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Vitamin D immunology

Dominique Endres, Rick Dersch, Oliver Stich, Armin Buchwald, Evgeniy Perlov, Bernd Feige, Simon Maier, Andreas Riedel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D has many immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective functions, and previous studies have demonstrated an association between vitamin D deficiency and neuropsychiatric disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a 1-year cohort of adult inpatients with schizophreniform and autism spectrum syndromes in a naturalistic inpatient setting in Germany. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Our study was comprised of 60 adult schizophreniform and 23 adult high-functioning autism spectrum patients who were hospitalized between January and December of 2015...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
A Rugor, M Tataruch, J Staroń, A Dudzik, E Niedzialkowska, P Nowak, A Hogendorf, A Michalik-Zym, D B Napruszewska, A Jarzębski, K Szymańska, W Białas, M Szaleniec
Steroid C25 dehydrogenase (S25DH) from Sterolibacterium denitrificans Chol-1S is a molybdenum oxidoreductase belonging to the so-called ethylbenzene dehydrogenase (EBDH)-like subclass of DMSO reductases capable of the regioselective hydroxylation of cholesterol or cholecalciferol to 25-hydroxy products. Both products are important biologically active molecules: 25-hydroxycholesterol is responsible for a complex regulatory function in the immunological system, while 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcifediol) is the activated form of vitamin D3 used in the treatment of rickets and other calcium disorders...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Lamia Ysmail-Dahlouk, Wafa Nouari, Mourad Aribi
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with an imbalance between inflammation and repair. Recently, the biologically active form of vitamin D3, i.e. 1,25(OH)2D3, has been reported to have potent immunomodulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as on the production of their specific cytokines. METHODS: We examined the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the production of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 and anti-inflammatory Th2/Treg related cytokines, as well as on the phosphorylation of monocyte-expressed STAT4 and STAT6 at the recent-onset human T1D...
October 4, 2016: Immunology Letters
Laura Groseanu, Violeta Bojinca, Tania Gudu, Ioana Saulescu, Denisa Predeteanu, Andra Balanescu, Florian Berghea, Daniela Opris, Andreea Borangiu, Cosmin Constantinescu, Magda Negru, Ruxandra Ionescu
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D has pleiotropic effects including immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, and antifibrotic properties and is thus able to modulate the three main links in scleroderma pathogenesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of vitamin D in patients with systemic sclerosis and to analyze the associations between the concentration of vitamin D and the features of systemic sclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one consecutive patients were evaluated for visceral involvement, immunological profile, activity, severity scores, and quality of life...
June 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Nouran M Abaza, Reem M El-Mallah, Asmaa Shaaban, Sameh A Mobasher, Khaled F Al-Hassanein, Amr A Abdel Zaher, Rania H El-Kabarity
BACKGROUND: The emerging role of vitamin D in immunology and autoimmune disorders has been a worldwide interest in the last decade. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are particularly at a delicate position predisposing them to suffer from vitamin D deficiency due to the multiple risk factors accompanying the disease. Whether vitamin D deficiency is also involved as a risk factor for developing SLE and affecting its course is a considerable concern. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in SLE patients and its relation to disease...
