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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917303/the-evaluation-of-gm6-based-elisa-and-ict-as-diagnostic-methods-on-a-mongolian-farm-with-an-outbreak-of-non-tsetse-transmitted-horse-trypanosomosis
#1
Batdorj Davaasuren, Tovuu Amgalanbaatar, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Keisuke Suganuma, Davaajav Otgonsuren, Ehab Mossaad, Sandagdorj Narantsatsral, Banzragch Battur, Badgar Battsetseg, Xuenan Xuan, Noboru Inoue
Trypanosoma equiperdum, which is the etiological agent of dourine, spreads through sexual intercourse in equines. Dourine (T. equiperdum) has been reported in Mongolia, where it is considered an economically important disease of horses. T. evansi has also been reported in Mongolian domestic animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential application of recombinant T. evansi GM6 (rTeGM6-4r)-based diagnostic methods on a farm with an outbreak of non-tsetse transmitted horse trypanosomosis. Ninety-seven percent homology was found between the amino acid sequences of T...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915240/improved-reliability-of-serological-tools-for-the-diagnosis-of-west-nile-fever-in-horses-within-europe
#2
Cécile Beck, Steeve Lowenski, Benoit Durand, Céline Bahuon, Stéphan Zientara, Sylvie Lecollinet
West Nile Fever is a zoonotic disease caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus, WNV. By its clinical sensitivity to the disease, the horse is a useful sentinel of infection. Because of the virus' low-level, short-term viraemia in horses, the primary tools used to diagnose WNV are serological tests. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests (ILPTs) were held in 2010 and 2013 to evaluate WNV serological diagnostic tools suited for the European network of National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for equine diseases. These ILPTs were designed to evaluate the laboratories' and methods' performances in detecting WNV infection in horses through serology...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914788/a-decrease-of-incidence-cases-of-fumonisins-in-south-korean-feedstuff-between-2011-and-2016
#3
Juhee Park, Hansub Chang, Seungran Hong, Dongho Kim, Soohyun Chung, Chan Lee
Several plant pathogen Fusarium species produce fumonisins (FUMs); which can end up in food and feed and; when ingested; can exhibit harmful effects on humans and livestock. Mycotoxin intoxication by fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) and fumonisin B₂ (FB₂) can cause porcine pulmonary edema; leukoencephalomalacia in equines; esophageal cancer and birth defects by natural contamination. Herein; the occurrence of FB₁ and FB₂ in feedstuff (compound feed and feed ingredients) was investigated between 2011 and 2016 in South Korea...
September 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895863/a-monoclonal-antibody-for-detection-of-intracellular-and-secreted-interleukin-2-in-horses
#4
Heather Freer, Julia M Hillegas, Christine Wimer, Cynthia Baldwin, Joanna LaBresh, Bettina Wagner
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a T cell growth factor and major modulator of T helper (Th) cell differentiation. Here, we have developed and characterized a monoclonal antibody to equine IL-2 (anti-IL-2 mAb, clone 158-1). The IL-2 mAb detected rIL-2 by ELISA, intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting. The IL-2 mAb was also paired with a polyclonal IL-2 detection antibody in both ELISA and a fluorescent bead-based assay. When these two assays were compared using identical reagents there was an improved analytical sensitivity (46pg/ml) and wider linear quantification range (46-100,000pg/ml) of IL-2 quantification using the fluorescent bead assay...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887100/verification-of-post-chemotherapeutic-clearance-of-theileria-equi-through-concordance-of-nested-pcr-and-immunoblot
#5
L N Wise, L S Kappmeyer, M G Silva, S N White, J F Grause, D P Knowles
Certain countries including the United States remain non-endemic for particular infectious diseases such as equine piroplasmosis through import restrictions and surveillance. Endemic regions often employ premunition as the primary method to control disease, however in non-endemic countries, chemosterilization combined with methods to confirm parasite elimination are required to maintain disease-free status. The ability of imidocarb diproprionate (ID) to clear persistent Theileria equi infection from infected horses has been shown through the inability of treated horses to transmit via blood transfer...
August 25, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882751/c2k77-elisa-detects-cleavage-of-type-ii-collagen-by-cathepsin-k-in-equine-articular-cartilage
#6
B Noé, A R Poole, J S Mort, H Richard, G Beauchamp, S Laverty
OBJECTIVES: Develop a species-specific ELISA for a neo-epitope generated by cathepsin K cleavage of equine type II collagen to: (1) measure cartilage type II collagen degradation by cathepsin K in vitro, (2) identify cytokines that upregulate cathepsin K expression and (3) compare cathepsin K with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) collagenase activity in stimulated cartilage explants and freshly isolated normal and osteoarthritic (OA) articular cartilages. DESIGN: A new ELISA (C2K77) was developed and tested by measuring the activity of exogenous cathepsin K on equine articular cartilage explants...
