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Vitamin D immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018409/innate-viral-receptor-signaling-determines-type-1-diabetes-onset
#1
REVIEW
Zachary J Morse, Marc S Horwitz
Heritable susceptibility of the autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D), only partially equates for the incidence of the disease. Significant evidence attributes several environmental stressors, such as vitamin D deficiency, gut microbiome, dietary antigens, and most notably virus infections in triggering the onset of T1D in these genetically susceptible individuals. Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies have provided credibility to this causal relationship. Infection by the enterovirus, coxsackievirus B, has been closely associated with onset of T1D and is considered a significant etiological agent for disease induction...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955691/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-fetal-growth-and-vitamin-d
#2
REVIEW
Hyun Koo Yoon
Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone in skeletal and non-skeletal systems. Vitamin D has relevance to muscle and immune function, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and pregnancy because vitamin D receptors (VDR) are present in many non-skeletal tissues. Vitamin D acts on target tissues via the binding of its active form to VDR. As vitamin D affects not only bone metabolism but also glucose metabolism, vitamin D deficiency may affect the development of gestational diabetes mellitus and fetal growth...
August 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915134/vitamin-d-in-obesity
#3
Jennifer S Walsh, Simon Bowles, Amy L Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and may also have important functions in immunity and other systems. Vitamin D deficiency is common, and testing and supplementation is increasing. Serum vitamin D is lower in obese people; it is important to understand the mechanism of this effect and whether it indicates clinically significant deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D is fat soluble, and distributed into fat, muscle, liver, and serum. All of these compartments are increased in volume in obesity, so the lower vitamin D likely reflects a volumetric dilution effect and whole body stores of vitamin D may be adequate...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913556/high-dose-vitamin-d3-supplementation-decreases-the-number-of-colonic-cd103-dendritic-cells-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Nina Friis Bak, M Bendix, S Hald, L Reinert, M K Magnusson, J Agnholt
PURPOSE: Vitamin D may induce tolerance in the intestinal immune system and has been shown to regulate the phenotype of tolerogenic intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. It is unknown whether vitamin D supplementation affects human intestinal DCs in vivo, and we aimed to investigate the tolerability and effect on intestinal CD103(+)DCs of high-dose vitamin D3 treatment in healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten healthy subjects received a total of 480,000 IU oral vitamin D3 over 15 days and colonic biopsies were obtained before and after intervention by endoscopy...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912361/impact-of-sleep-restriction-on-local-immune-response-and-skin-barrier-restoration-with-and-without-multi-nutrient-nutrition-intervention
#5
Tracey J Smith, Marques A Wilson, J Philip Karl, Jeb Orr, Carl D Smith, Adam D Cooper, Kristin J Heaton, Andrew J Young, Scott J Montain
Systemic immune function is impaired by sleep restriction. However, the impact of sleep restriction on local immune responses, and to what extent any impairment can be mitigated by nutritional supplementation is unknown. We assessed the effect of 72-h sleep restriction (2-h nightly sleep) on local immune function and skin barrier restoration of an experimental wound, and determined the influence of habitual protein intake (1.5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1)) supplemented with arginine, glutamine, zinc sulfate, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids compared to lower protein intake (0...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905102/digestive-system-in-psoriasis-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Daniel Pietrzak, Aldona Pietrzak, Dorota Krasowska, Andrzej Borzęcki, Kinga Franciszkiewicz-Pietrzak, Beata Polkowska-Pruszyńska, Maja Baranowska, Kristian Reich
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disorder associated and often coexisting with many other immune-related clinical conditions including those affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Data obtained from the reviewed literature suggest an association between psoriasis and pathologies of the oral cavity, both psoriasis-specific lesions, as well as non-specific, such as geographic tongue or fissured tongue. These findings show the importance of thorough examination of oral mucosa in psoriatic patients...
