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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094418/comparative-anatomy-and-biomechanical-properties-of-atlantoaxial-ligaments-in-equine-bovine-and-canine-cadaveric-specimens
#1
Franck Forterre, Michael H Stoffel, Christoph Koch, Christina Precht, Maja Waschk, Alexander Bürki
OBJECTIVES: Atlantoaxial instability has been reported in humans, dogs, equids and ruminants. The functional role of the atlantoaxial ligaments has only been described rudimentarily in equids and ruminants. The goal of the present cadaveric study was to compare the anatomy between the different species and to comparatively assess the role of the stabilizing ligaments of the atlantoaxial joint under sagittal shear loading in canine, equine, and bovine cervical spines. METHODS: Three equine, bovine, and canine cadaveric specimens were investigated...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092604/replication-kinetics-of-neuropathogenic-and-non-neuropathogenic-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-strains-in-primary-murine-neurons-and-ed-cell-line
#2
J Cymerys, A Słońska, J Brzezicka, A Tucholska, A Chmielewska, J Rola, P Malik, M W Bańbura
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory infections, abortion and neurological disorders in horses. Molecular epidemiology studies have demonstrated that a single-point mutation in DNA polymerase gene, resulting in an amino acid variation (N752/D752), is significantly associated with the neuropathogenic potential of EHV-1 strains. The aim of the study was to elucidate if there are any differences between neuropathogenic (EHV-1 26) and non-neuropathogenic (Jan-E and Rac-H) EHV-1 strains in their ability to infect neuronal cells...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080902/a-serologic-and-polymerase-chain-reaction-survey-of-equine-herpesvirus-in-burchell-s-zebras-equus-quagga-hartmann-s-mountain-zebras-equus-zebra-hartmannae-and-thomson-s-gazelles-eudorcas-thomsonii-in-a-mixed-species-savannah-exhibit
#3
Karen M Lopez, Gregory J Fleming, Natalie D Mylniczenko
Reports of equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 and EHV-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. It is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of EHV-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. Concerns about potential interspecies transmission of EHV-1 and EHV-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. Eighteen Burchell's zebras ( Equus quagga ), 11 Hartmann's mountain zebras ( Equus zebra hartmannae), and 14 Thomson's gazelles ( Eudorcas thomsonii ) cohabitating the same exhibit were examined for EHV-1 virus neutralization titers, and evidence of virus via EHV 1-5 polymerase chain reactions...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077153/detection-of-strongylus-vulgaris-in-equine-faecal-samples-by-real-time-pcr-and-larval-culture-method-comparison-and-occurrence-assessment
#4
A Kaspar, K Pfister, M K Nielsen, C Silaghi, H Fink, M C Scheuerle
BACKGROUND: Strongylus vulgaris has become a rare parasite in Germany during the past 50 years due to the practice of frequent prophylactic anthelmintic therapy. To date, the emerging development of resistance in Cyathostominae and Parascaris spp. to numerous equine anthelmintics has changed deworming management and the frequency of anthelmintic usage. In this regard, reliable detection of parasitic infections, especially of the highly pathogenic S. vulgaris is essential. In the current study, two diagnostic methods for the detection of infections with S...
January 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063478/developmental-expression-of-b-cell-molecules-in-equine-lymphoid-tissues
#5
J M B Prieto, R L Tallmadge, M J B Felippe
Identification and classification of B cell subpopulations has been shown to be challenging and inconsistent among different species. Our study tested aspects of ontogeny, phenotype, tissue distribution, and function of equine CD5(hi) B cells, which represented a greater proportion of B cells early in development and in the peritoneal cavity. CD5(hi) and CD5(lo) B cells differentially expressed B cell markers (CD2, CD21, IgM) measured using flow cytometry, but similar mRNA expression of signature genes (DGKA, FGL2, PAX5, IGHM, IL10) measured using quantitative RT-PCR...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063471/comparison-of-assays-for-the-detection-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-equine-serum-after-natural-infection-or-vaccination
#6
REVIEW
Kinga Joó, Tamás Bakonyi, Ottó Szenci, Sára Sárdi, Emőke Ferenczi, Mónika Barna, Péter Malik, Zdenek Hubalek, Orsolya Fehér, Orsolya Kutasi
West Nile virus (WNV) mainly infects birds, horses and humans. Outcomes of the infection range from mild uncharacteristic signs to fatal neurologic disease. The main objectives of the present study were to measure serum IgG and IgM antibodies in naturally exposed and vaccinated horses and to compare results of haemagglutination inhibition test (HIT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT). Altogether 224 animals were tested by HIT for WNV antibodies and 41 horses were simultaneously examined by ELISA and PRNT...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062773/equine-disease-surveillance-quarterly-summary
#7
(no author information available yet)
of surveillance testing, July to September 2016International disease occurrence in the third quarter of 2016These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association.
