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Vitamin D immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617899/in-ovo-applications-in-poultry-a-review
#1
E D Peebles
The various methods employed for the in ovo administration of different materials for promoting the health and productivity of poultry are discussed in this review article. The amnion has proven to be an effective site for injection and the timing of in ovo injection has commonly occurred at transfer. However, the volumes and dosages or concentrations of the materials administered vary depending on bird type, egg size, timing and site of injection, incubation system and regimen, and the type of material. Both manual and automated injections have been shown to be effective...
March 28, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613921/markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-are-associated-with-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-tanzanian-children
#2
Analee J Etheredge, Karim Manji, Mark Kellogg, Hao Tran, Enju Liu, Christine M McDonald, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Wafaie Fawzi, David Bellinger, Andrew T Gewirtz, Christopher P Duggan
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to enteropathogens may result in environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical condition associated with poor child growth. Growth faltering is strongly associated with poor neurodevelopment, and occurs during sensitive periods of postnatal brain development. We investigated the role of novel EED biomarkers, systemic inflammation, and micronutrient status on neurodevelopment in Tanzanian children. METHODS: Non-stunted subjects with 6-week and 6-month blood samples and neurodevelopmental measures (n = 107) were included in this study...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606809/a-study-on-vitamin-d-and-cathelicidin-status-in-patients-with-rosacea-serum-level-and-tissue-expression
#3
Bok Won Park, Ji Min Ha, Eun Byul Cho, Jae Kwang Jin, Eun Joo Park, Hye Rim Park, Hee Jung Kang, Sung Hoon Ko, Kwang Ho Kim, Kwang Joong Kim
Background: Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by centrofacial erythema. Excess cathelicidin is suggested to be important to the pathophysiology of the disease. Recently, presence of a vitamin D response element was revealed in the cathelicidin gene promoter. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether vitamin D and cathelicidin are associated with rosacea, both serologically and histopathologically. Methods: Subjects with rosacea and without chronic skin disorders were enrolled in the patient and control groups, respectively...
April 2018: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597236/extra-skeletal-effects-of-vitamin-d
#4
Roger Bouillon
There are very solid data to confirm that the vitamin D endocrine system is important not only for calcium transport or bone homeostasis but also for operational functions in most cells of the body. Preclinical studies convincingly demonstrated coherent actions of the vitamin D endocrine system on the proliferation/differentiation of most cells (and thus possibly on the evolution of cancer). The most plausible target tissues include skeletal and cardiac muscle, all immune cells, many cells involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, brain cells, and reproductive tissues...
2018: Frontiers of Hormone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593729/genomic-effects-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor-potentially-the-link-between-vitamin-d-immune-cells-and-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Ming Lu, Bruce V Taylor, Heinrich Körner
Vitamin D has a plethora of functions that are important for the maintenance of general health and in particular, the functional integrity of the immune system, such as promoting an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile and reducing the Treg/Th17 ratio. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative central nervous system (CNS) disorder of probable autoimmune origin. MS is characterized by recurring or progressive demyelination and degeneration of the CNS due in part to a misguided immune response to as yet undefined (CNS) antigens, potentially including myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593721/vitamin-d-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-influence-on-immunity-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
María Ángeles Jiménez-Sousa, Isidoro Martínez, Luz María Medrano, Amanda Fernández-Rodríguez, Salvador Resino
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection typically have hypovitaminosis D, which is linked to a large number of pathologies, including immune disorders and infectious diseases. Vitamin D (VitD) is a key regulator of host defense against infections by activating genes and pathways that enhance innate and adaptive immunity. VitD mediates its biological effects by binding to the Vitamin D receptor (VDR), and activating and regulating multiple cellular pathways. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes from those pathways have been associated with protection from HIV-1 infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577619/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-vitamin-d-in-food-allergy
#7
REVIEW
