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Equine Testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637468/chorioallantoic-membranes-of-embryonated-chicken-eggs-as-an-alternative-system-for-isolation-of-equine-influenza-virus
#1
Ilona Marcelina Gora, Malgorzata Kwasnik, Jan Franciszek Zmudzinski, Wojciech Rozek
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) is not applicable for rapid diagnosis, however it allows the recovery and propagation of the viable virus. A low number of infectious virus particles in the swabs, poor quality of samples or individual strain properties can lead to difficulties during the virus isolation process. We propose to utilize chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of ECEs with the assistance of real-time RT PCR to facilitate equine influenza virus isolation...
June 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636747/do-different-characteristics-of-two-emasculators-make-the-difference-in-equine-castration
#2
F Comino, G Giusto, V Caramello, M Gandini
BACKGROUND: Serra and Reimer emasculators are frequently used during equine orchiectomy. They differ in their jaw profile and haemostatic mechanism provided. OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate whether there is a difference between the haemostatic capacity of Reimer and Serra emasculators in open and closed castration and (2) compare haemostatic capacity of each emasculator in both open and closed castration; (3) to assess whether there is a difference in the tensile strength of the parietal tunic when using a Reimer emasculator or a Serra emasculator in closed castration...
June 21, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627065/evaluation-of-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-system-to-simulate-equine-foregut-digestion-and-the-influence-of-acidity-on-protein-and-fructan-degradation-in-the-horse-s-stomach
#3
S Strauch, B Wichert, J M Greef, D Hillegeist, A Zeyner, A Liesegang
The aim of this study was to improve an in vitro system in order to gather optimized information on the digestion of different forages in the horse's upper gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, foregut digestion of several forages was simulated in vitro (Part 1). The effect of different pH values on in vitro fructan degradation of two selected grasses (Part 2) was tested subsequently. Part 1: We hypothesized that our system produces representative results simulating digestive processes in the upper alimentary tract, but neglects microbial fermentation...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621903/histological-assessment-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-precursor-protein-immunolabelled-rectal-biopsies-aids-diagnosis-of-equine-grass-sickness
#4
R C Jago, S Scholes, T S Mair, G R Pearson, R S Pirie, I Handel, E M Milne, F Coyle, B C McGorum
BACKGROUND: An accurate, minimally invasive, ante mortem, diagnostic test for equine grass sickness (EGS) is currently lacking. While histological examination of haematoxylin-eosin stained rectal biopsies for chromatolytic neurons is insensitive as a diagnostic test for EGS, we hypothesised that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved by immunolabelling for β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) which has increased expression in cranial cervical ganglia (CCG) neuronal perikarya in EGS...
June 16, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616790/serological-survey-for-brucella-antibodies-in-donkeys-of-north-eastern-nigeria
#5
A O Tijjani, A U Junaidu, M D Salihu, A A Farouq, O O Faleke, S G Adamu, H I Musa, I U Hambali
A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine seroprevalence and risk factors influencing the presence of Brucella antibodies in donkeys of Borno State, north-eastern Nigeria. The study aimed at providing baseline information that may be used in planning a control policy against equine brucellosis. Blood samples were collected from 601 donkeys, comprised of 374 males and 227 females from the six agricultural zones of the state between March 2013 and September 2014. The sera obtained were tested for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA)...
June 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616500/an-outbreak-of-psittacosis-at-a-veterinary-school-demonstrating-a-novel-source-of-infection
#6
Jocelyn Chan, Bridget Doyle, James Branley, Vicky Sheppeard, Melinda Gabor, Kerri Viney, Helen Quinn, Orly Janover, Michael McCready, Jane Heller
In November 2014, New South Wales Health was notified of a cluster of respiratory illness in a veterinary school. Active case finding identified another case at a local equine stud. All cases had exposure to the equine fetal membranes of Mare A. This tissue subsequently tested positive for Chlamydia psittaci using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We conducted a cohort study of the university and stud farm staff to determine risk factors for disease. Nine people were exposed to the fetal membranes of Mare A...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605963/a-molecular-and-haematological-study-of-theileria-equi-in-balkan-donkeys
#7
Dajana Davitkov, Darko Davitkov, Milos Vucicevic, Ljubodrag Stanisic, Milena Radakovic, Uros Glavinic, Zoran Stanimirovic
Equine piroplasmosis in donkeys has been recognised as a serious problem of major economic importance. The present molecular study is the first investigation of the presence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Balkan donkeys and of the possible haematological alterations related to it. A total of 70 apparently healthy donkeys from Serbia were included in this study. The overall prevalence of T. equi infection in donkeys tested with multiplex PCR was 50%. There was no B. caballi-positive sample. Infections in donkeys included in this study seem to be associated with decreased red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and platelet count, and with increased white blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration...