2016: Integrative Medicine Insights
Mohammad Reza Shiri-Shahsavar, Abbas Mirshafiee, Karim Parastouei, Abbas Ebrahimi-Kalan, Saeed Yekaninejad, Farid Soleymani, Reza Chahardoli, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
Vitamins are immunologically interesting due to their significant immunomodulatory activities. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is one of the most commonly used experimental models for studying autoimmune disorder in multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective and ameliorative effects of novel combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on EAE-specific determinants and target gene expressions. Mice were randomly categorized into three groups before EAE induction [non-treated EAE (Group E), treated EAE (Group T), and healthy mice (Group H)]...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Tianjing Liu, Yongyan Shi, Jie Du, Xin Ge, Xu Teng, Lu Liu, Enbo Wang, Qun Zhao
Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have different immunological mechanisms, while both of them are potential targets of vitamin D treatment. In this study, we have tried to address the role of vitamin D in CD and UC using two mouse models. Mice of C57B6L were given vitamin D before the induction of colitis. Our results showed that vitamin D attenuated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis. Vitamin D could preserve the local histology, alleviate inflammation, suppress apoptosis, maintain tight junction function and decrease permeability...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rhiannon Kundu, Aikaterini Theodoraki, Carolin T Haas, Yanjing Zhang, Benjamin Chain, Janos Kriston-Vizi, Mahdad Noursadeghi, Bernard Khoo
Vitamin D is widely reported to inhibit innate immune signalling and dendritic cell (DC) maturation as a potential immunoregulatory mechanism. It is not known whether vitamin D has global or gene-specific effects on transcriptional responses downstream of innate immune stimulation, or whether vitamin D inhibition of innate immune signalling is common to different cells. We confirmed vitamin D inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
September 8, 2016: Immunology
Qunying Hu, Zhengshuai Chen, Guinian Liang, Fangping Mo, Hengxun Zhang, Shilin Xu, Yuhe Wang, Longli Kang, Tianbo Jin
BACKGROUND: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the immunological function of vitamin D3, which activates macrophages, and vitamin D deficiency has been linked to tuberculosis risk. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR may influence the function of vitamin D and susceptibility to tuberculosis. METHODS: This study included 217 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 383 healthy subjects in a Tibetan Chinese population living in and near Xi'an. Association analyses of SNPs in VDR were performed with the SPSS 17...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Emma Merike Savilahti, Outi Mäkitie, Anna Kaarina Kukkonen, Sture Andersson, Heli Viljakainen, Erkki Savilahti, Mikael Kuitunen
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has several immunological functions. Data on the relation of vitamin D status and allergy are controversial. METHODS: We investigated the association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and allergy in childhood. The study population (n = 819) was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial where the mothers of offspring with a high risk for allergy received a mixture of probiotics (or placebo) for the last 4 weeks of pregnancy, and the child received this from birth to 6 months...
2016: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Franz J J Rieder, Charlotte Gröschel, Marie-Theres Kastner, Karin Kosulin, Johannes Laengle, Rene Zadnikar, Rodrig Marculescu, Martina Schneider, Thomas Lion, Michael Bergmann, Enikö Kallay, Christoph Steininger
Vitamin D (VD) is essential for the human body and involved in a wide variety of critical physiological processes including bone, muscle, and cardiovascular health, as well as innate immunity and antimicrobial responses. Here, we elucidated the significance of the VD system in cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, which is one of the most common opportunistic infections in immunocompromised or -suppressed patients. We found that expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was downregulated in CMV-infected cells within 12hours [hrs] post infection [p...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Urs Nydegger, Thomas Lung, Lorenz Risch, Martin Risch, Pedro Medina Escobar, Thomas Bodmer
We work on the assumption that four major specialities or sectors of medical laboratory assays, comprising clinical chemistry, haematology, immunology, and microbiology, embraced by genome sequencing techniques, are routinely in use. Medical laboratory markers for inflammation serve as model: they are allotted to most fields of medical lab assays including genomics. Incessant coding of assays aligns each of them in the long lists of big data. As exemplified with the complement gene family, containing C2, C3, C8A, C8B, CFH, CFI, and ITGB2, heritability patterns/risk factors associated with diseases with genetic glitch of complement components are unfolding...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Bette Loef, Debbie van Baarle, Allard J van der Beek, Linda W van Kerkhof, Daniëlla van de Langenberg, Karin I Proper
BACKGROUND: Night-shift work may cause severe disturbances in the worker's circadian rhythm, which has been associated with the onset of health problems and diseases. As a substantial part of the workforce is exposed to night-shift work, harmful aspects of night-shift work should not be overlooked. The aim of the Klokwerk + study is to study the effects of night-shift work on body weight and infection susceptibility and the mechanisms underlying these health effects. First, we will study the relation between night-shift work exposure and body weight and between night-shift work exposure and infection susceptibility...
