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Vitamin D infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937064/nephrocalcinosis-among-children-at-king-hussein-medical-center-causes-and-outcome
#1
Jwaher T Al-Bderat, Reham I Mardinie, Ghazi M Salaita, Amer T Al-Bderat, Mahdi K Farrah
Nephrocalcinosis (NC) is defined as deposition of calcium crystals in the renal parenchyma and tubules. This is a retrospective review of all the data of 63 children presented to Pediatric Nephrology Clinic at King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) over a 15-year period with bilateral NC. We determine their causes, clinical presentation and evaluate their growth and renal function during their follow-up. Thirty-five (55.5%) cases were males and 28 (44.5%) were females. The median (range) age at presentation was four (2-192) months...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936074/syndromes-of-rapidly-progressive-cognitive-decline-our-experience
#2
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Lakshminarayanapuram Gopal Viswanathan, Anupama Ramakanth Pai, Rahul Wahatule, Suvarna Alladi
BACKGROUND: Dementias are fairly slowly progressive degenerative diseases of brain for which treatment options are very less and carry a lot of burden on family and society. A small percentage of them are rapidly progressive and mostly carry a different course outcome. However, there are no definite criteria other than the time line for these patients. AIMS: The aim of this was to identify and categorize the causes and course of rapidly progressive dementias seen in our center...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923762/translating-basic-research-into-clinical-practice-vitamin-d-in-asthma-mechanisms-of-action-and-considerations-for-clinical-trials
#3
REVIEW
Paul E Pfeffer, Catherine M Hawrylowicz
There is increasing interest in the therapeutic utility of vitamin D in asthma, supported by a significant body of evidence on epidemiological associations between vitamin D insufficiency and worse asthma control. In support of a causal relationship, vitamin D beneficially modulates diverse immunological pathways in heterogeneous asthma endotypes, regulating the actions of lymphocytes, mast cells, antigen-presenting cells and structural cells to dampen excessive inflammatory responses. Allergic asthma is characterised by a failure of immune tolerance, and development of pathological responses to inhaled aeroallergens, and vitamin D has been extensively shown to support immune regulation...
September 15, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904010/vitamin-d-supplementation-to-palliative-cancer-patients-protocol-of-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-palliative-d
#4
Maria Helde-Frankling, Jenny Bergqvist, Caritha Klasson, Marie Nordström, Jonas Höijer, Peter Bergman, Linda Björkhem-Bergman
BACKGROUND: According to a small pilot study on palliative cancer patients at our ward, vitamin D supplementation had beneficial effects on pain (measured as opioid consumption), infections and quality of life (QoL) without having any significant side effects. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the 'Palliative-D' study is to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation for 12 weeks reduces opioid consumption. The secondary objectives are to study if reduction of antibiotic consumption and fatigue as well as improvement in QoL assessments can be observed...
September 13, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902705/effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-markers-in-hiv-infected-youth
#5
Allison Ross Eckard, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Joshua H Ruff, Ann Chahroudi, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Vin Tangpricha, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a significant co-morbidity in HIV. However, studies evaluating vitamin D supplementation on bone health in this population are limited. This study investigates changes in bone health parameters after 12 months of supplementation in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. METHODS: This is a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating changes in bone parameters with 3 different vitamin D3 doses [18,000 (standard/control dose), 60,000 (moderate dose) and 120,000 IU/monthly (high dose)] in HIV-infected youth 8-25 years old with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <30 ng/mL...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894361/effects-of-daily-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-respiratory-muscle-strength-and-physical-performance-in-vitamin-d-deficient-copd-patients-a-pilot-trial
#6
Rachida Rafiq, Hendrik J Prins, Wim G Boersma, Johannes Ma Daniels, Martin den Heijer, Paul Lips, Renate T de Jongh
BACKGROUND: Although vitamin D is well known for its function in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, several studies have shown positive effects on muscle strength and physical function. In addition, vitamin D has been associated with pulmonary function and the incidence of airway infections. As vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, supplementation might have a beneficial effect in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on respiratory muscle strength and physical performance in vitamin D-deficient COPD patients...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893022/correlation-of-vitamin-d3-levels-and-scorad-index-in-atopic-dermatits-a-case-control-study
#7
Saurabh Sharma, Tejinder Kaur, Suresh Kumar Malhotra, Jaswant Rai, Sunil Chaudhari
INTRODUCTION: Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory condition characterized clinically by pruritus and eczematous lesions. An inverse relationship has been suggested between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and severity of atopic dermatitis. AIM: We carried out this controlled cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between the serum vitamin D3 levels and SCORAD index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, 40 patients with clinical diagnosis of AD based on UK diagnostic criteria were enrolled and 40 patients with minor ailments like superficial bacterial, fungal or viral infections and not suffering from atopic dermatitis were taken as controls...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892507/extreme-genome-diversity-in-the-hyper-prevalent-parasitic-eukaryote-blastocystis
