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Acute respiratory infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650250/a-retrospective-longitudinal-claims-based-comparison-of-concomitant-diagnoses-between-individuals-with-and-without-down-syndrome
#1
Amanda M Kong, Dana Hurley, Kristin A Evans, Diana Brixner, Csilla Csoboth, Jeannie Visootsak
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) experience various comorbidities in excess of the prevalence seen among the non-DS population. However, the extent of the excess burden of comorbidities specifically within commercially and publicly insured DS populations aged < 21 years is not currently known. OBJECTIVES: To (a) describe the most common diagnoses among individuals with DS who have either commercial or Medicaid insurance and (b) compare the prevalence of those diagnoses between DS cases and non-DS controls...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650078/genetic-diversity-of-human-metapneumovirus-in-hospitalized-children-with-acute-respiratory-infections-in-croatia
#2
M Jagušić, A Slovic, S Ljubin Sternak, G Mlinarić-Galinović, D Forčić
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is recognized as a global and frequent cause of acute respiratory tract infections among people of all ages. The objectives of this study were molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of HMPV strains which produced moderate and severe acute respiratory tract infections in children in Croatia during four consecutive seasons (2011-2014). A total of 117 HMPV-positive samples collected from hospitalized paediatric patients presenting with acute respiratory tract infections and tested by direct immunofluorescence assay were first analyzed by amplifying a part of the F gene...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649366/pneumocystis-jirovecii-detection-in-asymptomatic-patients-what-does-its-natural-history-tell-us
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an unusual ascomycetous fungus that can be detected in the lungs of healthy individuals. Transmission from human to human is one of its main characteristics in comparison with other fungi responsible for invasive infections. P. jirovecii is transmitted through the air between healthy individuals, who are considered to be the natural reservoir, at least transiently. In immunocompromised patients, P. jirovecii multiplies, leading to subacute infections and acute life-threatening pneumonia, called Pneumocystis pneumonia [PCP]...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648543/seasonal-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-against-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-hospitalizations-latin-america-2013
#4
Nathalie El Omeiri, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Mark G Thompson, Wilfrido Clará, Mauricio Cerpa, Rakhee Palekar, Sara Mirza, Alba María Ropero-Álvarez
BACKGROUND: Despite widespread utilization of influenza vaccines, effectiveness (VE) has not been routinely measured in Latin America. METHODS: We used a case test-negative control design to estimate trivalent inactivated influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized children aged 6months-5years and adults aged ≥60years which are age-groups targeted for vaccination. We sought persons with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI), hospitalized at 71 sentinel hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, and Paraguay during January-December 2013...
June 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648393/etiologies-trends-and-predictors-of-30-day-readmissions-in-patients-with-diastolic-heart-failure
#5
Shilpkumar Arora, Sopan Lahewala, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Saman Setareh-Shenas, Prashant Patel, Varun Kumar, Byomesh Tripathi, Harshil Shah, Viralkumar Patel, Umesh Gidwani, Abhishek Deshmukh, Apurva Badheka, Radha Gopalan
An estimated half of all heart failure (HF) populations has been categorized to have diastolic HF (DHF), but sparse data are available describing etiologies and predictors of 30-day readmission in DHF population. The study cohort was derived from the National Readmission Database 2013 to 2014, a subset of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. DHF was identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code 428.3x in primary diagnosis field...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647513/respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-weather-conditions-and-air-pollution-in-an-italian-urban-area-an-observational-study
#6
Raffaella Nenna, Melania Evangelisti, Antonella Frassanito, Carolina Scagnolari, Alessandra Pierangeli, Guido Antonelli, Ambra Nicolai, Serena Arima, Corrado Moretti, Paola Papoff, Maria Pia Villa, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: In this study we sought to evaluate the association between viral bronchiolitis, weather conditions, and air pollution in an urban area in Italy. METHODS: We included infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis from 2004 to 2014. All infants underwent a nasal washing for virus detection. A regional agency network collected meteorological data (mean temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity) and the following air pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, benzene and suspended particulate matter measuring less than 10µm (PM10) and less than 2...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646962/the-long-shadow-of-lemierre-s-syndrome
#7
Joshua Osowicki, Sarah Kapur, Linny Kimly Phuong, Simon Dobson
