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Equine Testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773138/multiplex-hydrolysis-probe-assay-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-theileria-equi-and-babesia-caballi-infections-in-equids
#1
Raksha V Bhoora, Ronel Pienaar, Frances Cornelius, Antoinette Josemans, Olivier Matthee, Ratselane Marumo, Christo Troskie, Ben J Mans
Quantitative real-time PCR assays previously developed for the detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, were combined in a single multiplex TaqMan qPCR platform for the simultaneous detection of both heamoprotozoan parasites in equids. The multiplex equine piroplasmosis (M-EP) qPCR assay was shown to be efficient and specific. The detection limit was determined to be 1.4 × 10-4 % parasitized erythrocytes (PE) for T. equi and 2.8 × 10-4 % PE for B. caballi. The effect of differential DNA concentrations on the outcome of the M-EP qPCR for each target species was also investigated...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762728/atypical-myopathy-in-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-elaphurus-davidianus-associated-with-ingestion-of-hypoglycin-a
#2
C Bunert, S Langer, D M Votion, F Boemer, A Müller, K Ternes, A Liesegang
From 2004 until 2016, 21 Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus) have died for unknown reason at Zoo Duisburg. These deer, also known as milu, have succumbed from a myopathy that occurred seasonally in autumn and in spring. The clinical signs shown by the animals, closely resembles those of a disease called equine atypical myopathy (EAM), which is formerly known in horses. The cause for EAM in Europe was found in the ingestion of hypoglycin A, contained in samaras and seedlings of the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus)...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762691/diagnostic-accuracy-of-post-acth-challenge-salivary-cortisol-concentrations-for-identifying-horses-with-equine-glandular-gastric-disease
#3
Fay J Sauer, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Alessandra Ramseyer, Beatriz Vidondo, Milena D Scheidegger, Vinzenz Gerber
The aims of this study were to better characterize the adrenal response to i.v. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in horses with and without gastric disease and to validate and simplify the ACTH stimulation test by determining the diagnostic accuracy of six consecutive sampling time points after ACTH administration for equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) and equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD). Twenty-six endurance and eventing horses without clinical disease [Sport Horse Population (SHP)] and an independent population of 62 horses [General Population (GP)] were grouped by gastroscopic findings (no/mild vs...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758109/ex-vivo-effects-of-insulin-on-the-structural-integrity-of-equine-digital-lamellae
#4
C Sandow, L A Fugler, B Leise, L Riggs, W T Monroe, N Totaro, J Belknap, S Eades
BACKGROUND: Laminitis has a considerable impact on the equine industry. Endocrinopathic laminitis is the most common form and affected horses often have hyperinsulinaemia due to an underlying metabolic disorder. OBJECTIVES: To determine if insulin weakens the structural integrity of digital lamellae and to develop an ex vivo model for the study of hyperinsulinaemia-induced lamellar failure. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo experiment. METHODS: Biomechanical testing was used to assess the structural integrity of lamellar explants exposed to either medium alone (control) or medium supplemented with insulin...
May 14, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752558/equine-infectious-anemia-virus-in-naturally-infected-horses-from-the-brazilian-pantanal
#5
Andreia Elisa Cursino, Ana Paula Pessoa Vilela, Ana Paula Moreira Franco-Luiz, Jaquelline Germano de Oliveira, Márcia Furlan Nogueira, João Pessoa Araújo Júnior, Daniel Moura de Aguiar, Erna Geessien Kroon
Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has a worldwide distribution, and is widespread in Brazil. The Brazilian Pantanal presents with high prevalence comprising equine performance and indirectly the livestock industry, since the horses are used for cattle management. Although EIA is routinely diagnosed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID), this serological assay has some limitations, so PCR-based detection methods have the potential to overcome these limitations and act as complementary tests to those currently used...
May 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752142/genetic-diversity-of-theileria-equi-and-babesia-caballi-infecting-horses-of-central-southern-italy-and-preliminary-results-of-its-correlation-with-clinical-and-serological-status
#6
Giuseppe Manna, Antonella Cersini, Roberto Nardini, Leticia Elisa Bartolomé Del Pino, Valeria Antognetti, Maurizio Zini, Raffaella Conti, Raniero Lorenzetti, Vincenzo Veneziano, Gian Luca Autorino, Maria Teresa Scicluna
Babesia caballi and Theileria equi are tick-borne pathogens causing equine piroplasmosis infecting the Equidae family in which they cause significant sanitary and economic losses. Furthermore, equine piroplasmosis is included in the World Animal Health Organization (OIE) notifiable diseases list with possible movement restrictions for positive horses. Thirty-nine EDTA and whole-blood samples collected during 2013 and 2014 from symptomatic and asymptomatic horses of Central-Southern Italy were included in the present study either because of their strongly positive results in Real Time (RT) PCRs targeting the 18S rRNA gene specific for each piroplasm and/or due to their serological ELISA/18S rRNA RT-PCR discordant results...
