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Evidence-based Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216782/indian-psychiatric-society-survey-on-clinical-practice-guidelines
#1
Sandeep Grover, Ajit Avasthi
AIM: This survey aimed to assess the utility of the earlier published clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) by IPS and to understand the expectations of members of Indian Psychiatric Society from the proposed revised CPGs. In addition, the survey also evaluated the current level of practice of psychiatry in terms of availability of different investigation facilities, prescription patterns in terms of use of polypharmacy, and competence in carrying out certain nonpharmacological treatments...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210358/american-association-for-emergency-psychiatry-task-force-on-medical-clearance-of-adults-part-i-introduction-review-and-evidence-based-guidelines
#2
REVIEW
Eric L Anderson, Kimberly Nordstrom, Michael P Wilson, Jennifer M Peltzer-Jones, Leslie Zun, Anthony Ng, Michael H Allen
INTRODUCTION: In the United States, the number of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a mental health concern is significant and expected to grow. The breadth of the medical evaluation of these patients is controversial. Attempts have been made to establish a standard evaluation for these patients, but to date no nationally accepted standards exist. A task force of the American Association of Emergency Psychiatry, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine and psychiatry, and a psychologist was convened to form consensus recommendations on the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to EDs...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199870/in-hospital-mortality-among-electroconvulsive-therapy-recipients-a-17-year-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-study
#3
C-S Liang, C-H Chung, C-K Tsai, W-C Chien
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains irreplaceable in the treatment of several psychiatric conditions. However, evidence derived using data from a national database to support its safety is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate in-hospital mortality among patients with psychiatric conditions treated with and without ECT. METHODS: Using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 to 2013, we identified 828,899 inpatients with psychiatric conditions, among whom 0...
December 22, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184313/juvenile-delinquency-welfare-justice-and-therapeutic-interventions-a-global-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Susan Young, Ben Greer, Richard Church
This review considers juvenile delinquency and justice from an international perspective. Youth crime is a growing concern. Many young offenders are also victims with complex needs, leading to a public health approach that requires a balance of welfare and justice models. However, around the world there are variable and inadequate legal frameworks and a lack of a specialist workforce. The UK and other high-income countries worldwide have established forensic child and adolescent psychiatry, a multifaceted discipline incorporating legal, psychiatric and developmental fields...
February 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167838/glrb-allelic-variation-associated-with-agoraphobic-cognitions-increased-startle-response-and-fear-network-activation-a-potential-neurogenetic-pathway-to-panic-disorder
#5
J Deckert, H Weber, C Villmann, T B Lonsdorf, J Richter, M Andreatta, A Arias-Vasquez, L Hommers, L Kent, C Schartner, S Cichon, C Wolf, N Schaefer, C R von Collenberg, B Wachter, R Blum, D Schümann, R Scharfenort, J Schumacher, A J Forstner, C Baumann, M A Schiele, S Notzon, P Zwanzger, J G E Janzing, T Galesloot, L A Kiemeney, A Gajewska, E Glotzbach-Schoon, A Mühlberger, G Alpers, T Fydrich, L Fehm, A L Gerlach, T Kircher, T Lang, A Ströhle, V Arolt, H-U Wittchen, R Kalisch, C Büchel, A Hamm, M M Nöthen, M Romanos, K Domschke, P Pauli, A Reif
The molecular genetics of panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (AG) are still largely unknown and progress is hampered by small sample sizes. We therefore performed a genome-wide association study with a dimensional, PD/AG-related anxiety phenotype based on the Agoraphobia Cognition Questionnaire (ACQ) in a sample of 1370 healthy German volunteers of the CRC TRR58 MEGA study wave 1. A genome-wide significant association was found between ACQ and single non-coding nucleotide variants of the GLRB gene (rs78726293, P=3...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167747/integrated-collaborative-care-teams-to-enhance-service-delivery-to-youth-with-mental-health-and-substance-use-challenges-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Joanna L Henderson, Amy Cheung, Kristin Cleverley, Gloria Chaim, Myla E Moretti, Claire de Oliveira, Lisa D Hawke, Andrew R Willan, David O'Brien, Olivia Heffernan, Tyson Herzog, Lynn Courey, Heather McDonald, Enid Grant, Peter Szatmari
INTRODUCTION: Among youth, the prevalence of mental health and addiction (MHA) disorders is roughly 20%, yet youth are challenged to access evidence-based services in a timely fashion. To address MHA system gaps, this study tests the benefits of an Integrated Collaborative Care Team (ICCT) model for youth with MHA challenges. A rapid, stepped-care approach geared to need in a youth-friendly environment is expected to result in better youth MHA outcomes. Moreover, the ICCT approach is expected to decrease service wait-times, be more youth-friendly and family-friendly, and be more cost-effective, providing substantial public health benefits...