September 13, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889337/the-cellular-selection-between-apoptosis-and-autophagy-roles-of-vitamin-d-glucose-and-immune-response-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#7
Magda Hamzawy, Sarah Ali Abdelhameed Gouda, Laila Rashid, Mary Attia Morcos, Heba Shoukry, Nivin Sharawy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Apoptosis, autophagy and cell cycle arrest are cellular responses to injury which are supposed to play fundamental roles in initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The aims of the present study is to shed light on the potential effects of vitamin D analog 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT) on different cell responses during DN, and the possible interplay between both glucose, immune system and vitamin D in determining the cell fate. METHOD: All rats were randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, vehicle-treated DN group and OCT-treated DN group...
September 9, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888834/season-of-birth-and-primary-central-nervous-system-tumors-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-of-the-literature-with-critical-appraisal-of-underlying-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Marios K Georgakis, Erato Ntinopoulou, Despoina Chatzopoulou, Eleni Th Petridou
PURPOSE: Season of birth has been considered a proxy of seasonally varying exposures around perinatal period, potentially implicated in the etiology of several health outcomes, including malignancies. METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we have systematically reviewed published literature on the association of birth seasonality with risk of central nervous system tumors in children and adults. RESULTS: Seventeen eligible studies using various methodologies were identified, encompassing 20,523 cases...
August 24, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868165/serum-vitamin-d-level-at-icu-admission-and-mortality
#9
Hakan Korkut Atalan, Bülent Güçyetmez
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a major role in the regulation of bone and calcium metabolism and has effects on the immune and cardiovascular systems. Vitamin D deficiency is commonly seen in the general population as well as in critically ill patients and is reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Our aim was to determine the relationship between vitamin D level at ICU admission and mortality. METHODS: A total of 491 patients admitted to the ICU between January 2014 and January 2015 were evaluated retrospectively...
August 2017: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836077/circulating-il-8-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-associated-with-worse-inflammatory-and-cardiometabolic-profile
#10
F A Cimini, I Barchetta, A Porzia, F Mainiero, C Costantino, L Bertoccini, V Ceccarelli, S Morini, M G Baroni, A Lenzi, M G Cavallo
AIMS: Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine involved in systemic immunity, macrophages infiltration and activation in adipose tissue and may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerosis. Aims of this study were to evaluate circulating IL-8 levels in adult patients with T2D in comparison with non-diabetic subjects and to describe clinical and biochemical correlates of IL-8 concentration. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 79 consecutive T2D individuals referring to our diabetes outpatient clinics at Sapienza University of Rome, and 37 sex, age and BMI comparable non-diabetic subjects as a control group...
August 23, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825771/vitamin-d-and-the-immune-system
#11
EDITORIAL
Shir Azrielant, Yehuda Shoenfeld
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814440/mechanical-hormonal-and-metabolic-influences-on-blood-vessels-blood-flow-and-bone
#12
REVIEW
Rhonda D Prisby
Bone tissue is highly vascularized due to the various roles bone blood vessels play in bone and bone marrow function. For example, the vascular system is critical for bone development, maintenance and repair and provides O2, nutrients, waste elimination, systemic hormones and precursor cells for bone remodeling. Further, bone blood vessels serve as egress and ingress routes for blood and immune cells to and from the bone marrow. It is becoming increasingly clear that the vascular and skeletal systems are intimately linked in metabolic regulation and physiological and pathological processes...
December 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799803/nutrition-inflammation-and-liver-spleen-axis
#13
Luigi Barrea, Carolina Di Somma, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giovanni Tarantino, Gian Carlo Tenore, Francesco Orio, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation represents a mechanism common to many diseases linked to atherosclerosis-related pathways. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the combination of food quantity and quality along with genetic susceptibility are able to induce the aberrant activation of innate immune signalling, which initially contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation. Liver represents the central player to inflammatory response. Dietary/metabolic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), the main causes of liver disease in the Western world...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792480/the-role-of-nutritional-aspects-in-food-allergy-prevention-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Alessandra Mazzocchi, Carina Venter, Kate Maslin, Carlo Agostoni
The prevalence of food allergy in childhood appears to be increasing in both developed and transitional countries. The aim of this paper is to review and summarise key findings in the prevention and management of food allergy, focusing on the role of dietary components and nutritional habits in the development and optimal functioning of the immune system. Essential fatty acids, zinc and vitamin D are likely to enhance the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative barrier and promote immunologic tolerance. Additionally, nutritional components such as pre- and probiotics represent a novel research approach in the attempt to induce a tolerogenic immune environment...
