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Evidence-based Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797262/when-a-parent-dies-a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-support-programs-for-parentally-bereaved-children-and-their-caregivers
#1
Ann-Sofie Bergman, Ulf Axberg, Elizabeth Hanson
BACKGROUND: The death of a parent is a highly stressful life event for bereaved children. Several studies have shown an increased risk of mental ill-health and psychosocial problems among affected children. The aims of this study were to systematically review studies about effective support interventions for parentally bereaved children and to identify gaps in the research. METHODS: The review's inclusion criteria were comparative studies with samples of parentally bereaved children...
August 10, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792289/a-guide-to-psychopharmacological-treatment-of-patients-with-intellectual-disability-in-psychiatry
#2
Rosa M Molina-Ruiz, Julia Martín-Carballeda, Inmaculada Asensio-Moreno, Francisco Montañés-Rada
Background Subjects with intellectual disability are at increased risk of having comorbid psychiatric disorders and worse response to psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological treatment interventions. On the other hand, available data on best treatment approach in this population are scarce and lack scientific evidence due to methodological limitations. The present study aims to perform a systematic review of the literature to facilitate the use of psychotropic drugs in clinical practice and better establish future research targets in this field...
March 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776213/-standards-for-treatment-in-forensic-committment-according-to-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-63-and-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-64-of-the-german-criminal-code-interdisciplinary-task-force-of-the-dgppn
#3
REVIEW
J L Müller, N Saimeh, P Briken, S Eucker, K Hoffmann, M Koller, T Wolf, M Dudeck, C Hartl, A-K Jakovljevic, V Klein, G Knecht, R Müller-Isberner, J Muysers, K Schiltz, D Seifert, A Simon, H Steinböck, W Stuckmann, W Weissbeck, C Wiesemann, R Zeidler
People who have been convicted of a crime due to a severe mental disorder and continue to be dangerous as a result of this disorder may be placed in a forensic psychiatric facility for improvement and safeguarding according to § 63 and § 64 of the German Criminal Code (StGB). In Germany, approximately 9000 patients are treated in clinics for forensic psychiatry and psychotherapy on the basis of § 63 of the StGB and in withdrawal centers on the basis of § 64 StGB. The laws for treatment of patients in forensic commitment are passed by the individual States, with the result that even the basic conditions differ in the individual States...
August 3, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756348/measuring-alterations-in-oscillatory-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-with-resting-state-meg-state-of-the-art-and-methodological-challenges
#4
Golnoush Alamian, Ana-Sofía Hincapié, Annalisa Pascarella, Thomas Thiery, Etienne Combrisson, Anne-Lise Saive, Véronique Martel, Dmitrii Althukov, Frédéric Haesebaert, Karim Jerbi
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of disturbed resting-state brain networks in Schizophrenia (SZ). However, untangling the neuronal mechanisms that subserve these baseline alterations requires measurement of their electrophysiological underpinnings. This systematic review specifically investigates the contributions of resting-state Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in elucidating abnormal neural organization in SZ patients. METHOD: A systematic literature review of resting-state MEG studies in SZ was conducted...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747930/parental-involvement-and-child-and-adolescent-eating-disorders-perspectives-from-residents-in-psychiatry-pediatrics-and-family-medicine
#5
Tamara Davidson Marcon, Laura Girz, Amanda Stillar, Carole Tessier, Adele Lafrance
OBJECTIVES: Best practice guidelines encourage the involvement of parents in the assessment and treatment of child/adolescent eating disorders (ED). This study investigated medical residents' perspectives regarding parental involvement as well as their expectations for future practice in the assessment and treatment of ED. METHOD: Five hundred and eighty-four medical residents from 17 Canadian residency programs specializing in family medicine, pediatrics, and psychiatry completed a web-based survey...
July 2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732477/a-web-based-clinical-decision-tool-to-support-treatment-decision-making-in-psychiatry-a-pilot-focus-group-study-with-clinicians-patients-and-carers
#6
Catherine Henshall, Lisa Marzano, Katharine Smith, Mary-Jane Attenburrow, Stephen Puntis, Jakov Zlodre, Kathleen Kelly, Matthew R Broome, Susan Shaw, Alvaro Barrera, Andrew Molodynski, Alastair Reid, John R Geddes, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Treatment decision tools have been developed in many fields of medicine, including psychiatry, however benefits for patients have not been sustained once the support is withdrawn. We have developed a web-based computerised clinical decision support tool (CDST), which can provide patients and clinicians with continuous, up-to-date, personalised information about the efficacy and tolerability of competing interventions. To test the feasibility and acceptability of the CDST we conducted a focus group study, aimed to explore the views of clinicians, patients and carers...
