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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807293/sarcocystis-neurona-and-neospora-caninum-in-brazilian-opossums-didelphis-spp-molecular-investigation-and-in-vitro-isolation-of-sarcocystis-spp
#1
Leane S Q Gondim, Rogério F Jesus, Müller Ribeiro-Andrade, Jean C R Silva, Daniel B Siqueira, Maria F V Marvulo, Felipe M Aléssio, Jean-François Mauffrey, Fred S Julião, Elisa San Martin Mouriz Savani, Rodrigo M Soares, Luís F P Gondim
Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807043/an-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-vector-expressing-rift-valley-fever-virus-rvfv-gn-and-gc-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-in-sheep
#2
Abdelrahman Said, Mona Elmanzalawy, Guanggang Ma, Armando Mario Damiani, Nikolaus Osterrieder
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne bunyavirus that can cause serious and fatal disease in humans and animals. RVFV is a negative-sense RNA virus of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family. The main envelope RVFV glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, are encoded on the M segment of RVFV and known inducers of protective immunity. In an attempt to develop a safe and efficacious RVF vaccine, we constructed and tested a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine that expresses RVFV Gn and Gc...
August 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805265/use-of-a-saliva-based-diagnostic-test-to-inform-on-tapeworm-infection-in-horses-in-the-uk
#3
K L Lightbody, J B Matthews, J G Kemp-Symonds, P A Lambert, C J Austin
BACKGROUND: Anthelmintic resistance combined with limited chemotherapeutic options has prompted a change in approaches to control of equine helminth infections. Targeted selective treatment strategies utilise diagnostics to reduce anthelmintic use by treating individuals with worm burdens or egg shedding levels above a set threshold. Whilst faecal egg count analysis has limitations for informing tapeworm treatment, a commercially available saliva-based diagnostic test accurately diagnoses horses with tapeworm infection...
August 14, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796905/aerobic-uterine-isolates-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-mares-with-post-partum-metritis
#4
M S Ferrer, R Palomares
BACKGROUND: The potential for life-threatening complications of metritis requires prompt initiation of antimicrobial treatment, often before microbiological test results are reported. However, published studies to guide first-line antibiotic selection are scarce. OBJECTIVES: To report the most frequent bacterial species, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cases of equine metritis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of uterine bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results from mares with metritis...
August 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796430/reproductive-careers-of-thoroughbred-broodmares-before-and-after-surgical-correction-of-%C3%A2-360-degree-large-colon-volvulus
#5
E R Leahy, S J Holcombe, E S Hackett, C F Scoggin, R M Embertson
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist describing broodmare longevity and reproductive efficiency after surgical correction of ≥360 degree large colon volvulus (° LCV). OBJECTIVES: Compare career duration and foals delivered for broodmares before and after ≥360° LCV surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Broodmares registered with The Jockey Club that had surgical correction of ≥360° LCV and survived to hospital discharge at Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2015 were included...
August 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794162/the-relative-compliance-of-energy-storing-tendons-may-be-due-to-the-helical-fibril-arrangement-of-their-fascicles
#6
Tom Shearer, Chavaunne T Thorpe, Hazel R C Screen
A nonlinear elastic microstructural model is used to investigate the relationship between structure and function in energy-storing and positional tendons. The model is used to fit mechanical tension test data from the equine common digital extensor tendon (CDET) and superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), which are used as archetypes of positional and energy-storing tendons, respectively. The fibril crimp and fascicle helix angles of the two tendon types are used as fitting parameters in the mathematical model to predict their values...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793853/equine-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-exercise-and-training-evidence-of-differential-regulation-of-autophagosomal-and-mitochondrial-components
#7
Kenneth Bryan, Beatrice A McGivney, Gabriella Farries, Paul A McGettigan, Charlotte L McGivney, Katie F Gough, David E MacHugh, Lisa M Katz, Emmeline W Hill
BACKGROUND: A single bout of exercise induces changes in gene expression in skeletal muscle. Regular exercise results in an adaptive response involving changes in muscle architecture and biochemistry, and is an effective way to manage and prevent common human diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disorders and type II diabetes. However, the biomolecular mechanisms underlying such responses still need to be fully elucidated. Here we performed a transcriptome-wide analysis of skeletal muscle tissue in a large cohort of untrained Thoroughbred horses (n = 51) before and after a bout of high-intensity exercise and again after an extended period of training...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792626/advanced-three-dimensional-culture-of-equine-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cells
#8
A Stieler Stewart, J M Freund, L M Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial stem cells are critical to epithelial repair following gastrointestinal injury. The culture of intestinal stem cells has quickly become a cornerstone of a vast number of new research endeavours that range from determining tissue viability to testing drug efficacy for humans. This study aims to describe the methods of equine stem cell culture and highlights the future benefits of these techniques for the advancement of equine medicine. OBJECTIVES: To describe the isolation and culture of small intestinal stem cells into three-dimensional (3D) enteroids in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities...