February 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135829/incorporating-active-learning-in-psychiatry-education
#7
Sonia Kumar, Loyola McLean, Louise Nash, Keith Trigwell
OBJECTIVE: We aim to summarise the active learning literature in higher education and consider its relevance for postgraduate psychiatry trainees, to inform the development of a new Formal Education Course (FEC): the Master of Medicine (Psychiatry) at the University of Sydney. METHOD: We undertook a literature search on 'active learning', 'flipped classroom', 'problem-based learning' and 'psychiatry education'. RESULTS: The effectiveness of active learning pedagogy in higher education is well supported by evidence; however, there have been few psychiatry-specific studies...
January 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131433/the-effect-of-mindfulness-meditation-training-on-biological-acute-stress-responses-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#8
Elizabeth A Hoge, Eric Bui, Sophie A Palitz, Noah R Schwarz, Maryann E Owens, Jennifer M Johnston, Mark H Pollack, Naomi M Simon
Mindfulness-Based interventions have increased in popularity in psychiatry, but the impact of these treatments on disorder-relevant biomarkers would greatly enhance efficacy and mechanistic evidence. If Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is successfully treated, relevant biomarkers should change, supporting the impact of treatment and suggesting improved resilience to stress. Seventy adults with GAD were randomized to receive either Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or an attention control class; before and after, they underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)...
January 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120116/urine-drug-screen-findings-among-ambulatory-oncology-patients-in-a-supportive-care-clinic
#9
Sherri Rauenzahn, Adam Sima, Brian Cassel, Danielle Noreika, Teny Henry Gomez, Lynn Ryan, Carl E Wolf, Luke Legakis, Egidio Del Fabbro
PURPOSE: Professional organizations provide no guidelines regarding assessment and management of opioid abuse risk in cancer. Universal precautions (UP) developed for non-cancer pain, include assessments for aberrant behavior, screening questionnaires, and urine drug screens (UDS). The role of UDS for identifying opioid abuse risk in cancer is uncertain. Our aim is to characterize inappropriate UDS, and identify a potential role for UDS in therapeutic decision-making. METHODS: An observational retrospective chart review of 232 consecutive supportive care clinic patients were seen during the study...
January 25, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119350/a-systematic-review-of-management-strategies-for-children-s-mental-health-care-in-the-emergency-department-update-on-evidence-and-recommendations-for-clinical-practice-and-research
#10
Amanda S Newton, Lisa Hartling, Amir Soleimani, Scott Kirkland, Michele P Dyson, Mario Cappelli
OBJECTIVE: Children with mental health crises require access to specialised resources and services which are not yet standard in general and paediatric EDs. In 2010, we published a systematic review that provided some evidence to support the use of specialised care models to reduce hospitalisation, return ED visits and length of ED stay. We perform a systematic review to update the evidence base and inform current policy statements. METHODS: Twelve databases and the grey literature were searched up to January 2015...
