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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934933/medicine-use-practices-in-management-of-symptoms-of-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-%C3%A2-12%C3%A2-years-in-kampala-city-uganda
#1
Moses Ocan, Mary Aono, Clare Bukirwa, Emmanuel Luyinda, Cathy Ochwo, Elastus Nsambu, Stella Namugonza, Joseph Makoba, Enock Kandaruku, Hannington Muyende, Aida Nakawunde
BACKGROUND: Medicines are commonly accessed and used for management of illness in children without a prescription. This potentially increases the risk of unwanted treatment outcomes. We investigated medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections among children (≤12 years) in households in Nakawa division, Kampala city. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 390 randomly selected children. Data on use of medicines in children (≤12 years) during recent episode of acute upper respiratory tract infection was collected from their care takers using an interviewer administered questionnaire...
September 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934425/human-bocavirus-capsid-messenger-rna-detection-in-children-with-pneumonia
#2
Robert Schlaberg, Krow Ampofo, Keith D Tardif, Chris Stockmann, Keith E Simmon, Weston Hymas, Steven Flygare, Brett Kennedy, Anne Blaschke, Karen Eilbeck, Mark Yandell, Jon A McCullers, Derek J Williams, Kathryn Edwards, Sandra R Arnold, Anna Bramley, Seema Jain, Andrew T Pavia
Background: The role of human bocavirus (HBoV) in respiratory illness is uncertain. HBoV genomic DNA is frequently detected in both ill and healthy children. We hypothesized that spliced viral capsid messenger RNA (mRNA) produced during active replication might be a better marker for acute infection. Methods: As part of the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, children aged <18 years who were hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and children asymptomatic at the time of elective outpatient surgery (controls) were enrolled...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931688/a-selective-bottleneck-shapes-the-evolutionary-mutant-spectra-of-enterovirus-a71-during-viral-dissemination-in-humans
#3
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931394/the-efficacy-of-initial-ventilation-strategy-for-adult-immunocompromised-patients-with-severe-acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomized-controlled-trial-venim
#4
Tao Wang, Gang Liu, Kun He, Xin Lu, Xianquan Liang, Meng Wang, Rong Zhu, Zongru Li, Feng Chen, Jun Ke, Qingming Lin, Chuanyun Qian, Bo Li, Jie Wei, Jingjun Lv, Li Li, Yanxia Gao, Guofeng Wu, Xiaohong Yu, Weiqin Wei, Ying Deng, Fengping Wang, Hong Zhang, Yun Zheng, Hong Zhan, Jinli Liao, Yingping Tian, Dongqi Yao, Jingsong Zhang, Xufeng Chen, Lishan Yang, Jiali Wu, Yanfen Chai, Songtao Shou, Muming Yu, Xudong Xiang, Dongshan Zhang, Fengying Chen, Xiufeng Xie, Yong Li, Bo Wang, Wenzhong Zhang, Yongli Miao, Michael Eddleston, Jianqiang He, Yong Ma, Shengyong Xu, Yi Li, Huadong Zhu, Xuezhong Yu
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is still one of the most severe complications in immunocompromised patients. Our previous systematic review showed noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) reduced mortality, length of hospitalization and ICU stay in AIDS/hematological malignancy patients with relatively less severe ARF, compared to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). However, this systematic review was based on 13 observational studies and the quality of evidence was low to moderate...