July 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713686/development-of-an-instrument-to-measure-patients-attitudes-towards-involuntary-hospitalization
#7
Adel Gabriel
AIM: To construct and assess the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure patients' attitudes towards involuntary hospitalization. METHODS: This is a two phase study. In the first phase, based on comprehensive literature review, a twenty one item scale to measure patients' attitudes to involuntary admission was constructed. Forensic and inpatient Psychiatrists, patients' advocates and legal experts (n = 15) were invited to participate in the validation process of the written instrument, by formally rating each item of the instrument for its relevancy in measuring patients' attitudes to involuntary admission...
June 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659228/are-we-failing-clinical-trials-a-case-for-strong-aggregate-outcomes
#8
D W Joyce, D K Tracy, S S Shergill
Clinical trials in psychiatry inherit methods for design and statistical analysis from evidence-based medicine. However, trials in other clinical disciplines benefit from a more specific relationship between instruments that measure disease state (e.g. biomarkers, clinical signs), the underlying pathology and diagnosis such that primary outcomes can be readily defined. Trials in psychiatry use diagnosis (i.e. a categorical label for a syndrome) as a proxy for the underlying disorder, and outcomes are defined, for example, as a percentage change in a univariate total score on some clinical instrument...
June 29, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653259/a-medication-assessment-tool-to-evaluate-prescribers-adherence-to-evidence-based-guidelines-in-bipolar-disorder
#9
Dalal M Al-Taweel, Mohammad Alsuwaidan
Background The goal of evidence-based clinical practice has led to an increased interest in the development of tools to measure adherence to national guidelines in different diseases. This aids in detecting and measuring inappropriate prescribing to specific patient groups by using quality standards extracted from evidence-based guidelines, and ultimately provide the basis of consistent standardized prescribing. Objective To design and validate a medication assessment tool to assess prescribers' adherence to international guideline recommendations in the management of bipolar disorder (MATBD)...
August 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643140/evidence-based-metrics-and-other-multidimensional-considerations-in-promotion-or-tenure-evaluations-in-academic-psychiatry
#10
Heather Kenna, Aimee-Noelle Swanson, Laura Weiss Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638038/-a-current-view-on-the-history-of-atypical-antipsychotics
#11
D S Danilov
Based on the analysis of the original literature, the author for the first time systemizes the data on the story of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The history of introduction of the first atypical neuroleptics - clozapine and sulpiride, which launched the dichotomic development of psychopharmacology of atypical antipsychotics, is described. Historical facts on the introduction into practice of different sulpiride- and clozapine-like neuroleptics as well as the relationship of their history with the elaboration of dopamine and serotonin hypotheses of mechanisms of action of antipsychotics are presented...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622823/does-behavioral-health-integration-improve-primary-care-providers-perceptions-of-health-care-system-functioning-and-their-own-knowledge
#12
Leah Zallman, Robert Joseph, Colleen O'Brien, Emily Benedetto, Ellie Grossman, Lisa Arsenault, Assaad Sayah
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of behavioral health integration (BHI) on primary care providers' (PCPs') (1) perceptions of behavioral health (BH)-primary care (PC) system functioning and (2) perceptions of their own knowledge regarding how to manage, triage, and access help in caring for patients with mental health conditions and substance use disorders. METHODS: We implemented BHI based on evidence-based models consisting of seven elements: (1)Screening for mental health and substance use disorders, (2)Training of PC teams, (3)Integration of BH providers into PC teams, (4)Roll-out of unlicensed mental health care managers and establishment of a BH registry, (5)Psychiatry consult service, (6)Site-based BHI meetings, and (7)Site self assessments...
May 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612089/the-intensive-care-delirium-research-agenda-a-multinational-interprofessional-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Pratik P Pandharipande, E Wesley Ely, Rakesh C Arora, Michele C Balas, Malaz A Boustani, Gabriel Heras La Calle, Colm Cunningham, John W Devlin, Julius Elefante, Jin H Han, Alasdair M MacLullich, José R Maldonado, Alessandro Morandi, Dale M Needham, Valerie J Page, Louise Rose, Jorge I F Salluh, Tarek Sharshar, Yahya Shehabi, Yoanna Skrobik, Arjen J C Slooter, Heidi A B Smith
Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help foster research that will ultimately lead to its prevention and treatment. In this invited, evidence-based paper, a multinational and interprofessional group of clinicians and researchers from within the fields of critical care medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, anesthesiology, geriatrics, surgery, neurology, nursing, pharmacy, and the neurosciences sought to address five questions: (1) What is the current standard of care in managing ICU delirium? (2) What have been the major recent advances in delirium research and care? (3) What are the common delirium beliefs that have been challenged by recent trials? (4) What are the remaining areas of uncertainty in delirium research? (5) What are some of the top study areas/trials to be done in the next 10 years? Herein, we briefly review the epidemiology of delirium, the current best practices for management of critically ill patients at risk for delirium or experiencing delirium, identify recent advances in our understanding of delirium as well as gaps in knowledge, and discuss research opportunities and barriers to implementation, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda...
