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Equine Testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149701/risk-factor-analysis-of-equine-strongyle-resistance-to-anthelmintics
#1
G Sallé, J Cortet, I Bois, C Dubès, Q Guyot-Sionest, C Larrieu, V Landrin, G Majorel, S Wittreck, E Woringer, A Couroucé, J Guillot, P Jacquiet, F Guégnard, A Blanchard, A Leblond
Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices...
November 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130414/occlusal-angles-of-equine-incisors
#2
Laura Listmann, Patricia Schrock, Klaus Failing, Carsten Staszyk
The angulation of equine incisors is frequently used as a parameter for dental corrections. However, the term incisor angle is only vaguely defined, and no studies exist presenting a series of reliable measurements in individual incisors of multiple horses. The aim of this study was to establish an exact method to determine incisor angles and to test whether clinically accessible landmarks (facial crest and bars) are suitable to estimate incisor angles. Eighteen horses were used to create 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the skulls from computed tomography (CT) data sets...
December 2017: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121562/p-glycoproteins-play-a-role-in-ivermectin-resistance-in-cyathostomins
#3
L E Peachey, G L Pinchbeck, J B Matthews, F A Burden, A Lespine, G von Samson-Himmelstjerna, J Krücken, J E Hodgkinson
Anthelmintic resistance is a global problem that threatens sustainable control of the equine gastrointestinal cyathostomins (Phylum Nematoda; Superfamily Strongyloidea). Of the three novel anthelmintic classes that have reached the veterinary market in the last decade, none are currently licenced in horses, hence current control regimens focus on prolonging the useful lifespan of licenced anthelmintics. This approach would be facilitated by knowledge of the resistance mechanisms to the most widely used anthelmintics, the macrocyclic lactones (ML)...
October 25, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115996/serological-evidence-of-equine-arteritis-virus-infection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-viral-isolates-in-semen-of-stallions-from-serbia
#4
Sava Lazić, Diana Lupulović, Delphine Gaudaire, Tamas Petrovic, Gospava Lazić, Aymeric Hans
BACKGROUND: Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is responsible for infections in equids. It can spread easily within the horse population and has a major impact on the horse breeding industry. No EAV outbreak has ever been reported in Serbia. To determine whether EAV is nonetheless circulating there, especially in the Vojvodina region, 340 horse serum samples were subjected to serology testing to detect EAV antibodies. In parallel, semen samples from three seropositive stallions were collected to evaluate their EAV status, using RT-qPCR and virus isolation on cell culture...
November 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111829/effect-of-cryopreserved-amniotic-membrane-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-skeletal-muscle-after-strabismus-surgery-in-rabbits
#5
Marta Sierra, Ángel Ortillés, Francisco J Miana-Mena, Jorge Grasa, Begoña Calvo
PURPOSE: To study the functional recovery of the superior rectus muscle (SRM) after its partial resection in a rabbit model with and without cryopreserved amniotic membrane (AM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Resection of the right and left SRMs of 30 rabbits was performed. On the left eyes, a single sheet of equine cryopreserved AM was placed covering the muscle edge sutured. Active and passive mechanical properties of muscles operated with and without AM were monitored over time at 30 (n = 10), 60 (n = 10), and 90 (n = 10) days after surgery...
November 7, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103691/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-inactivated-equine-influenza-h3n8-virus-vaccine-in-murine-model
#6
Selvaraj Pavulraj, Nitin Virmani, Bidhan Chandra Bera, Alok Joshi, Taruna Anand, Meenakshi Virmani, Rajendra Singh, Raj Kumar Singh, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi
Equine influenza viruses (EIVs) are responsible for acute contagious respiratory infection in equines and the disease remains a major threat for equine population throughout the world despite vaccination strategies in place. The present study was aimed to assess the suitability of BALB/c mice as a potential small animal model for preliminary screening of EI vaccine candidates. For this, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an inactivated EIV (H3N8) vaccine in BALB/c mouse model after challenge with homologous H3N8 virus (Clade 2 virus, Florida sublineage) through serology, clinical signs, gross and histopathology lesions with grading, immunohistochemistry and virus quantification...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103563/genetic-testing-as-a-tool-to-identify-horses-with-or-at-risk-for-ocular-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca R Bellone
Advances in equine genetics and genomics resources have enabled the understanding of some inherited ocular disorders and ocular manifestations. These ocular disorders include congenital stationary night blindness, equine recurrent uveitis, multiple congenital ocular anomalies, and squamous cell carcinoma. Genetic testing can identify horses with or at risk for disease and thus can assist in clinical management. In addition, genetic testing can identify horses that are carriers and thus can inform breeding decisions...