August 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780880/-vitamin-d-metabolism-and-osteoporosis-in-systemic-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Szilvia Szamosi, Ágnes Horváth, Zoltán Szekanecz, Gabriella Szűcs
In the past few years more and more data have become available on the important role of vitamin D in immunological processes and inflammation. The role of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis as well as in disease progression of different autoimmune and inflammatory conditions is suspected. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in several autoimmune diseases, including systemic sclerosis. Hypovitaminosis has been found to be associated with low bone mineral density and higher prevalence of osteoporosis in this group of patients...
August 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761286/house-dust-mite-sensitization-is-inversely-associated-with-plasma-25-hydroxyvitamin-d3-levels-in-patients-with-severe-atopic-dermatitis
#16
Yong Hyun Jang, Hyun Bo Sim, Sun Young Moon, Weon Ju Lee, Seok-Jong Lee, Meiling Jin, Sang-Hyun Kim, Do Won Kim
BACKGROUND: The relationship between atopic dermatitis (AD) and low vitamin D levels has been studied. Emerging evidence has implicated vitamin D as a critical regulator of immunity, playing a role in both the innate and cell-mediated immune systems. However, the effect of vitamin D on house dust mite (HDM) sensitization in patients with AD has not been established. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and HDM sensitization according to AD severity...
August 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754822/epigenetic-research-in-multiple-sclerosis-progress-challenges-and-opportunities
#17
Galina Zheleznyakova, Eliane Piket, Francesco Marabita, Majid Pahlevan Kakhki, Ewoud Ewing, Sabrina Ruhrmann, Maria Needhamsen, Maja Jagodic, Lara Kular
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS likely results from a complex interplay between predisposing causal gene variants (the strongest influence coming from HLA class II locus) and environmental risk factors such as smoking, infectious mononucleosis and lack of sun exposure/vitamin D. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying MS development and progression. Moreover, the clinical heterogeneity and variable response to treatment represent additional challenges to a comprehensive understanding and efficient treatment of disease...
July 28, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749460/asthma-and-allergy-vitamin-d-primes-neonatal-immune-system
#18
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744120/inhibitory-effect-of-a-new-orally-active-cedrol-loaded-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-on-compound-48-80-induced-mast-cell-degranulation-and-anaphylactic-shock-in-mice
#19
Shreyasi Chakraborty, Nabanita Kar, Leena Kumari, Asit De, Tanmoy Bera
BACKGROUND: Type I hypersensitivity is an allergic reaction characterized by the overactivity of the immune system provoked by normally harmless substances. Glucocorticoids, anti-histamines, or mast cell stabilizers are the choices of treatment for type I hypersensitivity. Even though these drugs have the anti-allergic effect, they can have several side effects in prolong use. Cedrol is the main bioactive compound of Cedrus atlantica with anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and platelet-activating factor inhibiting properties...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712921/selective-regulation-of-biological-processes-by-vitamin-d-based-on-the-spatio-temporal-cistrome-of-its-receptor
#20
Antonio Neme, Sabine Seuter, Carsten Carlberg
The transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) is the exclusive nuclear target of the biologically active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). In THP-1 human monocytes we obtained a highly accurate VDR cistrome after 2 and 24h ligand stimulation comprising >11,600 genomic loci, 78% of which were detected exclusively after 24h. In contrast, a group of 510 persistent VDR sites occurred at all conditions and some 2100 VDR loci were only transiently occupied. Machine learning and statistical analysis as well as a comparison with the re-analyzed B cell VDR cistrome indicated a subgroup of 339 highly conserved persistent VDR sites that were suited best for describing vitamin D-triggered gene regulatory scenarios...
July 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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