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Vitamin D immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754190/allergic-and-immunologic-perspectives-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
REVIEW
Kofi Clarke, Jayakrishna Chintanaboina
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition primarily involving the gastrointestinal tract. It includes Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and a less common phenotype-indeterminate colitis. It is thought to result from a complex interplay of environmental, microbial, and host factors including genetic factors, although the exact mechanism is not known. Dietary factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD and can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota as well as disrupt the immune function in the gut...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751358/vitamin-d-was-not-associated-with-survival-or-cerebrospinal-fluid-cathelicidin-levels-in-children-with-bacterial-meningitis
#2
Okko Savonius, Tuula Pelkonen, Irmeli Roine, Heli Viljakainen, Sture Andersson, Josefina Fernandez, Heikki Peltola, Otto Helve
AIM: Vitamin D deficiency impairs the immunological system and has been associated with worse outcomes of infectious diseases, but its role in bacterial meningitis remains unknown. We investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations related to disease outcomes and to cerebrospinal fluid cathelicidin concentrations in childhood bacterial meningitis. METHODS: All consecutively enrolled patients in a clinical trial on childhood bacterial meningitis in Latin America in 1996-2003 were considered and 142 children, with a median age of seven months who had a confirmed bacterial aetiology and frozen serum available for further analyses, were included in the present study...
May 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750884/nutritional-intervention-as-an-essential-part-of-multiple-sclerosis-treatment
#3
A Penesová, Z Dean, B Kollár, A Havranová, R Imrich, M Vlček, Ž Rádiková
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In addition to the genetic, epigenetic and immunological components, various other factors e.g. unhealthy dietary habits play a role in the MS pathogenesis. Dietary intervention is a highly appealing approach, as it presents a simple and relatively low risk method to potentially improve outcomes in patients with brain disorders in order to achieve remission and improvement of clinical status, well-being and life expectancy of patients with MS...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731660/the-vitamin-d-receptor-and-the-etiology-of-rantes-ccl-expressive-fatty-degenerative-osteolysis-of-the-jawbone-an-interface-between-osteoimmunology-and-bone-metabolism
#4
Johann Lechner, Jürgen Aschoff, Tatjana Rudi
Background: Recent research on vitamin D indicates that our current understanding of the factors leading to chronic inflammation should be revised. One of the key mechanisms by which microbial immunosuppression occurs is the suppression of one of the most common endogenous cell nucleus receptors: the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Autoimmune diseases may be correlated with VDR deactivation (VDR-deac) which occurs when the receptor is no longer able to transcribe antimicrobial agents. Excess 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is not converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D); thus, high 1,25D levels may be accompanied by low 25D values...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707474/vitamin-a-and-d-in-allergy-from-experimental-animal-models-and-cellular-studies-to-human-disease
#5
REVIEW
Karin Hufnagl, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
Introduction: Vitamins A and D are able to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses and may therefore influence the development and the course of allergic diseases. Materials and methods: This article reviews the current evidence for the experimental effects of vitamins A and D in vivo in animal models and on immune cells in vitro , and discusses their translational implication. A systematic literature search over the last 10 years was performed using MEDLINE and PubMed databases...
2018: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684027/chronic-calcitriol-supplementation-improves-the-inflammatory-profiles-of-circulating-monocytes-and-the-associated-intestinal-adipose-tissue-alteration-in-a-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-rat-model
#6
Yen-Bo Su, Tzu-Hao Li, Chia-Chang Huang, Hung-Cheng Tsai, Shiang-Fen Huang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Vitamin D deficiency and up-regulated TNFα-related signals are reported to be involved in abnormalities including intestinal hyper-permeability, bacterial translocation, systemic/portal endotoxemia, intestinal/adipose tissue/hepatic inflammation, and hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms and effects of chronic calcitriol [1,25-(OH)2D3, hormonal form of vitamin D] on gut-adipose tissue-liver axis abnormalities using a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat model of NASH...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593721/vitamin-d-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-influence-on-immunity-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
María Ángeles Jiménez-Sousa, Isidoro Martínez, Luz María Medrano, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez, Salvador Resino
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection typically have hypovitaminosis D, which is linked to a large number of pathologies, including immune disorders and infectious diseases. Vitamin D (VitD) is a key regulator of host defense against infections by activating genes and pathways that enhance innate and adaptive immunity. VitD mediates its biological effects by binding to the Vitamin D receptor (VDR), and activating and regulating multiple cellular pathways. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes from those pathways have been associated with protection from HIV-1 infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575677/vitamin-d-analogues-tacalcitol-and-calcipotriol-inhibit-proliferation-and-migration-of-t98g-human-glioblastoma-cells
#8
Ida Emanuelsson, Kjell Wikvall, Tomas Friman, Maria Norlin
The active form of vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) acts as a steroid hormone and binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). This receptor is expressed in most cell types including cells in the CNS. Vitamin D has several functions in the body including effects on brain development, neuroprotection and immunological regulation. It has been shown that vitamin D has anti-proliferative activities in different cancer cell lines. Tacalcitol and calcipotriol are synthetic analogues of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with reduced effect on calcium metabolism...