December 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094511/a-comparison-of-nanoparticullate-cpg-immunotherapy-with-and-without-allergens-in-spontaneously-equine-asthma-affected-horses-an-animal-model
#8
John Klier, Sabine Geis, Jeanette Steuer, Katharina Geh, Sven Reese, Sebastian Fuchs, Ralf S Mueller, Gerhard Winter, Heidrun Gehlen
INTRODUCTION: New therapeutic strategies to modulate the immune response of human and equine allergic asthma are still under extensive investigation. Immunomodulating agents stimulating T-regulatory cells offer new treatment options beyond conventional symptomatic treatment or specific immunotherapy for human and equine allergic airway diseases, with the goal of a homoeostatic T-helper cell balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nebulized gelatin nanoparticle-CpG formulation (CpG-GNP) with and without specific allergens for the treatment of spontaneous allergic equine asthma as a model for human asthma...
November 1, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093316/venom-and-antivenom-of-redback-spider-latrodectus-hasseltii-in-japan
#9
Shigemi Mori, Akira Horita, Akihiro Ginnaga, Yoshinobu Miyatsu, Kyoko Sawabe, Takayuki Matsumura, Manabu Ato, Akihiko Yamamoto, Keigo Shibayama, Satoshi Arai, Takuya Yamagishi, Motohide Takahashi, Hisashi Taki, Toru Hifumi
This is the first report of the large-scale experimentally production of an equine antivenom against redback spider (Latrodectus hasseltii) lived in Japan. We captured 10,000 redback spiders in Japan and prepared the toxoids of crude venom extract, mixed the toxoids with mineral oil adjuvant, and immunized repeatedly it to healthy horses over a period of several weeks. Then, we separated the horse plasma, and purified the γ-globulin fraction and stocked as a purified antivenom concentrate. Consequently, we manufactured approximately 6,500 vials of a single-dose freeze-dried test lot from a portion of the purified γ-globulin fraction, equivalent to the extract derived from 520 spiders...
October 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091706/neutralizing-antibodies-for-orthobunyaviruses-in-pantanal-brazil
#10
Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa, Zilca Campos, Raquel Soares, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Nicholas Komar
The Pantanal is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. Various medically important flaviviruses and alphaviruses have been reported in domestic and wild animals in the region. To expand the knowledge of local arbovirus circulation, a serosurvey for 14 Brazilian orthobunyaviruses was conducted with equines, sheep and free-ranging caimans. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Monotypic reactions were detected for Maguari, Xingu, Apeu, Guaroa, Murutucu, Oriboca, Oropouche and Nepuyo viruses...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090214/agreement-between-electrocardiogram-and-heart-rate-meter-is-low-for-the-measurement-of-heart-rate-variability-during-exercise-in-young-endurance-horses
#11
Augustin Lenoir, Dagmar S Trachsel, Mohamed Younes, Eric Barrey, Céline Robert
Analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) gains more and more importance in the assessment of training practice and welfare in equine industry. It relies on mathematical analyses of reliably and accurately measured variations in successive inter-beat intervals, measured as RR intervals. Nowadays, the RR intervals can be obtained through two different techniques: a heart rate meter (HRM) or an electrocardiogram (ECG). The agreement and reliability of these devices has not been fully assessed, especially for recordings during exercise...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083957/differential-diagnosis-of-flavivirus-infections-in-horses-using-viral-envelope-protein-domain-iii-antigens-in-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#12
Thisun B H Piyasena, Yin X Setoh, Jody Hobson-Peters, Natalie A Prow, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Alexander A Khromykh, David Perera, Mary J Cardosa, Peter D Kirkland, Roy A Hall
In Australia, infection of horses with the West Nile virus (WNV) or Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) occasionally results in severe neurological disease that cannot be clinically differentiated. Confirmatory serological tests to detect antibody specific for MVEV or WNV in horses are often hampered by cross-reactive antibodies induced to conserved epitopes on the envelope (E) protein. This study utilized bacterially expressed recombinant antigens derived from domain III of the E protein (rE-DIII) of MVEV and WNV, respectively, to determine whether these subunit antigens provided specific diagnostic markers of infection with these two viruses...