January 24, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116956/the-validity-of-the-annual-review-of-competence-progression-a-qualitative-interview-study-of-the-perceptions-of-junior-doctors-and-their-trainers
#11
Rowena Viney, Antonia Rich, Sarah Needleman, Ann Griffin, Katherine Woolf
Objective To investigate trainee doctors' and trainers' perceptions of the validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) using Messick's conceptualisation of construct validity. Design Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Kent Surrey and Sussex, Yorkshire and Humber, and Wales in November/December 2015. Part of a larger study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants Ninety-six trainees and 41 trainers, comprising UK and international medical graduates from Foundation, General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery, at all levels of training...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115737/cannabis-use-and-risk-of-schizophrenia-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#12
J Vaucher, B J Keating, A M Lasserre, W Gan, D M Lyall, J Ward, D J Smith, J P Pell, N Sattar, G Paré, M V Holmes
Cannabis use is observationally associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but whether the relationship is causal is not known. Using a genetic approach, we took 10 independent genetic variants previously identified to associate with cannabis use in 32 330 individuals to determine the nature of the association between cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia. Genetic variants were employed as instruments to recapitulate a randomized controlled trial involving two groups (cannabis users vs nonusers) to estimate the causal effect of cannabis use on risk of schizophrenia in 34 241 cases and 45 604 controls from predominantly European descent...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093567/beta-amyloid-sequelae-in-the-eye-a-critical-review-on-its-diagnostic-significance-and-clinical-relevance-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
T M Shah, S M Gupta, P Chatterjee, M Campbell, R N Martins
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. There is no test for its definitive diagnosis in routine clinical practice. Although phase III clinical trials have failed, only symptomatic treatment is currently available; a possible reason for these failed trials is that intervention commenced at an advanced stage of the disease. The hallmarks of an AD brain include plaques comprising of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) protein aggregates and intracellular hyperphosphorylated neurofibrillary tangles of tau...
March 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089312/hunting-down-an-evidence-base-for-adolescent-mental-health
#14
EDITORIAL
The Lancet Psychiatry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086761/is-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-categorically-distinct-from-treatment-responsive-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#15
Amy L Gillespie, Ruta Samanaite, Jonathan Mill, Alice Egerton, James H MacCabe
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and around a third of patients are treatment-resistant. The only evidence-based treatment for these patients is clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic with relatively weak dopamine antagonism. It is plausible that varying degrees of response to antipsychotics reflect categorically distinct illness subtypes, which would have significant implications for research and clinical practice. If these subtypes could be distinguished at illness onset, this could represent a first step towards personalised medicine in psychiatry...
January 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051841/a-review-of-a-national-training-initiative-to-increase-provider-use-of-mat-to-address-the-opioid-epidemic
#16
REVIEW
Frances R Levin, Adam Bisaga, Maria A Sullivan, Arthur Robin Williams, Kathryn Cates-Wessel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Providers' Clinical Support System for Medication Assisted Treatment (PCSS-MAT) initiative focuses on training and mentoring health professionals in the treatment of opioid use disorders (OUD) using pharmacological strategies. Led by the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry (AAAP), PCSS-MAT is a consortium representing four of the five national professional organizations authorized by DATA 2,000-AAAP, American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine, American Psychiatric Association, and American Society of Addiction Medicine...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044943/forgotten-but-not-gone-new-developments-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#17
Jonathan M Meyer
The broad use of atypical antipsychotics was expected to dramatically reduce the prevalence and incidence of tardive dyskinesia (TD), but data show that TD remains an important challenge due the persistent nature of its symptoms and resistance to numerous treatment modalities, including antipsychotic discontinuation. Recent insights on genetic risk factors and new concepts surrounding pathophysiology have spurred interest in the possibility of targeted treatment for TD. As will be reviewed in this article, the number of evidence-based strategies for TD treatment is small: only clonazepam, amantadine, ginkgo biloba extract, and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor tetrabenazine have compelling data...
December 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032161/psychological-and-psychiatric-traits-in-post-bariatric-patients-asking-for-body-contouring-surgery
#18
Chiara Pavan, Massimo Marini, Eleonora De Antoni, Carlotta Scarpa, Tito Brambullo, Franco Bassetto, Annapina Mazzotta, Vincenzo Vindigni
BACKGROUNDS: Obese patients, mainly females, feel uncomfortable and unsatisfied with their physical appearance; they have a wrong perception of their image and consequently diminish their self-esteem, sometimes showing difficulties in functional areas such as work, relationship, social activity. Beside health concerns, improving their appearance and body image are often common motives for weight loss in obese individuals and after weight loss about 30% of bariatric surgery patients undergo plastic surgical correction of excessive skin...
December 28, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031948/in-search-of-an-evidence-based-role-for-psychiatry
#19
EDITORIAL
John Read, Olga Runciman, Jacqui Dillon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029436/psychiatric-psychological-forensic-report-writing
#20
Gerald Young
Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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