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Vitamin D immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094339/massive-effect-on-lncrnas-in-human-monocytes-during-fungal-and-bacterial-infections-and-in-response-to-vitamins-a-and-d
#1
Konstantin Riege, Martin Hölzer, Tilman E Klassert, Emanuel Barth, Julia Bräuer, Maximilian Collatz, Franziska Hufsky, Nelly Mostajo, Magdalena Stock, Bertram Vogel, Hortense Slevogt, Manja Marz
Mycoses induced by C.albicans or A.fumigatus can cause important host damage either by deficient or exaggerated immune response. Regulation of chemokine and cytokine signaling plays a crucial role for an adequate inflammation, which can be modulated by vitamins A and D. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as transcription factors or cis-acting antisense RNAs are known to be involved in gene regulation. However, the processes during fungal infections and treatment with vitamins in terms of therapeutic impact are unknown...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090471/hair-zinc-level-analysis-and-correlative-micronutrients-in-children-presenting-with-malnutrition-and-poor-growth
#2
Tae Hwan Han, Jin Lee, Yong Joo Kim
PURPOSE: Zinc deficiency can induce serious clinical problems in the gastrointestinal (GI) system and immune system and can affect growth and development. It is more severe in younger patients. Chronic zinc deficiency is reflected more precisely in hair than in serum. We studied hair zinc levels and other hair and serum micronutrients in chronic malnourished children to identify which micronutrients are affected or correlated with the other ones. METHODS: Hair mineral analyses were performed in 56 children (age, 1-15 years) presenting with malnutrition, poor growth, poor appetite, anorexia, with/without other GI symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation) from August 2012 to March 2015...
December 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078341/the-role-of-uv-radiation-and-vitamin-d-in-the-seasonality-and-outcomes-of-infectious-disease
#3
Abhimanyu, Anna K Coussens
The seasonality of infectious disease outbreaks suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on disease risk. One of the major environmental factors that can affect this is solar radiation, primarily acting through ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and its subsequent control of vitamin D production. Here we show how UVR and vitamin D, which are modified by latitude and season, can affect host and pathogen fitness and relate them to the outcomes of bacterial, viral and vector-borne infections...
January 12, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072933/altered-blood-levels-of-vitamin-d-cathelicidin-and-parathyroid-hormone-in-patients-with-sepsis-a-pilot-study
#4
T Greulich, W Regner, M Branscheidt, C Herr, A R Koczulla, C F Vogelmeier, R Bals
It has been recognised that vitamin D (VitD) has a potential role in the regulation of inflammation and protection from infection. In a prospective clinical observational pilot study, we investigated the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (25(OH)D3), 1,25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and cathelicidin in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with or without systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). We included 32 patients with SIRS (septic patients), 16 ICU patients without SIRS, and 16 healthy controls...
January 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070798/does-vitamin-d-play-a-role-in-autoimmune-endocrine-disorders-a-proof-of-concept
#5
REVIEW
Barbara Altieri, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Luigi Barrea, Chantal Mathieu, Carla V Vallone, Luca Mascitelli, Giorgia Bizzaro, Vincenzo M Altieri, Giacomo Tirabassi, Giancarlo Balercia, Silvia Savastano, Nicola Bizzaro, Cristina L Ronchi, Annamaria Colao, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Silvia Della Casa
In the last few years, more attention has been given to the "non-calcemic" effect of vitamin D. Several observational studies and meta-analyses demonstrated an association between circulating levels of vitamin D and outcome of many common diseases, including endocrine diseases, chronic diseases, cancer progression, and autoimmune diseases. In particular, cells of the immune system (B cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells), due to the expression of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), are able to synthesize the active metabolite of vitamin D, which shows immunomodulatory properties...
January 9, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054069/challenge-and-perspective-the-relevance-of-ultraviolet-uv-radiation-and-the-vitamin-d-endocrine-system-vdes-for-psoriasis-and-other-inflammatory-skin-diseases
#6
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
During evolution, the ability of many organisms to synthesize vitamin D photochemically represented, and still represents, a major driving factor for the development of life on earth. In humans because not more than 10-20% of the requirement of vitamin D can be satisfied by the diet (under most living conditions in the US and Europe), the remaining 80-90% need to be photochemically synthesized in the skin through the action of solar or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. The skin is a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), representing both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites...