September 4, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873035/potential-reservoir-and-associated-factors-for-west-nile-virus-in-three-distinct-climatological-zones
#7
Christine DeCarlo, Anwar H Omar, Mohammod I Haroun, Laura Bigler, Mohamad N Bin Rais, Jalila Abu, Abdul Rahman Omar, Hussni O Mohammed
West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic single-strand RNA arbovirus (family Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), transmitted among avian hosts in enzootic cycles by a mosquito vector. The virus has a significant disease effect on humans and equines when it bridges into a cycle with various sequelae with epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify the potential spectrum of WNV hosts in three geographic areas with climatologically distinct features: Malaysia, Qatar, and the United States of America (U.S.). Serum samples were collected from avian and mammal species suspected to be reservoirs for the virus at these areas in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study...
September 5, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865236/horse-hair-follicles-a-novel-dermal-stem-cell-source-for-equine-regenerative-medicine
#8
Jule K Michler, Aline Hillmann, Vuk Savkovic, Christoph K W Mülling
The easily accessible niche represented by skin and its appendages may serve as a promising source to complement modern regenerative medicine for horses. In humans and in animal models for human medicine, the hair follicle and its stem cell niches are well characterized. Since literature in this field of equine research is scarce, we sought to analyze cells of the dermal stem cell niche of the equine hair follicle morphologically and for a subset of markers useful for cell characterization via immunolabeling...
September 2, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855043/association-of-the-cysteine-rich-secretory-protein-3-crisp-3-and-some-of-its-polymorphisms-with-the-quality-of-cryopreserved-stallion-semen
#9
Alexandra Usuga, Benjamín A Rojano, Giovanni Restrepo
Contribution of seminal plasma proteins to semen freezability has been reported in several species, suggesting these proteins as genetic markers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and some of its single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with post-thawing semen quality in stallions. DNA was obtained from 100 stallions, regions of interest were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Evaluated SNPs within the equine CRISP-3 gene were CRISP3c...
August 31, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854109/vectortest%C3%A2-west-nile-virus-antigen-assay-in-an-inhibition-platform-as-field-screening-tool-for-flavivirus-group-specific-antibodies-in-brazilian-equines
#10
Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa, Nicholas Komar
Current methods for detecting Flavivirus antibodies are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and neutralization tests, both of which require laboratories and trained staff. We evaluated the VectorTest™ West Nile Virus Antigen Assay in an inhibition platform (VecTest-inhibition assay [VIA]) as a simpler screening method for detecting antibodies for a variety of flaviviruses among a population of equines from Brazil. We found that the VIA is a field-deployable rapid method with 100% sensitivity and 64% specificity compared with blocking ELISA for the detection of group-specific Flavivirus antibodies in equine serum samples...
September 2017: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846911/testicular-volumetry-and-prediction-of-daily-sperm-output-in-stallions-by-orchidometry-and-two-and-three-dimensional-sonography
#11
S Pricking, H Bollwein, K Spilker, G Martinsson, A Schweizer, S Thomas, H Oldenhof, H Sieme
Accurate determination of the testes volume and prediction of the daily sperm output (DSO) is valuable information for reproductive management of a stallion. The aim of this study was to compare different methods for measuring the testes volume, including caliper, 2D and 3D ultrasound. Special emphasis was on feasibility of 3D volume analysis. First, 22 castrated testes were measured and derived volumes were compared with volumes determined via volume displacement in a graded cylinder with saline solution. Then, during the breeding season, testes sizes of 52 stallions were measured in vivo and analyzed...
August 19, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836846/a-technique-of-needle-redirection-at-a-single-craniolateral-site-for-injection-of-three-compartments-of-the-equine-stifle-joint
#12
Meredith R A Herdrich, Shelby E Arrieta, Brad B Nelson, David D Frisbie, Valerie J Moorman
OBJECTIVE To determine accuracy for a technique of needle redirection at a single craniolateral site for injection of 3 compartments of the equine stifle joint, describe the external needle position, and identify the location of the needle tip within each joint compartment. SAMPLE 24 equine cadaver stifle joints. PROCEDURES Stifle joints were placed in a customized stand. After the needle was placed, external needle position was measured and recorded. Each joint compartment (medial and lateral compartments of the femorotibial joint and the femoropatellar joint) was injected with a solution containing iodinated contrast medium, water, and dye...
September 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834688/innate-immune-genes-in-persistent-mating-induced-endometritis-in-horses
#13
Christina D Marth, Simon M Firestone, Dave Hanlon, Lisa Y Glenton, Glenn F Browning, Neil D Young, Natali Krekeler
Persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) severely decreases fertility in horses. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences between horses susceptible to PMIE and a control group in terms of the expression of selected immune response and effector genes, and the effects of oestrous cycle stage on this expression. Endometrial biopsies from 18 uterine samples of mares in the control group (eight in dioestrus, 10 in oestrus) and 16 PMIE-susceptible mares (four in dioestrus, 12 in oestrus) were analysed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
August 24, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831567/horse-spermatogonial-stem-cell-cryopreservation-feasible-protocols-and-potential-biotechnological-applications
#14
Guilherme M J Costa, Gleide F Avelar, Samyra M S N Lacerda, André F A Figueiredo, Amanda O Tavares, José V Rezende-Neto, Felipe G P Martins, Luiz R França
The establishment of proper conditions for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) cryopreservation and storage represents an important biotechnological approach for the preservation of the genetic stock of valuable animals. This study demonstrates the effects of different cryopreservation protocols on the survival rates and phenotypic expression of SSCs in horses. The cells were enzymatically isolated from testes of eight adult horses. After enrichment and characterization of germ cells in the suspension, the feasibility of several cryopreservation protocols were evaluated...