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare and feared complication of pharyngitis, occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. It is typically defined by the constellation of septic internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, pulmonary and other septic emboli, and sterilesite infection by Fusobacterium necrophorum. The rarity and severity of Lemierre's syndrome has made it an attractive subject for case reports but there is a paucity of evidence to inform areas of persistent uncertainty. In recent years, heightened attention and controversy has focused upon speculation that a purported rise in the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome is due to reduced antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections, that F...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646950/pertussis-disease-and-transmission-and-host-responses-insights-from-the-baboon-model-of-pertussis
#8
Marta V Pinto, Tod J Merkel
Whooping cough is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis (Bp). Despite the introduction and widespread use of vaccines starting in the 1950s pertussis cases continue to be reported, with a significant global impact. The role of specific virulence factors in disease and the immune mechanisms associated with protection following natural infection or vaccination are still not completely understood. The recently-developed baboon model of clinical pertussis provides a valuable tool for the study of pertussis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646846/molecular-epidemiology-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-iranian-%C3%A2-60-years-old-hospitalized-patients-with-acute-respiratory-symptoms
#9
Yaser Arjeyni, Ebrahim Faghihloo, Katayoun Samimi Rad, Vahid Salimi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Talat Mokhtari-Azad
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and mortality in ≥60 years old population around the world. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and circulating genotypes of HRSV in Iranian patients ≥ 60 years old. METHODS: In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study, we examined the C-terminal located hypervariable domain of G glycoprotein of HRSV in throat swabs from Tehran, Hormozgan, Boushehr, West Azarbayjan, Ghom and Alborz provinces of Iran which were addressed to national influenza center between October 2013 and March 2015...
June 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646236/rapamycin-adjuvant-and-exacerbation-of-severe-influenza-in-an-experimental-mouse-model
#10
Ching-Tai Huang, Chen-Yiu Hung, Tse-Ching Chen, Chun-Yen Lin, Yung-Chang Lin, Chia-Shiang Chang, Yueh-Chia He, Yu-Lin Huang, Avijit Dutta
Influenza virus infection often causes severe disease and acute respiratory distress syndrome. It is a common belief that overwhelming immune response contributes to the severe illness. Physicians and researchers have put forth immune modulation as salvage therapy for better recovery. However, empiric corticosteroid failed in both humans and animal models. Reported success with Rapamycin in humans prompted a comprehensive animal study and mechanistic dissection. Here we report the effect of Rapamycin alone or in combination with Oseltamivir for severe influenza in BALB/c mice...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644389/chronic-respiratory-infection-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-what-is-the-role-of-antibiotics
#11
REVIEW
Marc Miravitlles, Antonio Anzueto
Chronic infections are associated with exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The major objective of the management of these patients is the prevention and effective treatment of exacerbations. Patients that have increased sputum production, associated with purulence and worsening shortness of breath, are the ones that will benefit from antibiotic therapy. It is important to give the appropriate antibiotic therapy to prevent treatment failure, relapse, and the emergence of resistant pathogens...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644368/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-not-associated-with-growth-or-the-incidence-of-common-morbidities-among-tanzanian-infants
#12
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Emily R Smith, Said Aboud, Rodrick Kisenge, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and determine the association of vitamin D status with child growth and incidence of common morbidities among Tanzanian infants. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 581 Tanzanian infants born to HIV-uninfected mothers had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assessed at 6 weeks and 6 months of age. Infants were seen at monthly clinic visits for growth monitoring until 18 months of age...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643291/-more-than-expectorant-new-scientific-data-on-ambroxol-in-the-context-of-the-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-diseases
#13
Manuel Plomer, Justus de Zeeuw
BACKGROUND: Ambroxol has been established for decades in the treatment of acute and chronic respiratory diseases. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency reassessed the clinical benefit-risk ratio of the drug. OBJECTIVE: What new scientific data on ambroxol, which are relevant to the treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases, are available? METHOD: The review is based on a systematic literature research in medline with the search term "ambroxol" during the publication period 2006-2015...
