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Equine Testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444912/whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-a-novel-deletion-variant-in-the-kit-gene-in-horses-with-white-spotted-coat-colour-phenotypes
#1
N Dürig, R Jude, H Holl, S A Brooks, C Lafayette, V Jagannathan, T Leeb
White spotting phenotypes in horses can range in severity from the common white markings up to completely white horses. EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3 and TRPM1 represent known candidate genes for such phenotypes in horses. For the present study, we re-investigated a large horse family segregating a variable white spotting phenotype, for which conventional Sanger sequencing of the candidate genes' individual exons had failed to reveal the causative variant. We obtained whole genome sequence data from an affected horse and specifically searched for structural variants in the known candidate genes...
April 26, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424285/equine-arteritis-virus-has-specific-tropism-for-stromal-cells-and-cd8-t-and-cd21-b-lymphocytes-but-not-glandular-epithelium-at-the-primary-site-of-persistent-infection-in-the-stallion-reproductive-tract
#2
Mariano Carossino, Alan T Loynachan, Igor F Canisso, R Frank Cook, Juliana R Campos, Bora Nam, Yun Young Go, Edward L Squires, Mats H T Troedsson, Thomas Swerczek, Fabio Del Piero, Ernest Bailey, Peter J Timoney, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has a global impact on the equine industry being the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of equids. A distinctive feature of EAV infection is that it establishes long-term persistent infection in 10 to 70% of infected stallions (carriers). In these stallions, EAV is only detectable in the reproductive tract and viral persistence occurs despite the presence of high serum neutralizing antibodies. Carrier stallions constitute the natural reservoir of the virus as they continuously shed EAV in their semen...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416183/inhibition-of-the-in-vitro-growth-of-babesia-bigemina-babesia-caballi-and-theileria-equi-parasites-by-trifluralin-analogues
#3
Marta G Silva, Donald P Knowles, Sandra Antunes, Ana Domingos, Maria A Esteves, Carlos E Suarez
Bovine and equine babesiosis caused by Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Babesia caballi, along with equine theileriosis caused by Theileria equi are global tick-borne hemoprotozoan diseases characterized by fever, anemia, weight losses and abortions. A common feature of these diseases are transition from acute to chronic phases, in which parasites may persist in the hosts for life. Antiprotozoal drugs are important for managing infection and disease. Previous research demonstrated that trifluralin analogues, designated (TFLAs) 1-15, which specifically bind to regions of alpha-tubulin protein in plants and protozoan parasites, have the ability to inhibit the in vitro growth of B...
April 10, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414603/cardiovascular-findings-in-ponies-with-equine-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Natalie Heliczer, Vinzenz Gerber, Rupert Bruckmaier, Johannes H van der Kolk, Cristobal Navas de Solis
OBJECTIVE To determine whether hypertension, high sympathetic tone, resting and exercising arrhythmias, and echocardiographic changes consistent with hypertensive cardiomyopathy were associated with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) in ponies. DESIGN Prospective case-control study. ANIMALS 19 privately owned ponies with a diagnosis of EMS (history of laminitis, body condition score ≥ 7/9, cresty neck score ≥ 3/5, and abnormal oral sugar test result; cases) and 20 healthy control ponies. PROCEDURES Heart rate (HR), noninvasively measured arterial blood pressure (BP), markers of autonomic tone (splenic volume and HR variability), 24-hour and exercising ECGs, and echocardiograms were compared between cases and controls...
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410613/evaluation-of-six-serological-elisa-kits-available-in-italy-as-screening-tests-for-equine-infectious-anaemia-surveillance
#5
Roberto Nardini, Gian Luca Autorino, Charles J Issel, R Frank Cook, Ida Ricci, Raffaele Frontoso, Francesca Rosone, Maria Teresa Scicluna
BACKGROUND: ELISAs are known to have a higher diagnostic sensitivity than the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) when employed for serological diagnosis of equine infectious anaemia (EIA). For this purpose, an "in-house" and five commercial ELISAs available in Italy were assessed by the National Reference Centre for EIA for their analytic specificity (Sp); precocity, defined as capability of detecting first antibodies produced during a new infection; precision based on repeatability and reproducibility, estimated from the coefficient of variation (CV); accuracy, estimated from multiple K and relative Sp and sensitivity (Se)...
April 14, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409422/influence-of-long-term-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-infection-on-primary-murine-neurons-the-possible-effects-of-the-multiple-passages-of-ehv-1-on-its-neurovirulence
#6
Joanna Cymerys, A Słońska, A Tucholska, A Golke, A Chmielewska, M W Bańbura
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), like other members of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, is a neurotropic virus causing latent infections in the nervous system of the natural host. In the present study, we have investigated EHV-1 replication (wild-type Jan-E strain and Rac-H laboratory strain) during long-term infection and during the passages of the virus in cultured neurons. The studies were performed on primary murine neurons, which are an excellent in vitro model for studying neurotropism and neurovirulence of EHV-1...