Ashlyn Poole, Yong Song, Helen Brown, Prue H Hart, Guicheng Brad Zhang
Food allergies are becoming increasingly prevalent, especially in young children. Epidemiological evidence from the past decade suggests a role of vitamin D in food allergy pathogenesis. Links have been made between variations in sunlight exposure, latitude, birth season and vitamin D status with food allergy risk. Despite the heightened interest in vitamin D in food allergies, it remains unclear by which exact mechanism(s) it acts. An understanding of the roles vitamin D plays within the immune system at the cellular and genetic levels, as well as the interplay between the microbiome and vitamin D, will provide insight into the importance of the vitamin in food allergies...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546369/how-ultraviolet-light-touches-the-brain-and-endocrine-system-through-skin-and-why
#8
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529167/role-of-vitamin-d-in-the-natural-history-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Ole Haagen Nielsen, Lars Rejnmark, Alan C Moss
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic and unpredictable characterized by alternating periods of remission interspersed with relapses. In recent years accumulating support for an immunomodulating effect of vitamin D on both the innate and adaptive immune system has been presented. Through the vitamin D receptor, the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, induces antimicrobial peptide secretion, decrease dendritic cell activity, and promotes Th2 and regulatory T cell development and activity...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497932/in-the-search-for-reliable-biomarkers-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-the-role-of-vitamin-d
#10
Afaf El-Ansary, John J Cannell, Geir Bjørklund, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Abeer M Al Dbass, Hanan A Alfawaz, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Laila Al-Ayadhi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1% of the world's population. Vitamin D is thought to be essential for normal brain development and modulation of the immune system. Worldwide about 1 billion people are affected by vitamin D deficiency. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) are biomarkers related to inflammation and oxidative stress. In the present study, these biomarkers were together with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3 ) analyzed in 28 (mean age seven years) Saudi male patients with ASD...
March 1, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486575/effect-of-endocrine-disruptor-phytoestrogens-on-the-immune-system-present-and-future
#11
György Csaba
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are bound by steroid receptors, have steroid-like effects, and by this, negatively influence hormone-regulated processes. Phytoestrogens, which are consumed in enormously high amount by man, are also EDs; however, in contrast to industrial or communal EDs, in some cases have beneficial effects. As immune cells have steroid (first of all, estrogen) nuclear and plasma membrane receptors, which bind phytostrogens (genistein, daidzein, etc.), the development, lifespan, and function of them are deeply influenced by phytoestrogens...
February 28, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465107/sanatoria-revisited-sunlight-and-health
#12
I Greenhalgh, A R Butler
Since the 18th century tuberculosis has been a major cause of death throughout the world. It is a highly infectious disease that spreads by droplet infection and finding effective treatment to combat tuberculosis took a great deal of time. One of the first treatments to have some real success was a stay in a sanatorium. Sanatoria were homes that provided patients with good food and fresh air (and therefore sunlight). The first sanatorium to use sunlight therapy (heliotherapy) seriously was founded in Leysin, Switzerland, by Auguste Rollier...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459310/regulation-of-vitamin-d-metabolism-following-disruption-of-the-microbiota-using-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#13
Stephanie A Bora, Mary J Kennett, Philip B Smith, Andrew D Patterson, Margherita T Cantorna
Vitamin D, 25hydroxyvitamin D (25D), and 24,25dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25D) were measured before and after broad spectrum antibiotic (Abx) treatment for 2 wks. Abx treatments increased 25D and 24,25D levels suggesting that the microbiota or Abx were altering vitamin D metabolism. Increased 25D, but not 24,25D, following Abx treatments were found to be dependent on toll like receptor signaling. Conversely, the effects of Abx on 24,25D levels required that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) be expressed in tissues outside of the hematopoietic system (kidney) and not the immune system...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453279/il-12-il-18-cosignaling-in-human-macrophages-and-lung-epithelial-cells-activates-cathelicidin-and-autophagy-inhibiting-intracellular-mycobacterial-growth
#14
Rui Yang, Enzhuo Yang, Ling Shen, Robert L Modlin, Hongbo Shen, Zheng W Chen