#8
Eleni Gentekaki, Bruce A Curtis, Courtney W Stairs, Vladimír Klimeš, Marek Eliáš, Dayana E Salas-Leiva, Emily K Herman, Laura Eme, Maria C Arias, Bernard Henrissat, Frédérique Hilliou, Mary J Klute, Hiroshi Suga, Shehre-Banoo Malik, Arthur W Pightling, Martin Kolisko, Richard A Rachubinski, Alexander Schlacht, Darren M Soanes, Anastasios D Tsaousis, John M Archibald, Steven G Ball, Joel B Dacks, C Graham Clark, Mark van der Giezen, Andrew J Roger
Blastocystis is the most prevalent eukaryotic microbe colonizing the human gut, infecting approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide. Although Blastocystis has been linked to intestinal disorders, its pathogenicity remains controversial because most carriers are asymptomatic. Here, the genome sequence of Blastocystis subtype (ST) 1 is presented and compared to previously published sequences for ST4 and ST7. Despite a conserved core of genes, there is unexpected diversity between these STs in terms of their genome sizes, guanine-cytosine (GC) content, intron numbers, and gene content...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891732/effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-hiv-infected-youth
#9
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Ann Chahroudi, Joshua H Ruff, Christopher T Longenecker, Vin Tangpricha, Grace A McComsey
Viral suppression with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) dramatically improves survival in HIV-infected individuals. Yet, this population has more age-related co-morbidities, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD), and these co-morbidities occur at an earlier age than in the general population (1) . Similar to their adult counterparts, data show that HIV-infected youth are also at an increased risk of development of these HIV-related co-morbidities later in life, despite few clinical manifestations in younger age (2) ...
September 11, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882103/low-serum-vitamin-d-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-are-associated-with-decreased-mycobacterial-activity
#10
María Teresa Herrera, Yolanda Gonzalez, Fernando Hernández-Sánchez, Guadalupe Fabián-San Miguel, Martha Torres
BACKGROUND: Concurrent diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis represent a significant health problem worldwide. Patients with diabetes mellitus have a high risk of tuberculosis, which may be mediated by an abnormal innate immune response due to hyperglycaemia or low vitamin D levels. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated inactive vitamin D serum levels and the monocyte response to infection with M. tuberculosis, including phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis, antimycobacterial activity, LL-37, human β defensin-2 and IL-10 gene expression and nitric oxide production, between type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (n = 51) and healthy volunteers (n = 38)...
September 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878084/human-herpesvirus-8-interleukin-6-interacts-with-calnexin-cycle-components-and-promotes-protein-folding
#11
Daming Chen, Qiwang Xiang, John Nicholas
Viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is believed to contribute via mitogenic, survival, and angiogenic activities to HHV-8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease through autocrine or paracrine mechanisms during latency or productive replication. There is direct evidence that vIL-6 promotes latently infected PEL cell viability and proliferation and also viral productive replication in PEL and endothelial cells. These activities are mediated largely through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized vIL-6, which can induce signal transduction via the gp130 signaling receptor, activating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling, and interactions of vIL-6 with the ER membrane protein vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 variant 2 (VKORC1v2)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872092/-vitamin-d-vitamin-d-receptor-autophagy-and-inflammation-relevant-diseases
#12
Aimei Li, Wei Zhang, Hao Zhang, Bin Yi
The biological effects mediated by vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are involved in the regulation of multiple pathophysiologic processes, including calcium phosphorus metabolism, immune regulation, anti-inflammation, anti-infection and cancer prevention, etc. Autophagy is a eukaryotic cell lysosome-mediated catabolic pathway, which is classified into 3 different types: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy. Since autophagy is vital to maintain energy and metabolism in cells, autophagy dysfunction is closely associated with various pathological processes such as inflammation, infection and tumor...
August 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870263/effect-of-maternal-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-maternal-health-birth-outcomes-and-infant-growth-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-pregnant-women-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Christopher P Duggan, Said Aboud, Alfa Muhihi, David M Sando, Fadhlun M Alwy Al-Beity, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has significant immunomodulatory effects on both adaptive and innate immune responses. Observational studies indicate that adults infected with HIV with low vitamin D status may be at increased risk of mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, and HIV disease progression. Growing observational evidence also suggests that low vitamin D status in pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth and infant health outcomes. As a result, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adjunct vitamin D3 supplementation may improve the health of HIV-infected pregnant women and their children...