January 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045955/an-objective-measure-of-noseband-tightness-and-its-measurement-using-a-novel-digital-tightness-gauge
#8
Orla Doherty, Thomas Conway, Richard Conway, Gerard Murray, Vincent Casey
Noseband tightness is difficult to assess in horses participating in equestrian sports such as dressage, show jumping and three-day-eventing. There is growing concern that nosebands are commonly tightened to such an extent as to restrict normal equine behaviour and possibly cause injury. In the absence of a clear agreed definition of noseband tightness, a simple model of the equine nose-noseband interface environment was developed in order to guide further studies in this area. The normal force component of the noseband tensile force was identified as the key contributor to sub-noseband tissue compression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028410/the-association-between-urinary-incontinence-and-low-back-pain-and-radiculopathy-in-women
#9
Hulagu Kaptan, Haluk Kulaksızoğlu, Ömür Kasımcan, Bedreddin Seçkin
AIM: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common dysfunction, affecting especially women of all ages. The terminology of low back pain (LBP) and radiculopathy (RP) may be misused interchangeably with each other. There are many reports of the association with LBP and incontinence but those involving compression of nerve root(as RP), has not been distinguished from isolated low back pain. This study was structured to analyse the association of UI, LBP and RP. METHODS: One hundred twenty patients were included in the study...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008696/sub-tenon-s-injection-in-equine-cadaver-eyes-mri-visualization-of-anesthetic-fluid-distribution-and-comparison-of-two-different-volumes
#10
Silvia Stadler, Matthias Dennler, Udo Hetzel, Francesca Del Chicca, Sèamus Hoey, Bernhard M Spiess, Katrin Voelter, Simon A Pot
OBJECTIVE: To compare the localization and distribution of two different anesthetic fluid volumes around equine cadaver eyes to determine an appropriate volume for a single sub-Tenon's injection in horses. PROCEDURE: A single sub-Tenon's injection of 2% lidocaine was performed in 10 equine cadaver heads (20 eyes) using two different volumes (7 mL on one side and 10 mL on the opposite side). The posterior circular distribution of the anesthetic was quantified in sagittal, dorsal, and transverse MRI (T2W-TSE) sequences and evaluated independently by three board-certified radiologists...
December 23, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008302/benefits-of-hormone-therapy-estrogens-depend-on-estrogen-type-17%C3%AE-estradiol-and-conjugated-equine-estrogens-have-differential-effects-on-cognitive-anxiety-like-and-depressive-like-behaviors-and-increase-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-mrna-levels-in-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#11
Ryoko Hiroi, Giulia Weyrich, Stephanie V Koebele, Sarah E Mennenga, Joshua S Talboom, Lauren T Hewitt, Courtney N Lavery, Perla Mendoza, Ambra Jordan, Heather A Bimonte-Nelson
Decreased serotonin (5-HT) function is associated with numerous cognitive and affective disorders. Women are more vulnerable to these disorders and have a lower rate of 5-HT synthesis than men. Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are a major source of 5-HT in the forebrain and play a critical role in regulation of stress-related disorders. In particular, polymorphisms of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TpH2, the brain-specific, rate-limiting enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis) are implicated in cognitive and affective disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005523/discovery-of-a-novel-alphavirus-related-to-eilat-virus
#12
Kyra Hermanns, Florian Zirkel, Anne Kopp, Marco Marklewitz, Innocent Rwego, Alejandro Estrada, Thomas Robert Gillespie, Christian Drosten, Sandra Junglen
Most alphaviruses are transmitted by arthropods and infect vertebrate hosts. An exception is Eilat virus (EILV), the only described alphavirus with a host range restricted to insects. We established a new generic reverse transcription PCR assay for alphaviruses and tested 8,860 tropical mosquitoes. We detected a novel alphavirus, tentatively named Taï Forest alphavirus (TALV), in Culex decens mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire. The full genome was sequenced and closest similarity was found to EILV. Pairwise amino acid identities to EILV ranged between 67-88% for the corresponding proteins suggesting that TALV defines a proposed new alphavirus species...
December 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001311/extreme-lymphocytosis-with-myelomonocytic-morphology-in-a-horse-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#13
Kristina Meichner, Blaire H Kraszeski, Jessica R Durrant, Carol B Grindem, Babetta A Breuhaus, Peter F Moore, Jennifer A Neel, Keith E Linder, Luke B Borst, Jonathan E Fogle, Jaime L Tarigo
An 11-year-old, 443-kg Haflinger mare was presented to the North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 2-week history of lethargy and a 3-day duration of anorexia, pyrexia, tachycardia, and ventral edema. Severe pitting edema, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and a caudal abdominal mass were noted on physical examination. An extreme leukocytosis (154.3 × 10(3) /μL) and microscopic hematologic findings suggestive of myelomonocytic leukemia were observed. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal gammopathy and urine protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal light chain proteinuria...