October 30, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081583/equine-pituitary-pars-intermedia-dysfunction-an-international-survey-of-veterinarians-approach-to-diagnosis-management-and-estimated-prevalence
#13
James L Carmalt, Cheryl L Waldner, Andrew L Allen
The objectives of the present study were to determine if diagnosis and treatment of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) vary by geographic region and to report the prevalence of PPID in horses as observed by veterinarians across locations. An online questionnaire was developed for veterinarians who treat horses. Veterinary associations, especially equine specialty subgroups, were contacted and a survey link was sent to members of each organization. Generalized linear models were used to examine whether the method of diagnosis and treatment of this condition, as well as its reported prevalence, differed by geographic region...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080762/testing-the-sarcocystis-neurona-vaccine-using-an-equine-protozoal-myeloencephalitis-challenge-model
#14
William J A Saville, Jitender P Dubey, Antoinette E Marsh, Stephen M Reed, Robert O Keene, Daniel K Howe, Jennifer Morrow, Jeffrey D Workman
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is an important equine neurologic disorder, and treatments for the disease are often unrewarding. Prevention of the disease is the most important aspect for EPM, and a killed vaccine was previously developed for just that purpose. Evaluation of the vaccine had been hampered by lack of post vaccination challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine if the vaccine could prevent development of clinical signs after challenge with Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts in an equine challenge model...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077213/emergence-of-g9p-8-rotaviruses-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-thailand-2015-2016
#15
Wisoot Chan-It, Chulapong Chanta
Human group A rotavirus is a major contagious virus causing gastroenteritis in children. Molecular epidemiological study of group A rotavirus infections in hospitalized children was performed by multiplex RT-PCR during 2015-2016 in Chiang Rai, Thailand. G- and P-genotypes of positive rotavirus samples were further analyzed by one-step and two-step multiplex RT-PCR methods. Among 270 fecal specimens tested, rotavirus was the most prevalent (33.7%), followed by norovirus GII (4.1%), adenovirus (3%), and astrovirus (1...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051294/equine-disease-surveillance-quarterly-summary
#16
(no author information available yet)
of surveillance testing, April to June 2017International disease occurrence in the second quarter of 2017These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association.
October 21, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045436/development-and-characterization-of-novel-chimeric-monoclonal-antibodies-for-broad-spectrum-neutralization-of-rabies-virus
#17
Pan Kyeom Kim, Sun Ju Keum, Modupe O V Osinubi, Richard Franka, Ji Young Shin, Sang Tae Park, Man Su Kim, Mi Jung Park, Soo Young Lee, William Carson, Lauren Greenberg, Pengcheng Yu, Xiaoyan Tao, Wang Lihua, Qing Tang, Guodong Liang, Madhusdana Shampur, Charles E Rupprecht, Shin Jae Chang
Current post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies virus infection has several limitations in terms of supply, cost, safety, and efficacy. Attempts to replace human or equine rabies immune globulins (HRIG or ERIG) have been made by several companies and institutes. We developed potent monoclonal antibodies to neutralize a broad spectrum of rabies viruses by screening hybridomas received from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Two kinds of chimeric human antibodies (chimeric #7 and #17) were constructed by cloning the variable regions from selected hybridomas and the constant region of a human antibody...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034501/influence-of-dental-materials-on-cells-of-the-equine-periodontium
#18
H Ringeisen, A Pöschke, B Krähling, C Schröck, M Stoll, J Vogelsberg, K Failing, C Staszyk
BACKGROUND: Therapy for equine periodontal disease can include filling of the periodontal pockets and widened interproximal spaces. Recommended dental materials are generally adopted from human dentistry. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the biocompatibility of dental materials for equine periodontal fillings in vitro. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro experiments. METHODS: Four different dental materials (PeriCare(®) , Provicol(®) , Calxyl(®) and Honigum) were tested on equine periodontal fibroblasts...
October 16, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034250/the-modification-and-performance-of-a-large-animal-anesthesia-machine-tafonius-%C3%A2-in-order-to-deliver-xenon-to-a-horse
#19
Bruna Santangelo, Astrid Robin, Keith Simpson, Julie Potier, Michel Guichardant, Karine Portier
INTRODUCTION: Xenon, due to its interesting anesthetic properties, could improve the quality of anesthesia protocols in horses despite its high price. This study aimed to modify and test an anesthesia machine capable of delivering xenon to a horse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An equine anesthesia machine (Tafonius, Vetronic Services Ltd., UK) was modified by including a T-connector in the valve block to introduce xenon, so that the xenon was pushed into the machine cylinder by the expired gases...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034249/misoprostol-inhibits-lipopolysaccharide-induced-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-by-equine-leukocytes
#20
Emily Medlin Martin, Kristen M Messenger, Mary Katherine Sheats, Samuel L Jones
Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 are potent immune mediators that exacerbate multiple equine diseases such as sepsis and laminitis. Unfortunately, safe and effective cytokine-targeting therapies are lacking in horses; therefore, novel mechanisms of inhibiting cytokine production are critically needed. One potential mechanism for inhibiting cytokine synthesis is elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). In human leukocytes, intracellular cAMP production is induced by activation of E-prostanoid (EP) receptors 2 and 4...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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