April 13, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400701/studies-on-the-exercise-physiology-of-draft-horses-performed-in-japan-during-the-1950s-and-1960s
#7
Atsushi Hiraga, Shigeru Sugano
Although the total number of horses raised in Japan dramatically decreased after World War II, because draft horses were still used for farm work in paddy fields and on farms during the period of the 1950s and 1960s, a performance test for selecting better draft horses was needed. In order to determine the most suitable size of draft horses for Japanese farm conditions, the working power of horses weighing from 185 to 622 kg was evaluated by performing an endurance test, several kinds of working power tests, and maximum pulling power tests...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384059/potential-sympatric-vectors-and-mammalian-hosts-of-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-in-southern-mexico
#8
Jesús Sotomayor-Bonilla, Carlos Antonio Abella-Medrano, Andrea Chaves, Paulina Álvarez-Mendizábal, Óscar Rico-Chávez, Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal, Melinda K Rostal, Rafael Ojeda-Flores, Arturo Barbachano-Guerrero, Gustavo Gutiérrez-Espeleta, A Alonso Aguirre, Peter Daszak, Gerardo Suzán
Arboviruses are important zoonotic agents with complex transmission cycles and are not well understood because they may involve many vectors and hosts. We studied sympatric wild mammals and hematophagous mosquitoes having the potential to act as hosts and vectors in two areas of southern Mexico. Mosquitoes, bats, and rodents were captured in Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas), between November 2010 and August 2011. Spleen samples from 146 bats and 14 rodents were tested for molecular evidence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) using PCR protocols...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378530/guided-bone-regeneration-with-particulate-vs-block-xenogenic-bone-substitutes-a-pilot-cone-beam-computed-tomographic-investigation
#9
Goran I Benic, Daniel S Thoma, Ronald E Jung, Ignacio M Sanz, Silvan Unger, Antonio Cantalapiedra, Christoph H F Hämmerle
AIM: To test whether an equine bone substitute block used for guided bone regeneration (GBR) of peri-implant defects differs from bovine block or particulate bone substitutes regarding the hard and soft tissue contours of the augmented ridge. MATERIAL & METHODS: Two semi-saddle bone defects were prepared in each side of the mandible of eight dogs, and one titanium implant was inserted into every defect. The defects were randomly allocated to receive one of the following treatments: bone augmentation by GBR using (1) particulate deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) + a collagen membrane (CM), (2) block DBBM + CM, (3) equine bone substitute block + CM, and (4) empty controls...
April 4, 2017: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365929/anoplocephala-sp-cestoda-cyclophyllidea-infection-in-horses-in-central-italy
#10
Cristina Roncoron, Antonio Fagiolo, Cristina Amoruso, Claudio De Liberato
Species of Anoplocephalidae are cestodes affecting equines worldwide and causing many intestinal disorders. Between October 2010 and September 2013, 284 faecal samples of horses originating from Lazio Region (Central Italy) were tested for the presence of Anoplocephala sp. eggs by a classic copromicroscopic technique. Data regarding pasture‑dependence/non dependence, age, and sex of the horses were also collected. Statistical analysis, aimed at detecting possible associations between these variables and Anoplocephala sp...
March 31, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349656/equine-performance-genes-and-the-future-of-doping-in-horseracing
#11
Tessa Wilkin, Anna Baoutina, Natasha Hamilton
A horse's success on the racetrack is determined by genetics, training and nutrition, and their translation into physical traits such as speed, endurance and muscle strength. Advances in genetic technologies are slowly explaining the roles of specific genes in equine performance, and offering new insights into the development of novel therapies for diseases and musculoskeletal injuries that cause early retirement of many racehorses. Gene therapy approaches may also soon provide new means to artificially enhance the physical performance of racehorses...
March 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347895/metabolomic-changes-in-rat-model-of-cauda-equina-injury
#12
Yang Liu, Rui Yang, Qingjie Kong, Yuan Wang, Bin Zhang, Jingchuan Sun, Yong Yang, Bing Zheng, Hongbin Yuan, Jiangang Shi
BACKGROUND: To demonstrate the differences of metabolomic changes in a rat model of cauda equina injury (CEI) and find potent metabolic biomarkers of CEI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study. After the rats were given anesthesia and fixed in a prone position, a piece of silicone block was placed into the epidural space below the lamina. Behavior tests including the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) open field locomotor scale and an inclined plane test were conducted 1 day and 2 days after surgery...
March 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346192/menopausal-symptom-relief-and-side-effects-experienced-by-women-using-compounded-bioidentical-hormone-replacement-therapy-and-synthetic-conjugated-equine-estrogen-and-or-progestin-hormone-replacement-therapy-part-3
#13
Laura J Deleruyelle
The use of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy by menopausal women has become a popular alternative to traditional synthetic conjugated equine estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy due to safety concerns raised by recent studies. However, due to the lack of randomized, large-scale trials to evaluate the efficacy and side-effect profile of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy many healthcare providers are reluctant to prescribe such therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare women's menopausal symptom relief and side effects experienced when using compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and traditional hormone replacement therapy...