May 4, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750845/ultrasonographic-variations-are-present-in-the-distal-sesamoidean-impar-ligament-of-clinically-sound-horses
#7
Jessica Lauren MacDonald, Ruth-Anne Richter, Christine L Wimer
Ultrasonography is an established diagnostic test for evaluating horses with foot pain due to suspected podotrochlear apparatus pathology. However, variations from the previously reported normal appearance of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament have not always coincided with lameness. The objective of this prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was to characterize variations in the ultrasonographic appearance of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament in sound horses using the transcuneal approach...
May 11, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749999/freeze-dried-equine-derived-redback-spider-antivenom-a-local-irritation-study-by-intramuscular-injection-in-rabbits-and-a-repeated-dose-toxicity-study-in-rats
#8
Akihiko Yamamoto, Satomi Harano, Noriko Shinya, Ayataka Nagano, Yoshinobu Miyatsu, Kyouko Sawabe, Takayuki Matsumura, Manabu Ato, Motohide Takahashi, Hisashi Taki, Toru Hifumi
The redback spider ( Latrodectus hasseltii ) is nonindigenous to Japan but has now spread throughout the country. Bites to humans are rare but can be fatal. We prepared freeze-dried redback spider antivenom for therapeutic use against bites in Japan by immunization of horse plasma. This study included two nonclinical tests of the antivenom: a local irritation study involving a single intramuscular administration to rabbits (with injections of physiological saline and an existing freeze-dried diphtheria antitoxin as control and comparison substances, respectively) and a 2-week repeated intermittent intravenous-dose toxicity study in rats...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747642/salivary-alpha-amylase-activity-and-cortisol-in-horses-with-acute-abdominal-disease-a-pilot-study
#9
María Dolores Contreras-Aguilar, Damián Escribano, María Martín-Cuervo, Fernando Tecles, Jose Joaquín Cerón
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), considered a non-invasive biomarker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, and salivary cortisol as possible pain-induced stress biomarker, in horses with acute abdominal disease. Therefore, a prospective observational study was performed in which both biomarkers were analyzed in a group of horses with acute abdomen syndrome, and compared with a group of healthy control horses by an unpaired Student's t-test...
May 10, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747133/time-dependent-changes-in-gene-expression-induced-in-vitro-by-interleukin-1%C3%AE-in-equine-articular-cartilage
#10
Maria Löfgren, Emilia Svala, Anders Lindahl, Eva Skiöldebrand, Stina Ekman
Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory and degenerative joint disease commonly affecting horses. To identify genes of relevance for cartilage pathology in osteoarthritis we studied the time-course effects of interleukin (IL)-1β on equine articular cartilage. Articular cartilage explants from the distal third metacarpal bone were collected postmortem from three horses without evidence of joint disease. The explants were stimulated with IL-1β for 27 days and global gene expression was measured by microarray. Gene expression was compared to that of unstimulated explants at days 3, 9, 15, 21 and 27...
May 1, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742908/influence-of-an-equine-assisted-activities-program-on-dementia-specific-quality-of-life
#11
Beth Fields, Jason Bruemmer, Gene Gloeckner, Wendy Wood
Institutional facilities face challenges providing experiences to residents with dementia that promote participation in meaningful activities. Guided by the Lived Environment Life Quality Model, this study investigated associations between 9 different activity situations-one an equine-assisted activities program (EAAP)-and positive, negative, and neutral behavioral indicators of quality of life (QoL) in 6 residents with dementia who expressed an interest in horses. Direct observational data were collected for 4 hours twice weekly over 8 weeks...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737271/human-and-equine-infection-with-alphaviruses-and-flaviviruses-in-panam%C3%A3-during-2010-a-cross-sectional-study-of-household-contacts-during-an-encephalitis-outbreak
#12
Jean-Paul Carrera, Karoun H Bagamian, Amelia P Travassos da Rosa, Eryu Wang, Davis Beltran, Nathan D Gundaker, Blas Armien, Gianfranco Arroyo, Néstor Sosa, Juan Miguel Pascale, Anayansi Valderrama, Robert B Tesh, Amy Y Vittor, Scott C Weaver
Members of the genera Alphavirus (family Togaviridae ) and Flavivirus (family Flaviridae ) are important zoonotic human and equine etiologic agents of neurologic diseases in the New World. In 2010, an outbreak of Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly eastern equine encephalitis virus) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infections was reported in eastern Panamá. We further characterized the epidemiology of the outbreak by studying household contacts of confirmed human cases and equine cases with neurological disease signs...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734431/quercetin-in-equine-frozen-semen
#13
J S Filho, C D Corcini, F C C Santos, A N Anciuti, N L S Gatti, E Anastacio, R Mielke, C E W Nogueira, B R Curcio, A S Varela
  BACKGROUND: Supplementation of sperm diluents to reduce the damage caused by the freeze-thaw cycle is broadly used in equine semen cryopreservation. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate quercetin supplementation in equine freezing extender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quercetin at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 or 1 mM) was added in the sperm freezing diluent before the freeze-thaw cycle. The spermatozoa population was analyzed by flow cytometry and a statistical analysis was conducted to detect significant differences between control and treated samples...