September 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930535/leader-sequences-of-coronavirus-are-altered-during-infection
#5
Li Liu, Wei Chen
The life cycle of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) involves a unique process called discontinuous transcription by which a set of 3' coterminal subgenomic mRNAs (sgmRNA) with identical 5' leader sequences can be generated. The current study demonstrates that the replication intermediates of minus strand of subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) can be readily recovered from SARS-CoV infected cells. A novel sgmRNA (M-1) was identified as a short version of membrane (M) gene. Transcriptional regulatory sequences (TRS) of SARS-CoV and Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) sgmRNAs contain a species specific core element (CE)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929588/bioactive-compounds-of-shuang-huang-lian-prescription-and-an-insight-into-its-binding-mechanism-by-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-chromatography-coupled-with-site-directed-molecular-docking
#6
Jing Wang, Fengwu Li, Kaizhu Zeng, Qian Li, Xinfeng Zhao, Xiaohui Zheng
Owing to the promising clinical efficacy and relatively simple composition, Shuang-Huang-Lian prescription is widely prescribed for the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection and acute bronchitis in practice. This necessitates the understanding of the bioactive compounds of the prescription and their binding mechanism to β2-adrenoceptor, which mediates the aforementioned ailments. In this work, a column containing immobilized β2-adrenoceptor was prepared using a diazonium salt reaction. The bioactive compound collected from the β2-adrenoceptor column was identified as chlorogenic acid by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927683/influenza-vaccination-and-risk-of-respiratory-failure-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-nationwide-population-based-case-cohort-study
#7
Hsin-Hui Huang, Su-Jung Chen, Tze-Fan Chao, Chia-Jen Liu, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Pesus Chou, Fu-Der Wang
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease which causes a considerable disease burden. Patients with COPD are at a higher risk for influenza infection and influenza vaccination are recommended at this high risk patient group. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the association between influenza vaccination and the risk of respiratory failure (RF) in COPD patients. METHODS: From 2001 to 2005, patients with newly diagnosed COPD were identified from the NHIRD, and were followed until 2010...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923817/patient-willingness-to-have-tests-to-guide-antibiotic-use-for-respiratory-tract-infections-from-the-wwami-region-practice-and-research-network-wprn
#8
Malaika Schwartz, Victoria Hardy, Gina A Keppel, William Alto, Jaime Hornecker, Beth Robitaille, Jon Neher, John Holmes, M Ashworth Dirac, Allison M Cole, Matthew Thompson
INTRODUCTION: The majority of consultations for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) lead to prescriptions for antibiotics, which have limited clinical benefit. We explored patients' willingness to have blood tests as part of the diagnostic work-up for RTIs, and patient knowledge about antibiotics. METHODS: Patients at 6 family medicine clinics were surveyed. Regression modeling was used to determine independent predictors of willingness to have venous and point-of-care (POC) blood tests, and knowledge of the value of antibiotics for RTIs...
September 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923806/improving-the-health-of-patients-and-communities-evolving-practice-based-research-pbr-and-collaborations
#9
Kevin Fiscella
This issue illustrates how research from practice-based research networks has evolved to span a spectrum from improving patient-level care and practice quality to improving health within local and global communities. Articles address patient-level improvements (a biomarker for cardiovascular disease progression, late-onset anorexia nervosa, complementary health approaches used by patients, and patient preferences related to antibiotics for acute respiratory infections); practice-level improvements (selection of types of fecal immunochemical tests, practice facilitation, practice registry implementation, community-based outreach, and bidirectional texting); and community-level improvements (primary care-public health partnership, influenza surveillance, and establishing family medicine training abroad)...
September 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923111/a-novel-coltivirus-related-virus-isolated-from-free-tailed-bats-from-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-is-able-to-infect-human-cells-in-vitro
#10
Sabrina Weiss, Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski, Andreas Kurth, Siv Aina J Leendertz, Fabian H Leendertz
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic transmission events play a major role in the emergence of novel diseases. While such events are virtually impossible to predict, wildlife screening for potential emerging pathogens can be a first step. Driven by recent disease epidemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, bats have gained special interest as reservoirs of emerging viruses. METHODS: As part of a bigger study investigating pathogens in African bats we screened animals for the presence of known and unknown viruses...
September 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918465/congenital-lumbar-kyphosis-with-skin-ulceration-and-osteomyelitis-in-a-myelomeningocele-child-a-case-report
#11
Benoit Vibert, Marco Turati, Pierre-Yves Rabattu, Marco Bigoni, Ahmad Eid, Aurélien Courvoisier
INTRODUCTION: Kyphosis is a frequent problem in children with spina bifida, and this deformity may cause different complications as respiratory insufficiency, bowel dysfunction, and skin ulcers. CASE REPORT: We report on a 13-year-old myelomeningocele male with a lumbar kyphoscoliosis associated to a septic skin ulceration that resulted in an acute sepsis. An X-ray revealed a kyphosis of 110° and a scoliosis of 25° between T9 and L5. The wound and blood cultures showed Staphylococcus aureus colonization, and an appropriate antibiotic therapy was started...
September 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917068/group-a-streptococcal-bacteraemia-experience-at-king-fahad-medical-city-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia
#12
Fawzyh J Al-Khadidi, Mohammed A AlSheheri, Tariq S AlFawaz, Mushira A Enani, Abdulaziz A AlAqeel, Dayel A AlShahrani
To identify clinical presentation, predisposing factors, and the outcome in patients with Group A Streptococcal bacteremia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of 33 pediatric and adult patients with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia, admitted at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2007 to 2015. Results: Thirty-three patient records, documenting bacteremia with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, were reviewed. Approximately 51.5% were pediatric and 48.5% were adult patients, with a male to female ratio of 2:1...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916245/tetanus-diphtheria-and-acellular-pertussis-vaccination-during-pregnancy-and-reduced-risk-of-infant-acute-respiratory-infections
#13
Zeina G Khodr, Anna T Bukowinski, Gia R Gumbs, Ava Marie S Conlin
BACKGROUND: To protect infants from pertussis infection, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends women receive the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine between 27 and 36weeks of pregnancy. Here, we assessed the association between timing of maternal Tdap vaccination during pregnancy and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in infants <2months of age. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 99,434 infants born to active duty military women in the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry from 2006 through 2013...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914861/-kagocel-in-the-therapy-of-influenza-and-acute-respiratory-viral-infections-data-analysis-and-systematization-from-the-results-of-preclinical-and-clinical-trials
#14
T V Sologub, V V Tsvetkov
The article provides the summarized data of clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of kagocel used to prevent and treat influenza and acute respiratory viral infections of different etiologies. The results of numerous preclinical and clinical trials suggest that the kagocel substance is highly safe and that it is appropriate to use the drug for the treatment and prevention of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections of another etiology.