January 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346123/panfungal-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-identification-of-fungal-pathogens-in-formalin-fixed-animal-tissues
#14
Courtney Meason-Smith, Erin E Edwards, Caitlin E Older, Mackenzie Branco, Laura K Bryan, Sara D Lawhon, Jan S Suchodolski, Gabriel Gomez, Joanne Mansell, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
Identification of fungal organisms often poses a problem for pathologists because the histomorphology of some fungal organisms is not specific, fresh tissues may not be available, and isolation and identification in culture may take a long time. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify fungal organisms from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded curls were tested from 128 blocks containing canine, feline, equine, and bovine tissues with cutaneous, nasal, pulmonary, and systemic fungal infections, identified by the presence of fungi in histologic sections...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341113/dynamics-of-african-horse-sickness-virus-nucleic-acid-and-antibody-in-horses-following-immunization-with-a-commercial-polyvalent-live-attenuated-vaccine
#15
C T Weyer, J D Grewar, P Burger, C Joone, C Lourens, N J MacLachlan, A J Guthrie
African horse sickness (AHS) is a fatal disease of equids relevant to the global equine industry. Detection of AHS virus (AHSV) during outbreaks has become more rapid and efficient with the advent of group specific reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (GS RT-qPCR) assays to detect AHSV nucleic acid. Use of GS RT-qPCR together with recently described type specific (TS RT-qPCR) assays cannot only expedite diagnosis of AHS but also facilitate further evaluation of the dynamics of AHSV infection in the equine host...
March 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339382/menopausal-symptom-relief-and-side-effects-experienced-by-women-using-compounded-bioidentical-hormone-replacement-therapy-and-synthetic-conjugated-equine-estrogen-and-or-progestin-hormone-replacement-therapy-part-2
#16
Laura J Deleruyelle
The use of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy by menopausal women has become a popular alternative to traditional synthetic conjugated equine estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy due to safety concerns raised by recent studies. However, due to the lack of randomized, large-scale trials to evaluate the efficacy and side-effect profile of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy many healthcare providers are reluctant to prescribe such therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare women's menopausal symptom relief and side effects experienced when using compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and traditional hormone replacement therapy...
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339370/menopausal-symptom-relief-and-side-effects-experienced-by-women-using-bioidentical-hormone-replacement-therapy-and-synthetic-conjugated-equine-estrogen-and-or-progestin-hormone-replacement-therapy-part-1
#17
Laura J Deleruyelle
The use of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy by menopausal women has become a popular alternative to traditional synthetic conjugated equine estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy due to safety concerns raised by recent studies. However, due to the lack of randomized, large-scale trials to evaluate the efficacy and side-effect profile of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy many healthcare providers are reluctant to prescribe such therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare women's menopausal symptom relief and side effects experienced when using compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and traditional hormone replacement therapy...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336695/equine-disease-surveillance-quarterly-summary
#18
(no author information available yet)
of surveillance testing, October to December 2016International disease occurrence in the fourth quarter of 2016These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association.
March 25, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335829/comparison-of-nasopharyngeal-and-guttural-pouch-specimens-to-determine-the-optimal-sampling-site-to-detect-streptococcus-equi-subsp-equi-carriers-by-dna-amplification
#19
Ashley G Boyle, Darko Stefanovski, Shelley C Rankin
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus equi subsp equi (S. equi) is the cause of "equine strangles" which is a highly infectious upper respiratory disease. Detection of S. equi is influenced by site of specimen collection, method of sampling, and type of diagnostic test that is performed. We hypothesized i) that a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that targets the S. equi-specific eqbE gene would be more sensitive than a realtime PCR assay that targets the S. equi-specific seeI gene and ii) that LAMP of specimens obtained by guttural pouch lavage (GPL) would be more sensitive than LAMP of nasopharyngeal specimens to identify S...
March 23, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333616/cross-sectional-surveillance-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-dromedary-camels-and-other-mammals-in-egypt-august-2015-to-january-2016
#20
Mohamed Ali, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Kandeil, Mahmoud Shehata, Basma Elsokary, Mokhtar Gomaa, Naglaa Hassan, Ahmed El Sayed, Ahmed El-Taweel, Heba Sobhy, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Ihab El Masry, Abebe Wossene Wolde, Peter Daszak, Maureen Miller, Sophie VonDobschuetz, Emma Gardner, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Yilma Jobre Makonnen
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. A total of 1,031 sera, 1,078 nasal swabs, 13 rectal swabs, and 38 milk samples were collected from 1,078 camels in different types of sites. In addition, 145 domestic animals and 109 bats were sampled. Overall, of 1,031 serologically-tested camels, 871 (84...
March 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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