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to block host antimicrobial responses in infected cells provides a key mechanism for disease pathogenesis. The immune system has evolved to overcome this blockade to restrict the infection, but it is not clear whether two key innate cytokines (IL-12/IL-18) involved in host defense can enhance antimycobacterial mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of IL-12 and IL-18 triggered an antimicrobial response against mycobacteria in infected macrophages (THP-1 and human primary monocyte-derived macrophages) and pulmonary epithelial A549 cells...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447929/a-complex-systems-approach-to-cancer-prevention
#15
P W Jupp
Cancer incidence continues to be a major health problem possibly because cancer is a complex system comprising many agents that interact in a non-linear manner resulting in many possible outcomes. The degree of complexity of a cancer system could be vast involving multiple endogenous and exogenous agents interacting with the over 10 trillion cells comprising the body. It is hypothesized that the practical management of this complexity may be a key to cancer prevention and possibly treatment. But the management and resolution of such an immensely complex system is difficult and may require a multidisciplinary approach including physics, biology, biochemistry and medical science...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438164/the-autoimmune-ecology-an-update
#16
Juan-Manuel Anaya, Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Carolina Ramírez-Santana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The autoimmune ecology refers to the interactions between individuals and their environment leading to a breakdown in immune tolerance and, therefore, to the development of one or more autoimmune diseases in such an individual. Herein, an update is offered on four specific factors associated with autoimmune diseases, namely, vitamin D, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption from the perspective of exposome and metabolomics. RECENT FINDINGS: Smoking is associated with an increased risk for most of the autoimmune diseases...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416220/analysis-of-vitamin-d-receptor-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-familial-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Fatma Ebru Yucel, Ozden Kamıslı, Ceren Acar, Mert Sozen, Mehmet Tecellioğlu, Cemal Ozcan
Objective: Genetic and environmental factors are important in the development of the multiple sclerosis (MS). Vitamin D shows its effects on the immune system with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the nucleus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene can lead to alterations in vitamin D functions and metabolism.Taq I, Apa I, Fok I and Bsm I polymorphisms and MS associations have been investigated in many studies. VDR gene polymorphism has not been previously studied in patients with familial MS...
February 2018: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407432/thyroid-autoimmunity-an-interplay-of-factors
#18
Stephen J Merrill, Sarah B Minucci
The literature on thyroid autoimmunity has identified many potential factors at play for the initiation and progression of autoimmune thyroid diseases. These factors include genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, some drugs, iodine and selenium, infection, molecular mimics, and immune system defects. The sheer number of feasible factors makes sorting out the necessary agents from the fellow travelers difficult. In addition, many of these factors have the capability to interact-further confusing the picture...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402395/intestinal-worms-eating-neuropsychiatric-disorders-apparently-so
#19
Henry H Kou, William Parker
A number of factors in Western society, including inflammatory diets, sedentary lifestyles, vitamin D deficiency and chronic psychological stress, are known to induce inflammation and to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. One factor that is emerging as a potential inflammation inducing factor is biota depletion, or loss of biodiversity from the ecosystem of the human body as a result of industrialization. Originally known as the "hygiene hypothesis", biota alteration theory describes the effects of biota alteration on the human immune system...
February 2, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384117/vitamin-d-receptor-variants-and-uncontrolled-asthma
#20
K Hutchinson, C P Kerley, J Faul, P Greally, D Coghlan, M Louw, B Elnazir, Y Rochev
Background. Asthma is a common childhood respiratory disease, affecting around 20% of Irish children. In other populations, vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms have been associated with asthma risk. We aimed to investigate the association between 2 VDR polymorphisms and uncontrolled paediatric asthma. Methods. 44 asthmatic children and 57 healthy volunteers were studied. The VDR TaqI gene variant in exon 9 (T/C) (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) in intron 8 (C/T) were determined, using TaqMan® Assays. The lung function, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and other biomarkers of allergy, immunity, airway and systemic inflammation were as-sessed...
November 28, 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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