June 13, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600276/data-collection-for-mental-health-studies-through-digital-platforms-requirements-and-design-of-a-prototype
#14
Talayeh Aledavood, Ana Maria Triana Hoyos, Tuomas Alakörkkö, Kimmo Kaski, Jari Saramäki, Erkki Isometsä, Richard K Darst
BACKGROUND: Mental and behavioral disorders are the main cause of disability worldwide. However, their diagnosis is challenging due to a lack of reliable biomarkers; current detection is based on structured clinical interviews which can be biased by the patient's recall ability, affective state, changing in temporal frames, etc. While digital platforms have been introduced as a possible solution to this complex problem, there is little evidence on the extent of usability and usefulness of these platforms...
June 9, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589328/results-from-the-field-development-and-evaluation-of-a-psychiatry-residency-training-rotation-in-cognitive-behavioral-therapies
#15
Barbara W Kamholz, Amy E Lawrence, Gabrielle I Liverant, Shimrit K Black, Justin M Hill
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this project was to develop and evaluate a new residency training rotation focused on cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) and to assess outcomes across multiple domains. METHODS: Data are presented from 30 psychiatry residents. Primary learning-related outcomes included content knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes and behavioral intentions towards evidence-based psychotherapies (e.g., CBT). RESULTS: Residents reported significant increases in CBT knowledge, CBT-specific self-efficacy, overall psychotherapy self-efficacy, belief in patient benefit from CBT, and behavioral intention to use CBT...
June 6, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558251/omega-3-use-in-psychiatry-evidence-based-or-elegance-based
#16
Ahmed Naguy
Use of omega-3 in psychiatric practice is on the rise. It has been used in diverse indications, notably mood disorders, schizophrenia, dementia, borderline personality, and neurodevelopmental disorders, with varying levels of evidence base. Here, the author sheds some light on the therapeutic potential of omega-3 as an appealing addition to psychopharmacological armamentarium.
May 30, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555077/the-dendritic-spine-morphogenic-effects-of-repeated-cocaine-use-occur-through-the-regulation-of-serum-response-factor-signaling
#17
M E Cahill, D M Walker, A M Gancarz, Z J Wang, C K Lardner, R C Bagot, R L Neve, D M Dietz, E J Nestler
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a primary brain reward region composed predominantly of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In response to early withdrawal from repeated cocaine administration, de novo dendritic spine formation occurs in NAc MSNs. Much evidence indicates that this new spine formation facilitates the rewarding properties of cocaine. Early withdrawal from repeated cocaine also produces dramatic alterations in the transcriptome of NAc MSNs, but how such alterations influence cocaine's effects on dendritic spine formation remain unclear...
May 30, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543089/treatments-for-people-living-with-schizophrenia-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-adapted-realist-review
#18
REVIEW
S Chidarikire, M Cross, I Skinner, M Cleary
AIM: To identify the treatments and interventions available and their impact on people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. BACKGROUND: Help-seeking behaviour and the choice of treatment are largely influenced by socio-cultural factors and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. This review addresses the gap in knowledge regarding the treatment options available to people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Adapted realist literature review...
May 25, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540928/anxiety-associated-increased-cpg-methylation-in-the-promoter-of-asb1-a-translational-approach-evidenced-by-epidemiological-and-clinical-studies-and-a-murine-model
#19
Rebecca T Emeny, Jens Baumert, Anthony S Zannas, Sonja Kunze, Simone Wahl, Stella Iurato, Janine Arloth, Angelika Erhardt, Georgia Balsevich, Mathias V Schmidt, Peter Weber, Anja Kretschmer, Liliane Pfeiffer, Johannes Kruse, Konstantin Strauch, Michael Roden, Christian Herder, Wolfgang Koenig, Christian Gieger, Melanie Waldenberger, Annette Peters, Elisabeth B Binder, Karl-Heinz Ladwig
Epigenetic regulation in anxiety is suggested, but evidence from large studies is needed. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on anxiety in a population-based cohort and validated our finding in a clinical cohort as well as a murine model. In the KORA cohort, participants (n=1522, age 32-72 years) were administered the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, whole blood DNA methylation was measured (Illumina 450 K BeadChip) and circulating levels of hs-CRP and IL-18 were assessed in the association between anxiety and methylation...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539947/development-of-a-diverse-learning-experience-for-diverse-psychiatry-resident-needs-a-four-year-biological-psychiatry-curriculum-incorporating-principles-of-neurobiology-psychopharmacology-and-evidence-based-practice
#20
Andrew J Muzyk, Jane P Gagliardi, Gopalkumar Rakesh, Michael R Jiroutek, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Chi-Un Pae, Prakash S Masand, Steven T Szabo
OBJECTIVE: A clinically relevant approach to patient care grounded in neurobiological constructs and evidence based practice which emphasizes a relevant psychopharmacology is needed to optimally train psychiatry residents. METHODS: We implemented a biological psychiatry course that now incorporates neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice in conjunction with a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) perspective. A survey launched prior to course implementation and following each class session, served as the outcome metric of residents' attitudes toward the new curriculum and followed a baseline attitudinal survey designed to evaluate the program...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
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