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Vitamin D infections

Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Mohsen, Ahlam Abd-Allah El-Braky, Abeer Abd El-Rahim Ghazal, Mohammed Mohammed Shamseya
The aims of this study were to investigate the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis and to investigate the association between both of autophagy and apoptosis and vitamin D and its receptor in hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral infection and its implication in the progression into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).A cross-sectional study where serum levels of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3); marker of autophagy, caspase-3; marker of apoptosis, vitamin D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) were measured in healthy subjects as well as HCV and HCV-HCC patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Scott A Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Megan C Niederwerder, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Marcelo de Lima, Craig Long, Gilbert Patterson, Maureen A Sheahan, Ana M M Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Cassandra K Jones, Jon De Jong, Ju Ji, Gordon D Spronk, Luke Minion, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Jeff J Zimmerman, Raymond R R Rowland, Eric Nelson, Paul Sundberg, Diego G Diel
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV)...
2018: PloS One
Panagiotis Dragonas, Linda M Kaste, Martha Nunn, Praveen K Gajendrareddy, Kathleen M Weber, Mardge Cohen, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Audrey L French, Herve Y Sroussi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test a hypothesized positive association between low vitamin D (VitD) serum levels and the severity of periodontal disease in women with HIV infection. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from an oral substudy conducted within the Chicago site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Serum VitD levels and clinical attachment loss (CAL) measurements were available for 74 women with HIV infection...
February 19, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Alison G Abraham, Long Zhang, Keri Calkins, Adrienne Tin, Andrew Hoofnagle, Frank J Palella, Michelle M Estrella, Lisa P Jacobson, Mallory D Witt, Lawrence A Kingsley, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVE: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and durable viral suppression, many HIV-infected individuals still do not achieve CD4+ cell count (CD4) normalization. Vitamin D has immunoregulatory functions, including inducing the development of T cells, and higher levels may improve CD4 rebound. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study who virally suppressed following HAART initiation and had pre- and post-HAART 25[OH]D and 1,25[OH]2D measurements and repeated measures of CD4...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
T A Defosse, Y Le Govic, V Courdavault, M Clastre, P Vandeputte, D Chabasse, J-P Bouchara, N Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N Papon
Among the subdivision of Saccharomycotina (ascomycetes budding yeasts), the CTG clade (formerly the Candida clade) includes species that display a particular genetic code. In these yeasts, the CTG codon is predominantly translated as a serine instead of a leucine residue. It is now well-known that some CTG clade species have a major impact on human and its activities. Some of them are recognized as opportunistic agents of fungal infections termed candidiasis. In addition, another series of species belonging to the CTG clade draws the attention of some research groups because they exhibit a strong potential in various areas of biotechnology such as biological control, bioremediation, but also in the production of valuable biocompounds (biofuel, vitamins, sweeteners, industrial enzymes)...
March 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Joseph J Knapik, Sheryl A Bedno
Surveys indicated that 24% of military personnel are current cigarette smokers. Smoking is well known to increase the risk of cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, reproductive problems, and other medical maladies, but one of the little known effects of smoking is that on injuries. There is considerable evidence from a variety of sources that (1) smoking increases overall injury risk, (2) the greater the amount of smoking, the higher is the injury risk, and (3) smoking is an independent injury risk factor...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Safaa I Tayel, Shimaa E Soliman, Hanan M Elsayed
BACKGROUND AND AIM: increasing prevalence of neonatal sepsis in recent years catch attention to early prevention and management. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism can modulate VDR expression level that greatly influences immunity and susceptibility to microbial infections. We aimed to investigate the association of VDR polymorphism at FokI, rs2228570 T/C, and TaqI, rs731236 C/T gene with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This work carried on 160 subjects classified into 80 cases (40 mothers and their 40 septic neonates) and 80 healthy controls (40 volunteer mothers and their 40 healthy neonates)...
March 9, 2018: Steroids
Jesus Salinas-Casado, Santiago Méndez-Rubio, Manuel Esteban-Fuertes, Antonio Gómez-Rodríguez, Miguel Vírseda-Chamorro, Marcos Luján-Galán, Grupo Rituman
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of dietary supplement "Manosar®" composed of D-mannose (2 g), 24 h prolonged release, associated with Proanthocyanidin (PAC) (140 mg), ursolic acid (7.98 mg), A, C, and D vitamins and the oligoelement zinc, versus 240 mg of PAC in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), for a designed follow-up of 24 weeks, in women. METHODS: A multicenter randomized experimental double-blind study was carried out. The study was approved by review board of "Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo" (Spain), and all patients gave informed consent...