2016: BMC Public Health
Rasoul Nasiri Kalmarzi, A Zamani, A Fathallahpour, E Ghaderi, Ramesh Rahehagh, W Kooti
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterised by chronic inflammatory airways, and is affected by several immunological factors. One of the most discussed and researched hypotheses is the relationship between vitamin D serum levels with asthma. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vitamin D serum levels with asthma and pulmonary functions in children in Kurdistan province, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 children ranging from 6 to 18 years were referred in summer for investigation...
July 28, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Miguel A Maestro, Ferdinand Molnár, Antonio Mouriño, Carsten Carlberg
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D3 activates via its hormonal form 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is expressed in most human tissues and has more than 1,000 target genes. Thus, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and its synthetic analogs have a broad physiological impact. The crystal structures of the VDR ligand-binding domain (LBD), and its various ligands, further the understanding of the receptor's molecular actions. AREAS COVERED: We discuss the most important novel VDR ligands and the further insight derived from new structural information on VDR...
July 25, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Wagner Quintilio, Fábio Alessandro de Freitas, Dunia Rodriguez, Flavia Saldanha Kubrusly, Dimitri Yourtov, Cosue Miyaki, Luciana Cezar de Cerqueira Leite, Isaias Raw
A number of adjuvant formulations were assayed in mice immunized with 3.75 µg of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09 influenza vaccine with vitamins A, D and/or E in emulsions or B2 and/or B9 combined with Bordetella pertussis MPLA and/or alum as adjuvants. Squalene was used as positive control, as well as MPLA with alum. The immune response was evaluated by a panel of tests, including a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test, ELISA for IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a and IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 quantification in splenocyte culture supernatant after stimulus with influenza antigen...
October 2016: Archives of Virology
António Marinho, Cláudia Carvalho, Daniela Boleixa, Andreia Bettencourt, Bárbara Leal, Judite Guimarães, Esmeralda Neves, José Carlos Oliveira, Isabel Almeida, Fátima Farinha, Paulo P Costa, Carlos Vasconcelos, Berta M Silva
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multi-organ inflammation, linked to loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens and the production of a diversity of autoantibodies, with a negative impact on the patients' quality of life. Regulatory T cells have been reported as deficient in number and function in SLE patients. However, some authors also described an enrichment of this cell type. The hypothesis that certain forms of autoimmunity may result from a conversion of Treg cells into a Th17 cell phenotype has been suggested by some studies...
July 16, 2016: Immunologic Research
Joanna Jerzynska, Wlodzimierz Stelmach, Joanna Balcerak, Katarzyna Woicka-Kolejwa, Blazej Rychlik, Andrzej Blauz, Marcin Wachulec, Piotr Stelmach, Pawel Majak, Iwona Stelmach
BACKGROUND: An important issue in sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is how to improve efficacy. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and immunologic efficacy of SLIT given alone and, to enhance clinical efficacy, given with probiotic or vitamin D supplementation. METHODS: One hundred children, ages 5-12 years, sensitive to grass pollen, with allergic rhinitis participated in a 5-month prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
July 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
L Durcan, M Petri
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease. Current treatment strategies rely heavily on corticosteroids, which are in turn responsible for a significant burden of morbidity, and immunosuppressives which are limited by suboptimal efficacy, increased infections and malignancies. There are significant deficiencies in our immunosuppressive armamentarium, making immunomodulatory therapies crucial, offering the opportunity to prevent disease flare and the subsequent accrual of damage...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
Nora S Ali, Julio C Sartori-Valinotti, Alison J Bruce
Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, the most common periodic disorder of childhood, presents with the cardinal symptoms of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis typically before age 5. This review presents the recent literature on PFAPA and summarizes key findings in the pathogenesis, evaluation, and treatment of the disease. Theories surrounding the pathogenesis of PFAPA include a faulty innate immunologic response in conjunction with dysregulated T-cell activation...
July 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
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