March 25, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503733/clinicopathological-and-immunological-characteristics-and-outcome-of-concomitant-coeliac-disease-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adults-a-large-prospective-longitudinal-study
#9
Sanaa Kamal, Khaled K Aldossari, Dhalia Ghoraba, Sara Mahmoud Abdelhakam, Amgad H Kamal, Mohamad Bedewi, Leila Nabegh, Khaled Bahnasy, Tamer Hafez
Objective: Concomitant non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and coeliac disease (CD) have not been adequately studied. This study investigated the frequency of CD among NAFLD patients and the clinicopathological and immunological patterns and outcome of concomitant NAFLD and CD. Design: This prospective longitudinal study screened patients with NAFLD for CD (tissue transglutaminase antibodies (TTGA); anti-TTGA and antiendomysial antibodies (EMA)). Patients with concomitant NAFLD and CD and patients with either NAFLD or CD were enrolled and followed...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407004/breast-milk-is-conditionally-perfect
#10
Miriam Erick
Breast milk is the universal preferred nutrition for the newborn human infant. New mother have been encouraged to exclusively breastfeed by health care professionals and consumer-advocacy forums for years, citing "breast milk is the perfect food". The benefits are numerous and include psychological, convenience, economical, ecological and nutritionally superior. Human milk is a composite of nutritional choices of the mother, commencing in the pre-conceptual era. Events influencing the eventual nutritional profile of breast milk for the neonate start with pre-conceptual dietary habits through pregnancy and finally to postpartum...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379542/clinical-and-immunological-effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-during-the-pollen-season-in-children-with-allergic-rhinitis
#11
Joanna Jerzyńska, Włodzimierz Stelmach, Błażej Rychlik, Paweł Majak, Daniela Podlecka, Katarzyna Woicka-Kolejwa, Iwona Stelmach
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a potential contributing factor in patients with allergic diseases. We compared the clinical and immunological effects of vitamin D supplementation to placebo during the pollen season in children with allergic rhinitis. Material and methods: Thirty-eight children aged 5-12, sensitive to grass pollen, participated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Children received either vitamin D 1000 IU daily supplementation or placebo...
January 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353100/vitamin-d-and-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-lights-shadows-and-still-unresolved-issues
#12
REVIEW
Stefano Stagi, Donato Rigante
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and juvenile SLE (jSLE) are autoimmune disorders naturally associated with several genetic, environmental, hormonal, and immunological contributing factors. It has been assumed that vitamin D deficiency may have a role in the immune activation of patients with SLE and play an active part in many comorbidities and even complications. A host of clinical studies suggested that vitamin D exerts inhibitory effects on many immunological abnormalities associated with SLE, also in children and adolescents, while different reports have hypothesized that vitamin D may be associated with accelerated cardiovascular disease in SLE...
March 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314357/vitamin-d-levels-in-asthmatic-patients-with-and-without-allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis
#13
Ritesh Agarwal, Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Naresh Sachdeva, Sanjay K Bhadada, Mandeep Garg, Digambar Behera, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
Vitamin D deficiency is believed to be a pathogenetic factor in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and cystic fibrosis. Whether vitamin D deficiency is also prevalent in ABPA complicating asthma, remains unknown. Herein, we evaluated vitamin D levels in asthmatic patients with and without ABPA. In a prospective study, plasma vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were measured in consecutive subjects with asthma (n = 75), ABPA (n = 158) and healthy volunteers (n = 50). Vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL were considered as vitamin D deficiency...