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643204/host-factors-in-coronavirus-replication
#14
Adriaan H de Wilde, Eric J Snijder, Marjolein Kikkert, Martijn J van Hemert
Coronaviruses are pathogens with a serious impact on human and animal health. They mostly cause enteric or respiratory disease, which can be severe and life threatening, e.g., in the case of the zoonotic coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in humans. Despite the economic and societal impact of such coronavirus infections, and the likelihood of future outbreaks of additional pathogenic coronaviruses, our options to prevent or treat coronavirus infections remain very limited...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639594/viral-aetiology-of-wheezing-in-children-under-five
#15
Prithi Sureka Mummidi, Radha Tripathy, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amarendra Mahapatra, Suryakanta Baraha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Wheezing is a common problem in children under five with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Viruses are known to be responsible for a considerable proportion of ARIs in children. This study was undertaken to know the viral aetiology of wheezing among the children less than five years of age, admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. METHODS: Seventy five children, under the age of five years admitted with wheezing, were included in the study...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638723/low-dose-methotrexate-in-sickle-cell-disease-a-pilot-study-with-rationale-borrowed-from-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
Silvia R Brandalise, Rosemary Assis, Angelo B A Laranjeira, José Andrés Yunes, Pedro O de Campos-Lima
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a major feature of sickle cell disease (SCD). Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) has long been used in chronic inflammatory diseases. This pilot study examined the MTX effect on acute vaso-occlusive pain crises (VOC) in SCD patients. METHODS: Fourteen adults on hydroxyurea with severe and refractory VOC received one intramuscular injection of 10 mg of MTX per week for 12 weeks. A single weekly dose of 5 mg of leucovorin was administered orally 48 h after each MTX injection...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636671/different-residues-in-the-sars-cov-spike-protein-determine-cleavage-and-activation-by-the-host-cell-protease-tmprss2
#17
Lennart Michel Reinke, Martin Spiegel, Teresa Plegge, Anika Hartleib, Inga Nehlmeier, Stefanie Gierer, Markus Hoffmann, Heike Hofmann-Winkler, Michael Winkler, Stefan Pöhlmann
The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mediates viral entry into target cells. Cleavage and activation of SARS S by a host cell protease is essential for infectious viral entry and the responsible enzymes are potential targets for antiviral intervention. The type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 cleaves and activates SARS S in cell culture and potentially also in the infected host. Here, we investigated which determinants in SARS S control cleavage and activation by TMPRSS2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634021/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-and-health-outcomes-in-children-with-asthma
#18
Pamela R Wood, Jordan C Kampschmidt, Peter H Dube, Marianna P Cagle, Paola Chaparro, Norma S Ketchum, Thirumalai R Kannan, Harjinder Singh, Jay I Peters, Joel B Baseman, Edward G Brooks
BACKGROUND: Acute infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) have been associated with worsening asthma in children. Mp can be present in the respiratory tract for extended periods; it is unknown whether the long-term persistence of Mp in the respiratory tract affects long-term asthma control. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Mp on asthma control. METHODS: We enrolled 31 pediatric subjects 3 to 10 years of age with persistent asthma who completed up to 8 visits over a 24-month period...
June 17, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628462/attributable-fraction-of-influenza-virus-detection-to-mild-and-severe-respiratory-illnesses-in-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-patients-south-africa-2012-2016
#19
Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Jocelyn Moyes, Adam L Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Meredith L McMorrow, Florette K Treurnicht, Marietjie Venter, Marthi Pretorius, Orienka Hellferscee, Nicole Wolter, Anne von Gottberg, Athermon Nguweneza, Johanna M McAnerney, Halima Dawood, Ebrahim Variava, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen
The attributable fraction (AF) of influenza virus detection to illness has not been described for patients in different age groups or with different HIV infection statuses. We compared the age group-specific prevalence of influenza virus infection among patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute or chronic respiratory illness (SARI and SCRI, respectively) with that among controls, stratified by HIV serostatus. The overall AF for influenza virus detection to illness was 92.6% for ILI, 87.4% for SARI, and 86...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627819/analysis-of-respiratory-viral-infections-detected-using-multiplex-real-time-pcr-in-hwaseong-korea-from-2013-to-2015
#20
Dae-Hyun Ko, Jungwon Hyun, Han-Sung Kim, Jae-Seok Kim, Wonkeun Song, Hyun Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: We investigated the incidences and age-related/seasonal variations of respiratory virus infections in a regional area in Korea. METHODS: A total of 3,467 respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory infection symptoms in a teaching hospital were tested for respiratory viruses during 2013 - 2015. RESULTS: At least one virus was detected in 2,561 of the 3,467 specimens (73.9%), and 706 patients (20.4%) were positive for two or more viruses...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
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