December 21, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993615/translation-of-a-laboratory-validated-equine-herpesvirus-1-specific-real-time-pcr-assay-into-an-insulated-isothermal-polymerase-chain-reaction-iipcr-assay-for-point-of-need-diagnosis-using-pockit%C3%A2-nucleic-acid-analyzer
#14
Udeni B R Balasuriya, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Yun-Long Tsai, Chuan-Fu Tsai, Yu-Han Shen, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang, Ashley Skillman, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Stéphane Pronost, Yan Zhang
Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a major problem for the equine industry in the United States, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). In addition, EHV-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. Here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) method targeting open reading 30 (ORF30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deployable POCKIT™ device for point-of-need detection of EHV-1...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990507/four-mm-long-versus-longer-implants-in-augmented-bone-in-atrophic-posterior-jaws-4-month-post-loading-results-from-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Marco Esposito, Giovanni Zucchelli, Carlo Barausse, Roberto Pistilli, Anna Trullenque-Eriksson, Pietro Felice
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether 4-mm long dental implants could be an alternative to augmentation with equine bone blocks and the placement of at least 10-mm long implants in atrophic posterior jaws. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with atrophic posterior (premolar and molar areas) mandibles having 5 to 6 mm bone height above the mandibular canal and 40 patients with atrophic maxillae having 4 to 5 mm below the maxillary sinus, were randomised according to a parallel group design to receive one to three 4...
2016: European Journal of Oral Implantology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983716/the-optimisation-of-pseudotyped-viruses-for-the-characterisation-of-immune-responses-to-equine-influenza-virus
#16
Simon D Scott, Rebecca Kinsley, Nigel Temperton, Janet M Daly
Pseudotyped viruses (PVs) produced by co-transfecting cells with plasmids expressing lentiviral core proteins and viral envelope proteins are potentially powerful tools for studying various aspects of equine influenza virus (EIV) biology. The aim of this study was to optimise production of equine influenza PVs. Co-transfection of the HAT protease to activate the haemagglutinin (HA) yielded a higher titre PV than TMPRSS2 with the HA from A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8), whereas for A/equine/Newmarket/79 (H3N8), both proteases resulted in equivalent titres...
December 15, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974872/studies-on-exercise-physiology-and-performance-testing-of-racehorses-performed-in-japan-during-the-1930s-using-recovery-rate-as-an-index
#17
Atsushi Hiraga, Shigeru Sugano
The history of research on the exercise physiology of racehorses in Japan dates back to the 1930s. A research report entitled "Studies on exercise physiology and performance testing of the racehorse", published in 1933 by Shigeo Matsuba and Torao Shimamura of The University of Tokyo, was epoch-making and the most important study in the history of equine exercise physiology in Japan. Research results were reported from 92 Thoroughbred racehorses in a large-scale project during the period of 1928 to 1932 at the Shimofusa Imperial Farm and the Koiwai Farm, which were the two greatest racehorse farms at that time...
2016: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939161/epidemiologic-analysis-of-a-sarcoid-outbreak-involving-12-of-111-donkeys-in-northern-italy
#18
Hans Abel-Reichwald, Edmund K Hainisch, Sophie Zahalka, Annunziata Corteggio, Giuseppe Borzacchiello, Barbara Massa, Luca Merlone, Lubna Nasir, Faith Burden, Sabine Brandt
Equine sarcoids develop upon bovine papillomavirus type 1 or 2 (BPV1, BPV2) infection in conjunction with trauma and represent the most common tumour disease in horses and other equids, including donkeys. In face of a sarcoid outbreak involving 12 of 111 donkeys and mules at the 'Rifugio degli Asinelli', a subsidiary charity organization of The Donkey Sanctuary, non-invasively collected sample material including crusts, dandruff, swabs and hair roots was collected from sarcoid-affected and 26 healthy donkeys, as well as dandruff from a grooming kit and tabanids caught from or in the vicinity of sarcoid patients...
November 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938434/early-detection-of-west-nile-virus-in-france-quantitative-assessment-of-syndromic-surveillance-system-using-nervous-signs-in-horses
#19
C Faverjon, F Vial, M G Andersson, S Lecollinet, A Leblond
West Nile virus (WNV) is a growing public health concern in Europe and there is a need to develop more efficient early detection systems. Nervous signs in horses are considered to be an early indicator of WNV and, using them in a syndromic surveillance system, might be relevant. In our study, we assessed whether or not data collected by the passive French surveillance system for the surveillance of equine diseases can be used routinely for the detection of WNV. We tested several pre-processing methods and detection algorithms based on regression...
December 12, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936444/amino-derivatives-of-platanic-acid-act-as-selective-and-potent-inhibitors-of-butyrylcholinesterase
#20
Lucie Heller, Michael Kahnt, Anne Loesche, Patricia Grabandt, Stefan Schwarz, Wolfgang Brandt, René Csuk
A set of thirtyfive 30-norlupan derivatives (2-36) was prepared from the natural triterpenoid platanic acid (PA), and the hydroxyl group at C-3, the carboxyl group at C-17 and the carbonyl group at C-20 were modified. These derivatives were tested for their inhibitory activity for the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE, from electric eel) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, from equine serum) using Ellman's assay. Extra enzyme kinetic studies were performed. The most active compound was (3β, 20R)-3-acetyloxy-20-amino-30-norlupan-28-oate (32) showing a Ki value of 0...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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