January 5, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049048/vitamin-d-in-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases-a-view-inside-gender-differences
#7
REVIEW
Massimiliano Vasile, Clarissa Corinaldesi, Cristina Antinozzi, Clara Crescioli
A large body of evidence highlights the role for vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in rheumatic diseases, a group of different pathologies mostly of autoimmune origin. Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor agonists exquisitely modulate the immune system against over-reactivity towards tolerance; on this basis, vitamin D could be a good therapeutic candidate to control autoimmune processes in rheumatic diseases. Similarly, to other autoimmune pathologies, rheumatic diseases show a significant female bias. This sexual dimorphism seems, in part, to rely on the different sex hormone-induced regulation on male and female immune systems...
December 31, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031008/action-and-function-of-vitamin-d-in-digestive-tract-physiology-and-pathology
#8
Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler, Auke Pieter Verhaar, Luc J W Van Der Laan
BACKGROUND: The body of biomedical literature on Vitamin D effector mechanisms in gastrointestinal biology and pathophysiology is rapidly expanding. Accordingly, new possibilities of vitamin D biology-based therapeutical intervention in gastroenterological disease are being identified. However, the literature lacks a concise review on these developments, hampering comprehension of the possibilities involved for many in the community. RESULTS: Genetic vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and other VDR biology regulation are involved in predisposition to gastrointestinal cancers and might allow tailored strategies for managing those individuals especially at risk, e...
December 28, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028396/the-hidden-function-of-vitamin-d
#9
Hiba Sibaii, Salwa Refat El-Zayat, Azza Abd El-Shaheed, Nermine N Mahfouz, Sara F Sallam, Marwa H El Azma
AIM: There are no reports regarding the influence of vitamin D on thymosin ß4 and the cluster of differentiation CD4 levels which are important for maintaining a healthy immune system. Consequently, we aimed to explore this relationship through a study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 35 subjects, screened for 25-hydroxy vitamin D[25 (OH) D] using ELISA method and they were divided into two groups: Group 1 consists of 10 healthy subjects with sufficient vit...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012697/the-host-defense-peptide-ll-37-a-possible-inducer-of-the-type-i-interferon-system-in-patients-with-polymyositis-and-dermatomyositis
#10
Xin Lu, Quan Tang, Monica Lindh, Maryam Dastmalchi, Helene Alexanderson, Karin Popovic Silwerfeldt, Birgitta Agerberth, Ingrid E Lundberg, Cecilia Wick
The type I interferon (IFN) system has recently been suggested to play important and essential roles in the pathogenesis of myositis. However, a clarification of how type I IFNs could function as triggering factor(s) in the pathogenesis of myositis has yet failed. Through activation of the type I IFN system, the host defense peptide LL-37 carries numerous immunomodulatory properties and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several other autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The expression of LL-37 can be regulated by various endogenous factors including the active form of vitamin D (25(OH)D3)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006052/association-of-low-vitamin-d-levels-with-noninfectious-anterior-uveitis
#11
Lindsay A Grotting, Samaneh Davoudi, Deanna Palenzuela, George N Papaliodis, Lucia Sobrin
Importance: Vitamin D plays an important role in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. It has been shown to contribute to the etiology of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases through the upregulation of type 2 anti-inflammatory T helper cells and the suppression of type 1 T helper cells. Noninfectious uveitis is postulated to be caused by immune dysfunction. Objective: To determine whether there is an association between vitamin D levels and noninfectious anterior uveitis...
December 22, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000549/vitamin-d-autoimmunity-and-gender
#12
Clara Crescioli, Salvatore Minisola
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is considered a risk factor for autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D and its analogues have been proposed as therapeutic tools in autoimmunity considering their exquisite immunoregulatory effect against over-reactivity towards tolerance. Autoimmune diseases, nowadays recognized as emerging non communicable diseases, are characterized by a significant female bias. This sexual dimorphism seems related to sex hormones, which differently affect male and female immune systems...