January 4, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248212/influence-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-and-vitamin-e-on-biochemical-hematological-and-immunological-variables-of-dairy-cows-during-the-transition-period
#14
S Schäfers, D von Soosten, U Meyer, C Drong, J Frahm, A Tröscher, W Pelletier, H Sauerwein, S Dänicke
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E as well as their interaction on biochemical and hematological variables and on leukocyte populations and their functionality. We assigned 59 German Holstein cows between the 2nd and 9th lactation to 4 dietary groups in a 2 × 2 factorial design with the factors CLA and vitamin E. Six weeks before calving the cows had a BCS of 3.7 to provoke a higher risk of developing ketosis, which might impair their immune function...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207221/-therapy-of-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis
#15
REVIEW
Marta Arazzi, Giorgia Di Fulvio, Lorenzo Ottavio Di Pietro, Xhensila Grabocka, Maria Olimpia Longo, Gabriella Micioni, Alessandro Pezzutto, Luca Piscitani, Alessandra Schiazza, Simona Silvestri, Giacinta Vigilante, Luigi Amoroso, Mario Bonomini
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is a major cause of secondary osteoporosis that starts early after the beginning of therapy even for low drug doses. Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of immunologic nephropathies and in the setting of kidney transplant. In clinical practice, a number of algorithms are available; they allow us to estimate the long-term risk of major osteoporotic fracture; but none of them is specific for GIO. To date, the therapeutic approach comprises both general measures aimed at correcting calcium and vitamin D intake, and drugs (bisphosphonates, teriparatide, hormone replacement therapy, denosumab) that ameliorate bone mineral density and patient outcomes...
December 5, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190137/high-risk-gastric-pathology-and-prevalent-autoimmune-diseases-in-patients-with-pernicious-anemia
#16
Jing W Hughes, Brian D Muegge, Garry S Tobin, Marina Litvin, Lulu Sun, Jose B Saenz, C Prakash Gyawali, Janet B McGill
OBJECTIVE: Pernicious anemia (PA) develops from atrophic gastritis due to autoimmune destruction of parietal cells and results in achlorhydria, vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies, anemia, neurologic deficits, and premalignant and malignant stomach lesions. We report the presentation, diagnosis and gastric complications of PA in patients from an endocrinology practice. METHODS: Thirty-four patients (31 female, 3 male) with PA who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or gastrectomy were identified...
November 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156936/nutrition-and-immune-system-disorders
#17
Bricia López Plaza, Laura María Bermejo López
INTRODUCTION: Energy and nutrients obtained through food play an important role in the development and preservation of the immune system therefore any nutritional imbalance affects its competence and integrity. OBJECTIVES: Knowing the nutritional approach on different disorders of the immune system. METHODS: A review has been carried out on the most prevalent immunological disorders in developed countries, the nutritional characteristics to which they are associated and their nutritional approach...
October 15, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154959/early-life-innate-immune-signatures-of-persistent-food-allergy
#18
Melanie R Neeland, Jennifer J Koplin, Thanh D Dang, Shyamali C Dharmage, Mimi L Tang, Susan L Prescott, Richard Saffery, David J Martino, Katrina J Allen
BACKGROUND: Food allergy naturally resolves in a proportion of food-allergic children without intervention; however the underlying mechanisms governing the persistence or resolution of food allergy in childhood are not understood. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to define the innate immune profiles associated with egg allergy at age 1 year, determine the phenotypic changes that occur with the development of natural tolerance in childhood, and explore the relationship between early life innate immune function and serum vitamin D...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150278/a-hypothetical-role-for-notch-signaling-pathway-in-immunopathogenesis-of-leprosy
#19
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Liliana Acevedo-Saenz, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae mainly affecting skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy has a broad range of clinical manifestations that range from mild (tuberculoid leprosy) to severe (lepromatous leprosy) forms, and are highly dependent on the host's immune response. Among the immune response elements involved in the pathogenesis of leprosy are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), vitamin D receptor (VDR), natural killer cells (NK), and T cells. These innate and adaptive immune response elements may be related to the Notch signaling pathway, which is involved in immune cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148401/vitamin-d-and-systemic-lupus-erythematous-a-review-of-immunological-and-clinical-aspects
#20
REVIEW
Francesca Dall'Ara, Maurizio Cutolo, Laura Andreoli, Angela Tincani, Sabrina Paolino
OBJECTIVES: To review the relationships between vitamin D status and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) concerning immunological, clinical aspects and possible effects of supplementation in disease modulation. METHODS: The literature was reviewed up to January 2017 for studies regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunological aspects, clinical implications and supplementation strategies. The focus was mainly on studies with implications on every day clinical practice...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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