September 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859173/vitamin-d-supplementation-to-palliative-cancer-patients-shows-positive-effects-on-pain-and-infections-results-from-a-matched-case-control-study
#14
Maria Helde-Frankling, Jonas Höijer, Jenny Bergqvist, Linda Björkhem-Bergman
BACKGROUND: We previously showed an association between low vitamin D levels and high opioid doses to alleviate pain in palliative cancer patients. The aim of this case-controlled study was to investigate if vitamin D supplementation could improve pain management, quality of life (QoL) and decrease infections in palliative cancer patients. METHODS: Thirty-nine palliative cancer patients with levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 75 nmol/L were supplemented with vitamin D 4000 IE/day, and were compared to 39 untreated, matched "control"-patients from a previous study at the same ward...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843454/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-genes-environment-and-a-comprehensive-therapeutic-approach
#15
REVIEW
Ryan Cappa, Liana Theroux, J Nicholas Brenton
BACKGROUND: Pediatric multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized and studied disorder that accounts for 3% to 10% of all patients with multiple sclerosis. The risk for pediatric multiple sclerosis is thought to reflect a complex interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors. MAIN FINDINGS: Environmental exposures, including sunlight (ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D levels), infections (Epstein-Barr virus), passive smoking, and obesity, have been identified as potential risk factors in youth...
October 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840965/a-vitamin-d-protocol-post-liver-transplantation
#16
Cristin Grant
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adults with compromised liver function are inherently deficient and especially vulnerable to the consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Consequences of vitamin D deficiency include liver disease progression, infection, and graft failure. A vitamin D supplementation protocol is proposed to systematically optimize serum vitamin D levels according to guidelines in both pre- and post-liver transplanted patients. METHODS: This quasiexperimental study included a sample of N = 45 post-liver transplanted patients taking daily cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) 2500 units for 12 weeks, with a pre- and post-lab measure of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at a large academic facility...
August 25, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833855/efficacy-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-combination-with-conventional-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-a-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#17
H-B Kim, S-K Myung, Y-J Lee, B-J Park
BACKGROUND: Although a contributory role of vitamin D levels for the development of chronic hepatitis C has been suggested, the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in combination with conventional antiviral therapy consisting of pegylated interferon-α (Peg-IFN-α) injection and oral ribavirin (RBV) remains unclear. We investigated its efficacy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C via a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832406/racial-differences-in-calculated-bioavailable-vitamin-d-with-vitamin-d-calcium-supplementation-actg-a5280
#18
Michael T Yin, Ellen S Chan, Todd T Brown, P Tebas, Grace A McComsey, K Melbourne, A Napoli, R Hardin, H J Ribaudo, Edgar T Overton
OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggest that bioavailable 25-(OH)D is more accurate than total 25-(OH)D as an assessment of vitamin D status in black individuals, We hypothesized that increases in bioavailable 25-(OH)D would correlate better with improvement in bone outcomes among black HIV-infected adults. DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of ACTG A5280, a randomized, double-blind study of Vitamin D3 and calcium (VitD/Ca) supplementation in HIV-infected participants initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
August 21, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832249/diet-induced-vitamin-d-deficiency-has-no-effect-on-acute-post-stroke-outcomes-in-young-male-mice
#19
Megan A Evans, Hyun Ah Kim, T Michael De Silva, Thiruma V Arumugam, Andrew N Clarkson, Grant R Drummond, Graeme R Zosky, Brad Rs Broughton, Christopher G Sobey
Recent observational studies have reported that patients with low circulating levels of vitamin D experience larger infarct volumes and worse functional outcomes after ischemic stroke compared to those with sufficient levels. However, it is unknown whether a causal relationship exists between low vitamin D levels and poor stroke outcome. This study aimed to assess the effect of vitamin D deficiency on acute outcomes post-stroke. Male C57Bl6 mice (six week old) were assigned to either a control or vitamin D deficient diet for four weeks prior to stroke...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826766/in%C3%A2-vivo-anticoccidial-effects-of-beta-vulgaris-sugar-beet-in-broiler-chickens
#20
Asghar Abbas, Zafar Iqbal, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Junaid Ali Khan, Zia Ud Din Sindhu, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi
Recently, use of botanicals as an alternative to anticoccidial drugs has been appealing approach for controlling avian coccidiosis. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of aqueous methanolic extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight) of Beta vulgaris (roots) in broiler chicks. A total of 315 day old broiler chicks were divided into seven equal groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G). At 14th day of age, all groups except group G, which served as non infected non medicated control, were infected orally with 60,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species...
August 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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