August 9, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783594/antigenic-characterization-of-52-55kda-protein-isolated-from-trypanosoma-evansi-and-its-application-in-detection-of-equine-trypanosomosis
#9
S C Yadav, Ritesh Kumar, Jaideep Kumar, Meetali Singh, B C Bera, Rajender Kumar, U Tatu, Kanika Tehri
Trypanosoma evansi is a haemo-protozoan parasite responsible for the disease surra, an economically important disease of wide range of domestic and wild animals. The present diagnostic methods using soluble antigens have inherent problems like lack of standardized and reproducible antigens, as well as ethical issues. This entails further efforts for search of defined antigenic molecules with satisfying sensitivity and specificity for sero-epidemiology of trypanosomosis. In present investigation, we have identified and purified 52-55kDa immuno-dominant protein cluster in molecular mass ranges by preparatory SDS-PAGE methods from T...
August 1, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774943/epidemiological-survey-on-equine-cheek-tooth-infundibular-caries-in-the-united-kingdom
#10
Dewi Borkent, Richard Reardon, Padraic M Dixon
Infundibular caries (IC) is an important equine dental disorder that can cause premature wear, fractures and apical infection of affected maxillary cheek teeth. No accurate prevalence values for IC are available for UK horses. The feeding of high levels of concentrates is believed to increase its prevalence, but no objective information is available on such possible environmental risk factors. The aims of the study were to document the prevalence of IC in UK horses, assess its distribution and severity between infundibulae and teeth in affected horses and examine for potential risk factors for its development...
August 3, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774495/wild-and-domestic-animals-likely-involved-in-rickettsial-endemic-zones-of-northwestern-colombia
#11
Andrés F Londoño, Leidy Y Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Diana Marín, Verónica Contreras, Francisco J Díaz, Gustavo Valbuena, Marcelo B Labruna, Marylin Hidalgo, Margarita Arboleda, Salim Mattar, Sergio Solari, Juan D Rodas
Between 2006 and 2008, three outbreaks of human rickettsiosis occurred in Northwestern Colombia (municipalities of Necoclí, Los Córdobas and Turbo), with case fatality rates between 27% and 54%. The aim of this study was to determine previous exposure of wild and domestic animals to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae through serological tests, to detect rickettsial evidence in their ectoparasites, and to analyze their possible role in the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in this zone of the country...
July 21, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765845/spatially-offset-raman-spectroscopy-for-photon-migration-studies-in-bones-with-different-mineralization-levels
#12
Kay Sowoidnich, John H Churchwell, Kevin Buckley, Allen E Goodship, Anthony W Parker, Pavel Matousek
The ability of Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to obtain chemically specific information from below the sample surface makes it a promising technique for non-invasive in vivo diagnosis of bone conditions by sampling bone through the skin. The depth below a surface interrogated by SORS depends on the system's optical properties and is difficult to estimate for complex bone material. This paper uses 830 nm laser excitation to investigate the influence of bone mineralization on photon migration properties in deer antler cortex, equine metacarpal cortex and whale tympanic bulla...
August 2, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763524/the-influence-of-aluminium-steel-and-polyurethane-shoeing-systems-and-of-the-unshod-hoof-on-the-injury-risk-of-a-horse-kick-an-ex-vivo-experimental-study
#13
Miriam Sprick, Anton Fürst, Fabio Baschnagel, Silvain Michel, Gabor Piskoty, Sonja Hartnack, Michelle A Jackson
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the damage inflicted by an unshod hoof and by the various horseshoe materials (steel, aluminium and polyurethane) on the long bones of horses after a simulated kick. METHODS: Sixty-four equine radii and tibiae were evaluated using a drop impact test setup. An impactor with a steel, aluminium, polyurethane, or hoof horn head was dropped onto prepared bones. An impactor velocity of 8 m/s was initially used with all four materials and then testing was repeated with a velocity of 12 m/s with the polyurethane and hoof horn heads...