July 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733474/computed-tomographic-description-of-the-highly-variable-imaging-features-of-equine-oromaxillary-sinus-and-oronasal-fistulae
#14
Laura Hargreaves, Jonathon J Dixon
Oronasal and oromaxillary sinus fistulae are well-documented complications following removal or loss of a maxillary cheek tooth. Diagnosis is currently based on a combination of oral examination, videoendoscopy, radiography, and computed tomography (CT). The objective of this retrospective, case series study was to describe the CT characteristics of confirmed oronasal and oromaxillary sinus fistulae in a group of horses. Inclusion criteria were a head CT acquired at the authors' hospital during the period of 2012-2017, a CT diagnosis of oronasal or oromaxillary sinus fistulae, and a confirmed diagnosis based on a method other than CT...
May 7, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727872/postoperative-complications-in-equine-elective-clean-orthopaedic-surgery-with-without-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#15
Sabita Diana Stöckle, Klaus Failing, Marc Koene, Kerstin Fey
OBJECTIVE: Retrospective analysis of postoperative complications in equines after clean, orthopaedic surgical procedures in order to detect differences between animals treated with antibiotics and horses without receiving these drugs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Details on 652 patients, surgical procedures and surgery-associated complications were compiled from horses being operated between June 2011 and January 2015. Antibiotic-receiving patients (n = 259) were tested for differences in complication rates and characteristics to controls (n = 393)...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721438/correlations-between-the-equine-metacarpophalangeal-joint-angulation-and-toe-conformation-in-statics
#16
Jenny Hagen, Kaid Kojah, Michael Geiger
The angulation of the equine fetlock determines the load of associated tendons and probably their predisposition for injuries. However, it is questionable how the individual toe conformation and tendon properties interact with the dorsal metacarpophalangeal joint angle (DMPJ). Data are needed for a tangible evaluation of the equine limb conformation for more specific orthopaedic treatment. The aim was to evaluate the correlation between the DMPJ, toe conformation and cross-sectional area (CSA) of both flexor tendons; the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) and deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT)...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717641/eastern-equine-encephalitis-in-puppies-in-michigan-and-new-york-states
#17
Caroline Andrews, Jodie Gerdin, Jon Patterson, Elizabeth L Buckles, Scott D Fitzgerald
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is classified as a select agent and is capable of causing mortality in humans and a number of veterinary species. Herein, we describe 3 cases of EEE in puppies in Michigan and New York. Two puppies were euthanized following an acute history of seizures and obtundation. A littermate of one of these puppies died 2 wk earlier following a history of anorexia and fever. All 3 puppies lacked significant gross anatomic lesions at autopsy and tested negative for rabies virus...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716602/lower-plasma-trans-4-hydroxyproline-and-methionine-sulfoxide-levels-are-associated-with-insulin-dysregulation-in-horses
#18
Ákos Kenéz, Tobias Warnken, Karsten Feige, Korinna Huber
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation in horses is a metabolic condition defined by high insulin concentrations in the blood and peripheral insulin resistance. This hyperinsulinemia is often associated with severe damage in the hooves, resulting in laminitis. However, we currently lack detailed information regarding the potential involvement of particular metabolic pathways in pathophysiological causes and consequences of equine insulin dysregulation. This study aimed to assess the dynamic metabolic responses given to an oral glucose test (OGT) in insulin-sensitive and insulin-dysregulated horses by a targeted metabolomics approach to identify novel metabolites associated with insulin dysregulation...
May 2, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689532/assessment-of-draxxin-%C3%A2-tulathromycin-as-an-inhibitor-of-in-vitro-growth-of-babesia-bovis-babesia-bigemina-and-theileria-equi
#19
Marta G Silva, Nicolas F Villarino, Donald P Knowles, Carlos E Suarez
Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Theileria equi are worldwide tick-borne hemoprotozoan that cause diseases characterized by fever, anemia, weight loss and abortion. A common feature of these diseases are transition from acute to chronic phases, in which parasites may persist in the host for life, and becoming a reservoir for tick transmission. The live-attenuated vaccines for B. bovis and B. bigemina are not available for worldwide use due to legal restrictions and other concerns such as potential erythrocyte antigen and pathogen contamination, and a vaccine for T...
April 17, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687947/comparison-of-3-corneal-cytology-collection-methods-for-evaluating-equine-ulcerative-keratitis-cytobrush-kimura-platinum-spatula-and-handle-edge-of-scalpel-blade
#20
Laura Proietto, Sarah S Beatty, Caryn E Plummer
PURPOSE: To compare corneal cytology samples from three common sampling techniques: cytobrush (CB), Kimura platinum spatula (KS), and the handle edge of a scalpel blade (SB). METHODS: Equine patients presenting to the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine with ulcerative keratitis were included. Following diagnosis of corneal ulcer and sampling for microbial culture, two cytology samples per technique were collected with sterile CB, KS, and SB in a randomized order...
April 24, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
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