June 2017: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597994/corneal-sensitivity-and-tear-production-in-108-horses-with-ocular-disease
#8
Kelly E Knickelbein, Nicole M Scherrer, Mary Lassaline
PURPOSE: To compare corneal sensitivity and tear production in horses with keratitis to horses with other ocular disease. METHOD: Retrospective medical record review was used to identify equine patients presented during a 1-year period for an ocular complaint who had Schirmer Tear Test (STT) or Corneal Touch Threshold (CTT) measured. Variables studied included patient age and sex; affected eye; category of presenting ocular complaint (keratitis vs. other ocular complaint); STT; and CTT...
June 9, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597211/characterization-and-use-of-equine-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-equine-cartilage-engineering-study-of-their-hyaline-cartilage-forming-potential-when-cultured-under-hypoxia-within-a-biomaterial-in-the-presence-of-bmp-2-and-tgf-%C3%A3-1
#9
Thomas Branly, Lélia Bertoni, Romain Contentin, Rodolphe Rakic, Tangni Gomez-Leduc, Mélanie Desancé, Magalie Hervieu, Florence Legendre, Sandrine Jacquet, Fabrice Audigié, Jean-Marie Denoix, Magali Demoor, Philippe Galéra
Articular cartilage presents a poor capacity for self-repair. Its structure-function are frequently disrupted or damaged upon physical trauma or osteoarthritis in humans. Similar musculoskeletal disorders also affect horses and are the leading cause of poor performance or early retirement of sport- and racehorses. To develop a therapeutic solution for horses, we tested the autologous chondrocyte implantation technique developed on human bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on horse BM-MSCs. This technique involves BM-MSC chondrogenesis using a combinatory approach based on the association of 3D-culture in collagen sponges, under hypoxia in the presence of chondrogenic factors (BMP-2 + TGF-β1) and siRNA to knockdown collagen I and HtrA1...
June 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583184/effect-of-single-intralesional-treatment-of-surgically-induced-equine-superficial-digital-flexor-tendon-core-lesions-with-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-a-controlled-experimental-trial
#10
Florian Geburek, Florian Roggel, Hans T M van Schie, Andreas Beineke, Roberto Estrada, Kathrin Weber, Maren Hellige, Karl Rohn, Michael Jagodzinski, Bastian Welke, Christof Hurschler, Sabine Conrad, Thomas Skutella, Chris van de Lest, René van Weeren, Peter M Stadler
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is a promising source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of tendon disease. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a single intralesional implantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) on artificial lesions in equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs). METHODS: During this randomized, controlled, blinded experimental study, either autologous cultured AT-MSCs suspended in autologous inactivated serum (AT-MSC-serum) or autologous inactivated serum (serum) were injected intralesionally 2 weeks after surgical creation of centrally located SDFT lesions in both forelimbs of nine horses...
June 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582979/the-sero-prevalence-and-sero-incidence-of-african-horse-sickness-and-equine-encephalosis-in-selected-horse-and-donkey-populations-in-zimbabwe
#11
Stuart J G Gordon, Charlotte Bolwell, Chris W Rogers, Godfrey Musuka, Patrick Kelly, Alan Guthrie, Philip S Mellor, Christopher Hamblin
Sentinel herds and samples submitted by private equine practitioners were used to determine the sero-prevalence and sero-incidence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and equine encephalosis virus (EEV) in horse and donkey populations in the Highveld region of Zimbabwe. The sero-prevalence and sero-incidence of antibodies against these viruses were determined using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of serum antibodies. In donkeys, the median sero-prevalence of AHSV antibodies, across the three rainy seasons under study, was 75% (inter quartile range [IQR] 67-83), with a seasonal median sero-incidence of 45% (IQR 40-63)...
May 10, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578668/a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infections-and-long-term-follow-up-after-transpalpebral-enucleation-in-horses
#12
Tsjester Huppes, Hanneke Hermans, Jos M Ensink
BACKGROUND: Implants are often used to improve the cosmetic appearance of horses after enucleation of the eye. When surgical site infection (SSI) occurs, the implant will almost always be lost. The aim of this study is to collect data on the risk factors for SSIs and report long-term follow-up (cosmetic results and return to work) after transpalpebral enucleations. In this retrospective study, records of horses undergoing transpalpebral enucleation were reviewed (2007-2014) and telephone interviews were used to obtain long term follow-up...