August 1, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761187/response-to-acupuncture-treatment-in-horses-with-chronic-laminitis
#14
Babak Faramarzi, Dongbin Lee, Kevin May, Fanglong Dong
There is a need for evidence-based scientific research to address the question of the effectiveness of acupuncture in improving clinical signs of laminitis in horses. The objective of this study was to compare lameness levels before and after 2 acupuncture treatments in horses with chronic laminitis. Twelve adult horses with chronic laminitis received 2 acupuncture treatments 1 week apart. The points were treated using dry needling, hemo-acupuncture, and aqua-acupuncture. Lameness level was objectively evaluated using an inertial sensor-based lameness evaluation system (Lameness Locator), as well as routine examinations following American Association of Equine Practitioners scoring before the first and 1 week after the second acupuncture treatment...
August 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760480/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-glanders-in-working-equines-findings-of-a-cross-sectional-study-in-punjab-province-of-pakistan
#15
Muhammad Taslim Ghori, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Jawaria Ali Khan, Masood Rabbani, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Haroon Rashid Chaudhry, Muhammad Asad Ali, Javed Muhammad, Mandy Carolina Elschner, Bhushan M Jayarao
Glanders is an infectious and contagious bacterial disease of equines. A little is known about its seroprevalence and risk factors in working equines in countries where the disease is endemic. Also, there are no reports on prevalence of the disease in areas where there is a prior evidence of Burkholderia (B.) mallei detection in soil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected districts (n=09) of Punjab province of Pakistan during 2014-2015. A total of 1008 serum samples were screened for detection of antibodies to B...
July 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754734/equine-disease-surveillance-quarterly-summary
#16
(no author information available yet)
This quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association, covers: Summary of surveillance testing, January to March 2017International disease occurrence in the first quarter of 2017Focus on the diagnosis of equine influenza.
July 29, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750210/phosphorylated-neurofilament-h-pnf-h-as-a-potential-diagnostic-marker-for-neurological-disorders-in-horses
#17
A R Intan-Shameha, Thomas J Divers, Jennifer K Morrow, Amy Graves, Emil Olsen, Amy L Johnson, Hussni O Mohammed
The current study aimed at the investigating the potential use of phosphorylated neurofilament H (pNF-H) as a diagnostic biomarker for neurologic disorders in the horse. Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (n=88) and serum only (n=30) were obtained from horses diagnosed with neurologic disorders and clinically healthy horses as control. The neurologic horses consisted of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) (38 cases) and cervical vertebral malformation (CVM) (23 cases). Levels of pNF-H were determined using an ELISA...
July 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749289/clinical-disease-associated-with-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-infection-in-captive-przewalski-s-horses-equus-ferus-przewalskii
#18
Richard R Sim, Priscilla H Joyner, Luis R Padilla, Paul Anikis, Copper Aitken-Palmer
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of domestic horses and the causative agent of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis. This case series describes three confirmed cases of clinical anaplasmosis, and a fourth case of presumptive anaplasmosis in Przewalski's horses ( Equus ferus przewalskii) housed at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute from 2008 to 2014. Clinical signs varied among individuals with affected horses exhibiting lethargy, weakness, pyrexia, hypophagia, reluctance to move, or ataxia...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727072/the-equine-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-dysregulation
#19
M H Kheder, M N Sillence, L M Bryant, M A de Laat
Metabolic disease is a significant problem that causes a range of species-specific comorbidities. Recently, a better understanding of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) biology has led to the suggestion that inhibiting its action may attenuate obesity in several species. In horses, antagonism of GIP may also reduce hyperinsulinemia, which leads to insulin-associated laminitis, a painful comorbidity unique to this species. However, little is known about GIP in horses. The aims of this study were to examine the tissue distribution of equine GIP receptors (eGIPR), to determine whether eGIPR can be blocked using a GIP antagonist not tested previously in horses, and to establish whether there is any association between GIP concentrations and body mass in this species...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722628/serologic-evidence-of-various-arboviruses-detected-in-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-the-united-states
#20
Kerri Pedersen, Eryu Wang, Scott C Weaver, Paul C Wolf, Adam R Randall, Kyle R Van Why, Amelia P A Travassos Da Rosa, Thomas Gidlewski
White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are an abundant mammal with a wide geographic distribution in the United States, which make them good sentinels for monitoring arboviral activity across the country. Exposure to various arboviruses has been detected in white-tailed deer, typically in conjunction with another diagnostic finding. To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (2.5%), Powassan (4...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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