March 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
P Zhang, W Zhang, D Zhang, M Wang, R Aprecio, N Ji, O Mohamed, Y Li, Y Ding, Q Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis is an increasingly prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus (known as diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25VD3 ) was recently found to be a critical regulator of innate immunity in this disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) is a potential downstream protein of the 25VD3 /vitamin D receptor pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of PTPN2 in periodontal inflammation in diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Jingjing Dai, Yong Liang, Honglin Li, Wubi Zhou, Bing Wang, Aijia Gong, Rongbo Zhang
The role of vitamin D in the regulation of lung immune defense and inflammatory response has attracted more and more attention. Vitamin D deficiency is closely related to respiratory tract infections. However, few studies have elucidated the mechanism of vitamin D deficiency on host pulmonary resistance to Aspergillus fumigatus ( A. fumigatus ). In this paper, the role of autophagy and Treg regulation in the treatment of rat models of A. fumigatus infection with vitamin D was investigated. We intratracheally injected the A...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Wei Li, Xianfen Cheng, Linying Guo, Hongri Li, Chunrong Sun, Xiaodai Cui, Qi Zhang, Guowei Song
We assessed the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children.This observational study examined children aged 3 days to 14 years (n = 1582) from the Capital Institute of Pediatrics in 2009 to 2011. There were 797 children in the CAP group and 785 controls. The CAP group was divided into 2 groups: a pneumonia group and pneumonia-induced sepsis group. The serum 25(OH)D level was estimated using micro whole blood chemiluminescence...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Murad A Mubaraki, Mohamed Dkhil, Taghreed A Hafiz, Mona F Khalil, Esam M Al-Shaebi, Denis Delic, Kamal Elshaikh, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Malaria is a harmful disease affecting both tropical and subtropical countries and causing sometimes fatal complications. The effects of malaria-related complications on the intestine have been relatively neglected, and the reasons for the intestinal damage caused by malaria infection are not yet clear. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of intestinal vitamin D receptor on host-pathogen interactions during malaria induced in mice by Plasmodium chabaudi. To induce the infection, animals were infected with 106 P...
February 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Liina Mansukoski, Vitale Stefano Sparacello
There is little research on how individuals suffering from tuberculosis may differ from those not infected in terms of overall skeletal morphology. Tuberculosis was endemic in 19th and early 20th century Finland making documented skeletal collections of Finns ideal to study effects of the disease on bone. The present study compares long bone cross-sectional total area between individuals who died of tuberculosis and those with another recorded cause of death in a Finnish sample. Adult male individuals (N = 105) were selected for analysis...
March 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Wenfeng Gao, Rui Wang, Xiaojun Wang, Hao Wu, Yang Wang, Xiaofan Lu, Li Li, Jiasheng Zheng, Wei Li
AIM: Vitamin D is involved in antiviral/antitumor activities. Its associations to hepatitis B virus (HBV), HIV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unclear. MATERIALS & METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 232 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 72 HIV-infected patients. The correlation between serum 25(OH)D3 and 25 vitamin D receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms to disease progression and interferons were evaluated. RESULTS: The 25(OH)D3 was associated with HBV infection and progression...
September 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
Jim Bartley, Jeff Garrett, Carlos A Camargo, Robert Scragg, Alain Vandal, Rose Sisk, David Milne, Ray Tai, Gene Jeon, Ray Cursons, Conroy Wong
Vitamin D supplementation prevents acute respiratory infections and, through modulating innate and adaptive immunity, could have a potential role in bronchiectasis management. The primary aims of this pilot study were to assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in New Zealand adults with bronchiectasis, and their 25(OH)D levels after vitamin D3 supplementation. Adults with bronchiectasis received an initial 2.5 mg vitamin D3 oral loading dose and 0.625 mg vitamin D3 weekly for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was serum 25(OH)D levels before and after vitamin D3 supplementation...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
Letícia de Paula Scalioni, Betânia Rodrigues Dos Santos, Poli Mara Spritzer, Cristiane Alves Villela-Nogueira, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Priscila Pollo-Flores, Eliane Bordalo Cathalá Esberard, Carlos Eduardo Brandão-Mello, Elisabeth Lampe, Livia Melo Villar
Potential relationship of vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been suggested in the pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this observational study is to determine vitamin D levels, and VDR and DBP genetic polymorphism according demographic and laboratory data in chronic HCV patients (CHC).A total of 148 CHC patients gave serum samples for testing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) level by immunochemiluminometric assay (<20 ng/mL defined as deficient) and donated blood samples to allelic discrimination analysis using TaqMan assays...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
I Greenhalgh, A R Butler
Since the 18th century tuberculosis has been a major cause of death throughout the world. It is a highly infectious disease that spreads by droplet infection and finding effective treatment to combat tuberculosis took a great deal of time. One of the first treatments to have some real success was a stay in a sanatorium. Sanatoria were homes that provided patients with good food and fresh air (and therefore sunlight). The first sanatorium to use sunlight therapy (heliotherapy) seriously was founded in Leysin, Switzerland, by Auguste Rollier...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Rui Yang, Enzhuo Yang, Ling Shen, Robert L Modlin, Hongbo Shen, Zheng W Chen
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to block host antimicrobial responses in infected cells provides a key mechanism for disease pathogenesis. The immune system has evolved to overcome this blockade to restrict the infection, but it is not clear whether two key innate cytokines (IL-12/IL-18) involved in host defense can enhance antimycobacterial mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of IL-12 and IL-18 triggered an antimicrobial response against mycobacteria in infected macrophages (THP-1 and human primary monocyte-derived macrophages) and pulmonary epithelial A549 cells...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jessica Cusato, Amedeo De Nicolò, Lucio Boglione, Fabio Favata, Alessandra Ariaudo, Simone Mornese Pinna, Chiara Carcieri, Federica Guido, Valeria Avataneo, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
Vitamin D levels and genetic variants were associated with drug outcome/toxicity and concentrations. The plasma exposure of GS-331007, the main sofosbuvir metabolite, has been related to SVR. We evaluated the impact of polymorphisms in genes (CYP27B1, CYP24A1, VDBP and VDR) related to vitamin D pathway on sofosbuvir and GS-331007 plasma levels in HCV mono-infected patients at one month of treatment. Polymorphisms were investigated through real-time PCR; drug plasma quantification was performed through a UHPLC-MS/MS method...
February 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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