases the risk of developing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, which in turn is the leading cause of ARDS. Chronic smokers have increased rates of pneumococcal colonization and develop more severe pneumococcal pneumonia than nonsmokers, yet mechanistic connections between CS exposure, bacterial pneumonia, and ARDS pathogenesis remain relatively unexplored. We exposed mice to 3 weeks of moderate whole-body CS or air, followed by intranasal inoculation with an invasive serotype of S...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Haili Luo, Shaohong Wang, Tongmei Yuan, Jingtao Liu, Ling Yao, Xianguo Pan, Xuemei Long, Juncheng Wu, Feng Shen
BACKGROUND: More and more cases of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 have been reported since it was first mentioned in 2013 in China, but concurrence of influenza A H7N9 with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, however, has never been described. Here, we reported the case of a woman co-infected by influenza A H7N9 and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, whose treatment process was a little bit longer and a little bit complicated as well. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was an 80-year-old Chinese woman who presented with fever, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Mira C Patel, Kari Ann Shirey, Marina S Boukhvalova, Stefanie N Vogel, Jorge C G Blanco
Host-derived "danger-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) contribute to innate immune responses and serve as markers of disease progression and severity for inflammatory and infectious diseases. There is accumulating evidence that generation of DAMPs such as oxidized phospholipids and high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) during influenza virus infection leads to acute lung injury (ALI). Treatment of influenza virus-infected mice and cotton rats with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist Eritoran blocked DAMP accumulation and ameliorated influenza virus-induced ALI...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Hayley K Hutton, Heather J Zar, Andrew C Argent
Aim: Severe acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) remains an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Methods: This is a 12-month retrospective cohort study of children (0-12 years) admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ALRTI to investigate risk factors, clinical course and in-hospital survival. Results: In total, 265 patients (median age = 4 months [2-12 months]) were identified. In all,102 (38...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Veena Hoffman, Remon Abu-Elyazeed, Cheryl Enger, Daina B Esposito, Michael C Doherty, Scott C Quinlan, Kathleen Skerry, Crystal N Holick, Peter Basile, Leonard R Friedland, Nicolas Praet, Stéphanie Wéry, Corinne Willame, David D Dore, Dominique Rosillon
As part of a regulatory commitment for post-licensure safety monitoring of live, oral human rotavirus vaccine (RV1), this study compared the incidence rates (IR) of intussusception, acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) hospitalization, Kawasaki disease, convulsion, and mortality in RV1 recipients versus inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) recipients in concurrent (cIPV) and recent historical (hIPV) comparison cohorts. Vaccine recipients were identified in 2 claims databases from August 2008 - June 2013 (RV1 and cIPV) and January 2004 - July 2008 (hIPV)...
March 13, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Oliva Ortiz-Alvarez
Croup is one of the most common causes of upper airway obstruction in young children. It is characterized by sudden onset of barky cough, hoarse voice, inspiratory stridor and respiratory distress caused by upper airway inflammation secondary to a viral infection. Published guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of croup advise using steroids as the mainstay treatment for all children who present to emergency department (ED) with croup symptoms. Dexamethasone, given orally as a single dose at 0.6 mg/kg, is highly efficacious in treating croup symptoms...
June 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Ray O'Connor, Jane O'Doherty, Andrew O'Regan, Colum Dunne
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global threat to health and is associated with increased consumption of antibiotics. Seventy-four per cent of antibiotic prescribing takes place in primary care. Much of this is for inappropriate treatment of acute respiratory tract infections. AIMS: To review the published literature pertaining to antibiotic prescribing in order to identify and understand the factors that affect primary care providers' prescribing decisions...
March 12, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Cristina Ardura-Garcia, Paul Garner, Philip J Cooper
Introduction: High asthma prevalence in Latin-American cities is thought to be caused by poor hygiene and infections. This contradicts the widely accepted 'hygiene hypothesis' for asthma aetiology. Methods: Systematic review of observational studies evaluating the association between poor hygiene exposures or infections and asthma/wheeze among Latin-American children aged 4-16 years. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and CINAHL electronic databases were searched following a predefined strategy to 18 December 2017...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Lone Simonsen, Gerardo Chowell, Viggo Andreasen, Robert Gaffey, John Barry, Don Olson, Cécile Viboud
Mounting epidemiological evidence supports the occurrence of a mild herald pandemic wave in the spring and summer of 1918 in North America and Europe, several months before the devastating autumn outbreak that killed an estimated 2% of the global population. These epidemiological findings corroborate the anecdotal observations of contemporary clinicians who reported widespread influenza outbreaks in spring and summer 1918, with sporadic occurrence of unusually severe clinical manifestations in young adults...