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913988/prevalence-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-korean-adult-asthmatics-with-acute-exacerbations-comparison-with-those-with-stable-state
#15
Ki Hyun Seo, Da Jeong Bae, Ji Na Kim, Ho Sung Lee, Yong Hoon Kim, Jong Sook Park, Myung Shin Kim, Hun Soo Chang, Ji Hye Son, Dong Gyu Baek, Jun Suk Lee, Choon Sik Park
PURPOSE: Viral infections are involved in ~50% of exacerbations among Caucasian adult asthmatics. However, there have been few reports on the causative virus of exacerbations in Korean adult asthmatics. Thus, we compared frequencies and types of viruses between lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) with exacerbations (exacerbated LRTIs) and those without exacerbations (stable LRTIs) to evaluate contribution of respiratory viruses to exacerbations. METHODS: Viral RNA was extracted from sputum using the Viral Gene-spin™ Kit...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913912/streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-of-the-nasopharynx-is-associated-with-increased-severity-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-young-children
#16
Jaelle C Brealey, Keith J Chappell, Sally Galbraith, Emmanuelle Fantino, Jane Gaydon, Sarah Tozer, Paul R Young, Patrick G Holt, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in early life. RSV and other respiratory viruses are known to stimulate substantial outgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper airways of young children. However, the clinical significance of interactions between viruses and bacteria is currently unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of viral and bacterial co-detections on disease severity during paediatric ARI...
September 15, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912779/v%C3%AE-4-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-aggravate-severe-h1n1-influenza-virus-infection-induced-acute-pulmonary-immunopathological-injury-via-secreting-interleukin-17a
#17
Chunxue Xue, Mingjie Wen, Linlin Bao, Hui Li, Fengdi Li, Meng Liu, Qi Lv, Yunqing An, Xulong Zhang, Bin Cao
The influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus remains a critical global health concern and causes high levels of morbidity and mortality. Severe acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are the major outcomes among severely infected patients. Our previous study found that interleukin (IL)-17A production by humans or mice infected with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 substantially contributes to ALI and subsequent morbidity and mortality. However, the cell types responsible for IL-17A production during the early stage of severe influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infection remained unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911947/albumin-prevents-infections-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-failure-in-a-single-arm-feasibility-trial
#18
Louise China, Simon S Skene, Zainib Shabir, Alexander Maini, Yvonne Sylvestre, Kate Bennett, Scott Bevan, James O'Beirne, Ewan Forrest, Jim Portal, Steve Ryder, Gavin Wright, Derek W Gilroy, Alastair O'Brien
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Infections are life threatening to patients with acute decompensation and acute-on-chronic liver failure (AD/ACLF). Patients with AD/ACLF have prostaglandin E2-mediated immune suppression, which can be reversed by administration of albumin; infusion of 20% human albumin solution (HAS) might improve outcomes of infections. We performed a feasibility study to determine optimal trial design, assess safety, and validate laboratory assessments of immune function to inform design of a phase 3 trial...
September 11, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910912/-percutaneous-catheterization-for-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-retrospective-case-series
#19
X Y Li, H Y He, X Tang, R Wang, C Y Zhang, S Q Wang, B Sun, Z H Tong
Objective: To review the experience of percutaneous catheterization for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) by respiratory intensivists at a single institution. Methods: A retrospective review of 87 patients undergoing percutaneous catheterization for ECMO in Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital from November 2009 to January 2017. Subject demographics, type of support, cannulation configuration, types of cannulas, use of imaging modalities, and complications were recorded and summarized...
September 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906399/characteristics-of-infection-and-its-impact-on-short-term-outcome-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#20
Junjun Cai, Mengchen Zhang, Tao Han, Hui-Qing Jiang
Bacterial infections are an important cause of mortality in liver failure. However, the type of infection, predictors of infection, and their impact on outcomes in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) are limited.A total of 389 patients with ACLF were admitted in this retrospective, corhort study. Once admitted, clinical data including first infection site, type (community-acquired, healthcare-associated, or nosocomial), and second infection occurrence during hospitalization were collected. The outcome was mortality within 90 days...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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