June 2, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575582/an-immunoinformatics-derived-dna-vaccine-encoding-human-class-ii-t-cell-epitopes-of-ebola-virus-sudan-virus-and-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-is-immunogenic-in-hla-transgenic-mice
#13
Callie E Bounds, Frances E Terry, Leonard Moise, Drew Hannaman, William D Martin, Anne S De Groot, John J Suschak, Lesley C Dupuy, Connie S Schmaljohn
Immunoinformatics tools were used to predict human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class II-restricted T cell epitopes within the envelope glycoproteins and nucleocapsid proteins of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) and the structural proteins of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Selected epitopes were tested for binding to soluble HLA molecules representing five Class II alleles (DRB1*0101, DRB1*0301, DRB1*0401, DRB1*0701, and DRB1*1501). All but one of the 25 tested peptides bound to at least one of the DRB1 alleles, and four of the peptides bound at least moderately or weakly to all five DRB1 alleles...
June 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568646/genetic-diversity-of-syrian-arabian-horses
#14
S Almarzook, M Reissmann, D Arends, G A Brockmann
Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added...
May 31, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561898/validation-of-a-point-of-care-quantitative-equine-igg-turbidimetric-immunoassay-and-comparison-of-igg-concentrations-measured-with-radial-immunodiffusion-and-a-point-of-care-igg-elisa
#15
S Ujvari, C C Schwarzwald, N Fouché, J Howard, A Schoster
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests with good sensitivity and specificity are needed for diagnosing failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in foals. Turbidimetric immunoassays (TIA) have these characteristics and provide quantitative results. A commercially available TIA-based POC test (POC-TIA) has not been validated in horses. OBJECTIVE: To validate a POC-TIA and compare results of POC-TIA, a POC-ELISA, and radial immunodiffusion (RID). ANIMALS: Heparinized blood samples (n = 127) from 48 hospitalized foals (<12 hour to 48 days)...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557367/septic-keratitis-in-dogs-cats-and-horses-in-switzerland-associated-bacteria-and-antibiotic-susceptibility
#16
Anja Suter, Katrin Voelter, Sonja Hartnack, Bernhard Martin Spiess, Simon Anton Pot
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the most common bacterial pathogens associated with septic keratitis in veterinary patients from Switzerland. The second objective was to analyze antibiotic susceptibility test results of the identified bacterial pathogens. The third objective was to evaluate potential breed predispositions to septic keratitis. PROCEDURES: Two hundred and fifty-five cultures and antibiotic susceptibility reports from dogs, cats, and horses with septic keratitis that were presented to the University of Zurich Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed...
May 29, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555939/comparison-of-aloe-vera-and-omeprazole-for-treatment-of-equine-gastric-ulcer-syndrome
#17
J Bush, R van den Boom, S H Franklin
BACKGROUND: Anecdotally, aloe vera is used to treat gastric ulceration, although no studies have yet investigated its efficacy in horses. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that aloe vera would be non-inferior to omeprazole for the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS). STUDY DESIGN: Randomised, blinded clinical trial. METHODS: Forty horses with grade ≥2 lesions of the squamous and/or glandular mucosa were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups...
May 28, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543943/assessment-of-horse-owners-ability-to-recognise-equine-laminitis-a-cross-sectional-study-of-93-veterinary-diagnosed-cases-in-great-britain
#18
D Pollard, C E Wylie, K L P Verheyen, J R Newton
BACKGROUND: Use of owner-reported data could further epidemiological knowledge of equine laminitis. However, owner recognition of laminitis has not previously been assessed. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to establish whether cases of owner-suspected laminitis would be confirmed as laminitis by the attending veterinary surgeon. Secondary objectives were to compare owner- and veterinary-reported information from veterinary-confirmed cases of equine laminitis...
May 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543933/repeatability-of-oral-sugar-test-results-glucagon-like-peptide-1-measurements-and-serum-high-molecular-weight-adiponectin-concentrations-in-horses
#19
N Frank, D M Walsh
BACKGROUND: Repeatability of the oral sugar test (OST) has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that OST glucose, insulin, active (aGLP-1) and total (tGLP-1) glucagon-like peptide 1, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin results would be repeatable. ANIMALS: Fifty-three horses from a Tennessee research facility (n = 23) and private practice in Missouri (n = 30), including animals with medical histories of equine metabolic syndrome...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543410/the-diagnosis-of-equine-insulin-dysregulation
#20
REVIEW
F R Bertin, M A de Laat
Insulin dysregulation is the hallmark of Equine Metabolic Syndrome and has received attention because of its direct association with laminitis. In the absence of an adequate treatment for laminitis, a focus on prophylaxis is needed, making early detection of individuals at risk of developing laminitis one of the main challenges in equine endocrinology. Recent studies have shown that insulin dysregulation goes beyond tissue insulin resistance and it is now demonstrated that the equine enteroinsular axis plays a major role in insulin secretion and equine hyperinsulinaemia...
May 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
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