December 19, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983651/skin-involvement-and-pulmonary-hypertension-are-associated-with-vitamin-d-insufficiency-in-scleroderma
#13
Marco Atteritano, Domenico Santoro, Giorgio Corallo, Elisa Visalli, Michele Buemi, Antonino Catalano, Antonino Lasco, Alessandra Bitto, Francesco Squadrito
Vitamin D status has been linked to immune system and autoimmune disorders; in fact, low levels of vitamin D are common in many autoimmune disorders. The aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the possible correlation with clinical parameters in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We recruited 40 patients (38 female and two male) with scleroderma and 40 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Demographic and clinical parameters were recorded and the 25-hydroxivitamin D3 serum levels were measured...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968929/nutrition-and-skin-kids-are-not-just-little-people
#14
Meagen McCusker, Robert Sidbury
There has been a surge of new data regarding the pathophysiology of skin diseases. We are appreciating the sophisticated interplay among the skin, the immune system, and the environment. More elegant and highly specific medicines have been designed to target certain immune mediators of the adaptive immune system. In parallel fashion, we are learning more about the elegance of the innate immune system and how nutrition as early as the prenatal period can affect the priming of other immune cells. Concerns about the long-term impact of new immune-modulating medicines-especially in the pediatric population-have patients asking their dermatologists for nutritional alternatives to medical therapies...
November 2016: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964949/vitamin-d-and-the-lung
#15
REVIEW
Sofia Konstantinopoulou, Ignacio E Tapia
Vitamin D metabolism is complex and its deficiency has proven to be deleterious in bone health, and to have significant effects on the immune and cardiovascular systems. Vitamin D has also been associated with pulmonary diseases outcomes. This review will focus on vitamin D metabolism, and studies performed mostly in children with asthma or Cystic Fibrosis.
October 31, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958635/influence-of-apa1-rs7975232-taq1-rs731236-and-bsm1-rs154410-polymorphisms-of-vitamin-d-receptor-on-preterm-birth-risk-in-the-polish-population
#16
Marta Baczyńska-Strzecha, Jarosław Kalinka
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in the placenta and tissues related to the immune system occurrence of various variants of VDR may modify the effects of vitamin D on pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the parturients' Apa1, Taq1, and Bsm1 polymorphisms of the VDR and their combinations and the risk of preterm birth in the Polish population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Determination of polymorphism for VDR was assayed using the RT-PCR method...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939043/periostin-the-bone-and-beyond
#17
REVIEW
L Idolazzi, E Ridolo, A Fassio, D Gatti, M Montagni, M Caminati, I Martignago, C Incorvaia, G Senna
In recent years the relationship between bone, metabolism and many pathophysiologic mechanisms involving other organs and the immune system, was increasingly apparent. This observation concerns vitamin D, osteopontin and periostin (PO). PO is expressed in the periosteum of long bones but also in many other tissues and organs, including heart, kidney, skin and lungs, being enhanced by mechanical stress or injury. PO has a relevant physiological function in promoting injury repair in a large number of tissues...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922139/are-low-sun-exposure-and-or-vitamin-d-risk-factors-for-type-1-diabetes
#18
K M Miller, P H Hart, N H de Klerk, E A Davis, R M Lucas
The global variation in type 1 diabetes (T1D) incidence rates is one of the most significant observed for any non-communicable disease. Geographical patterns in incidence suggest that low sun exposure may contribute to the wide disparity, with incidence rates generally increasing with distance from the Equator. T1D development is associated with hyperactivity of the adaptive immune system leading to autoimmune destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. Both exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and vitamin D, with their known immunosuppressive effects, have the potential to delay or inhibit the disease...
December 6, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915349/roles-of-1-25-oh-2d3-and-vitamin-d-receptor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-by-regulating-the-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-and-the-pkc%C3%AE-erk-signaling-pathway
#19
Xiao-Jie He, Yan Ding, Wei Xiang, Xi-Qiang Dang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The study aims to elucidate the roles of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by regulating the activation of CD4+ T cells and the PKCδ/ERK signaling pathway. METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 130 SLE patients, 137 RA patients and 130 healthy controls were selected in this study. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR mRNA expression were detected by ELISA and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913273/the-endocrine-vitamin-d-system-in-the-gut
#20
Antonio Barbáchano, Asunción Fernández-Barral, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Alba Costales-Carrera, María Jesús Larriba, Alberto Muñoz
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important regulatory actions in the gut through endocrine and probably also intracrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. By activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed at a high level in the small intestine and colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 is a major responsible for epithelial barrier function and calcium and phosphate absorption, and the host's defense against pathogens and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
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