March 2, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Yuk-Fai Lau, Wee-Hong Victor Koh, Clement Kan, Poh-Choo Alethea Dua, Ai-Sim Elizabeth Lim, Chin-Wen Jasper Liaw, Qiu-Han Gao, Jeremiah Chng, Vernon J Lee, Boon-Huan Tan, Jin-Phang Loh
BACKGROUND: Respiratory illnesses have been identified as a significant factor leading to lost training time and morbidity among Singapore military recruits. A surveillance programme has been put in place to determine etiological agents responsible for febrile, as well as afebrile respiratory illnesses in a military camp. The goal of the study is to better understand the epidemiology of these diseases and identify potential countermeasures to protect military recruits against them. METHODS: From Jan 2016 - Jan 2017, a total of 2647 respiratory cases were enrolled into the surveillance programme...
March 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Dorian Hobday, Aklak Choudhury, Amani Asour, Saima Khan, Sneha Abburu, Jyotika Sood, Nora Jaafar, Manisha Madhani, Nazia Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Prolonged or inappropriate antibiotic therapy increases the risk of health-care-associated infections and the development of resistance to antibiotics, and lengthens hospital admissions. There are clear guidelines on antimicrobial stewardship which state that antibiotics should be reviewed between 48 and 72 hours from commencement ( National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, 2015 ). Despite these guidelines this review was often not documented as having been carried out on the authors' inpatient wards...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Dorina Esendagli, Irem Serifoglu, Serife Savas Bozbas, Merih Tepeoglu, Sule Akcay, Mehmet Haberal
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is an infection seen in patients receiving intensive immunosuppressive regimens, such as transplant recipients. Some risk factors that increase the incidence of infection have been determined, and patients defined as having high risk are recommended to take antifungal prophylaxis and be monitored closely. Here, we present a liver transplant patient with mild respiratory symptoms and a normal chest radiography on day 26 posttransplant. However, he had acute renal failure and underwent hemodialysis, which are both defined to increase significantly the risk of aspergillosis...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Cheryl L Maier, Phillip J Gross, Christina L Dean, Satheesh Chonat, Andrew Ip, Morgan McLemore, Fuad El Rassi, Sean R Stowell, Cassandra D Josephson, Ross M Fasano
BACKGROUND: Fever accompanying vaso-occlusive crisis is a common presentation in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and carries a broad differential diagnosis. Here, we report a case of transfusion-transmitted malaria in a patient with SCD presenting with acute vaso-occlusive crisis and rapidly decompensating to multisystem organ failure (MSOF). CASE REPORT: An 18-year-old African American male with SCD was admitted after multiple days of fever and severe generalized body pain...
March 9, 2018: Transfusion
S Ben Saad, B Melki, L Douik El Gharbi, F Soraya, N Chaouch, H Aouina, J Cherif, A Hamzaoui, A Merghli, H Daghfous, F Tritar
BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax is a serious complication of cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to describe clinical futures, to highlight challenges of its management. METHODS: A retrospective multicentric and descriptive study including 65 patients treated for PT (1999-2015) was conducted to figure out clinical futures and its work-up. RESULTS: The mean age was 37.8 years. The sex ratio was 3.6. Smoking history and incarceration were noted respectively in 67...
March 6, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
G Tourniaire, C Milési, J Baleine, J Crozier, C Lapeyre, C Combes, N Nagot, G Cambonie
INTRODUCTION: The role of anemia is raised as a risk of low respiratory infection of the child, but there are no data on anemia as a severity factor in acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB) in infants. METHODS: All infants less than 16 weeks old admitted to Montpellier University Hospital from 2015/10/01 to 2016/04/01 for AVB were included in a retrospective observational study. The primary objective was to determine whether the hemoglobin (Hb) concentration on admission was an independent factor of clinical severity, judged by the modified Wood's clinical asthma score (m-WCAS)...
March 6, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Xiang-Yong Liu, Hai-Xiao Xu, Jian-Kui Li, Dong Zhang, Xiao-Hong Ma, Li-Na Huang, Jun-Hong Lü, Xiao-Zhi Wang
Damage to the endothelial glycocalyx is a critical factor in increased pulmonary vascular permeability, which is the basic pathological feature of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Neferine (Nef), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from green seed embryos of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn , has extensive pharmacological activity. In this study, we showed that Nef reduced lung-capillary permeability, down-regulated the production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10) and inhibited the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Nicolize O'Dell, Luke Arnot, Chris Eric Janisch, Johan Ca Steyl
African horse sickness (AHS) is a fatal vector transmitted viral disease of horses caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV). This disease is characterised by circulatory and respiratory failure, resulting from vascular endothelial injury affecting many organs. The susceptibility of dogs to AHS has been demonstrated in the past following experimental infection through consumption of infected horse meat. clinical cases of AHS in dogs (cAHS) have been documented, without a history of ingesting infected horse meat, over a period of 12 years...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Record
Rungnapa Malasao, Yuki Furuse, Michiko Okamoto, Clyde Dapat, Mayuko Saito, Mariko Saito-Obata, Raita Tamaki, Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado, Socorro Lupisan, Hitoshi Oshitani
Complete genome sequences of 13 human respiratory syncytial virus strains were determined from samples obtained from children hospitalized in the Philippines between 2012 and 2013 because of acute respiratory infection. We identified amino acid polymorphisms between the NA1 and ON1 genotypes in the P, G, F, and L proteins.
March 8, 2018: Genome Announcements
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