August 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830752/eastern-brown-snake-pseudonaja-textilis-envenomation-in-dogs-and-cats-clinical-signs-coagulation-changes-brown-snake-venom-antigen-levels-and-treatment-with-a-novel-caprylic-acid-fractionated-bivalent-whole-igg-equine-antivenom
#15
A M Padula, E Leister
This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of 16 confirmed cases of snakebite from the Australian eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in dogs and cats. The clinical signs, brown snake venom antigen concentrations, coagulation parameters, and treatment outcomes following administration of an experimental caprylic acid fractionated bivalent whole IgG antivenom are documented. A brown snake venom antigen specific sandwich ELISA was used to retrospectively quantify venom levels in serum and urine. The characteristic clinical signs of envenomation in all cases were neurotoxicity to a variable extent and coagulation disturbances...
August 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819973/mobile-platform-for-multiplexed-detection-and-differentiation-of-disease-specific-nucleic-acid-sequences-using-microfluidic-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-and-smartphone-detection
#16
Weili Chen, Hojeong Yu, Fu Sun, Akid Ornob, Ryan Brisbin, Anurup Ganguli, Vinay Vemuri, Piotr Strzebonski, Guangzhe Cui, Karen J Allen, Smit A Desai, Weiran Lin, David M Nash, David L Hirschberg, Ian Brooks, Rashid Bashir, Brian T Cunningham
New tools are needed to enable rapid detection, identification, and reporting of infectious viral and microbial pathogens in a wide variety of point-of-care applications that impact human and animal health. We report the design, construction, and characterization of a platform for multiplexed analysis of disease-specific DNA sequences that utilizes a smartphone camera as the sensor in conjunction with a hand-held "cradle" that interfaces the phone with a silicon-based microfluidic chip embedded within a credit-card-sized cartridge...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816930/associations-among-circulating-csf-1-estrogen-and-bone-mineral-density-in-postmenopausal-women-results-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
Andrea V Haas, Elaine Cong, Christine A Simpson, Nitin Sukumar, Yanhong Deng, Karl L Insogna
OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the relationship between circulating levels of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and rates of postmenopausal bone loss. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that CSF-1 levels would correlate with the rate of bone loss in estrogen-deficient woman. We further hypothesized that estrogen replacement would eliminate this association. METHODS: This was an ancillary study to the parent Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)-a 4-year randomized placebo-controlled study that evaluated the effects of estrogen therapy on cardiovascular endpoints...
August 14, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813496/uneven-distribution-of-enamel-dentine-and-cementum-in-cheek-teeth-of-domestic-horses-equus-caballus-a-micro-computed-tomography-study
#18
Lauritz Martin Englisch, Kathrin Kostrzewa, Susan Kopke, Klaus Failing, Carsten Staszyk
BACKGROUND: Hypsodont equine cheek teeth possess large dental crowns, resting partly in the bony alveolus. Over a horse's life cheek teeth erupt continuously to compensate for occlusal wear of 3-4 mm per year. Parts of the crown initially resting in the bony alveolus become progressively exposed at the occlusal surface with time. Hitherto, it is unclear whether the typical structure of the equine occlusal surface, composed of a complex arrangement of enamel, dentin and cementum, remains constant or undergoes structural changes with age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807293/sarcocystis-neurona-and-neospora-caninum-in-brazilian-opossums-didelphis-spp-molecular-investigation-and-in-vitro-isolation-of-sarcocystis-spp
#19
Leane S Q Gondim, Rogério F Jesus, Müller Ribeiro-Andrade, Jean C R Silva, Daniel B Siqueira, Maria F V Marvulo, Felipe M Aléssio, Jean-François Mauffrey, Fred S Julião, Elisa San Martin Mouriz Savani, Rodrigo M Soares, Luís F P Gondim
Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807043/an-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-vector-expressing-rift-valley-fever-virus-rvfv-gn-and-gc-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-in-sheep
#20
Abdelrahman Said, Mona Elmanzalawy, Guanggang Ma, Armando Mario Damiani, Nikolaus Osterrieder
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne bunyavirus that can cause serious and fatal disease in humans and animals. RVFV is a negative-sense RNA virus of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. The main envelope RVFV glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, are encoded on the M segment of RVFV and known inducers of protective immunity. In an attempt to develop a safe and efficacious RVF vaccine, we constructed and tested a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine that expresses RVFV Gn and Gc...
August 14, 2017: Virology Journal
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