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Preterm asphyxia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489558/evaluation-of-factors-associated-with-elevated-newborn-17-hydroxyprogesterone-levels
#1
V Shobi Anandi, Bhattacharyya Shaila
BACKGROUND: Measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) in dried blood spots has been widely used as a newborn screening tool for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Various maternal and neonatal factors can result in falsely high values of 17-OHP. There is a paucity of Indian studies in this regard because routine evaluation of newborn 17-OHP levels as a screening program is not widely practiced in India. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of various maternal and neonatal factors on newborn 17-OHP levels...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474599/multi-feature-classifiers-for-burst-detection-in-single-eeg-channels-from-preterm-infants
#2
Xavier Navarro, Fabienne Poree, Mathieu Kuchenbuch, Mario Chavez, Alain Beuchée, Guy Carrault
<i>Objective</i>: The study of electroencephalographic (EEG) bursts in preterm infants provides valuable information about maturation or prognostication after perinatal asphyxia. Over the last two decades, a number of works proposed algorithms to automatically detect EEG bursts in preterm infants, but they were designed for populations under 35 weeks of post menstrual age (PMA). However, as the brain activity evolves rapidly during postnatal life, these solutions might be under-performing with increasing PMA...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443558/towards-evidence-based-resuscitation-of-the-newborn-infant
#3
REVIEW
Brett J Manley, Louise S Owen, Stuart B Hooper, Susan E Jacobs, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Lex W Doyle, Peter G Davis
Effective resuscitation of the newborn infant has the potential to save many lives around the world and reduce disabilities in children who survive peripartum asphyxia. In this Series paper, we highlight some of the important advances in the understanding of how best to resuscitate newborn infants, which includes monitoring techniques to guide resuscitative efforts, increasing awareness of the adverse effects of hyperoxia, delayed umbilical cord clamping, the avoidance of routine endotracheal intubation for extremely preterm infants, and therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy...
April 22, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435017/association-of-paraoxonase-1-and-oxidative-stress-with-acute-kidney-injury-in-premature-asphyxiated-neonates
#4
Jasmina Ivanišević, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Aleksandra Stefanović, Milica Miljković, Zorana Jelić-Ivanović, Biljana Pejović, Amira Peco-Antić
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a decrease in glomerular filtration rate with an increase in serum creatinine (sCr). Perinatal asphyxia (PNA) may be etiological factor for AKI with oxidative stress also implicated. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity has been reported to be decreased in renal disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and oxidative stress during the first hours and first days of life and to determine if these parameters could discriminate neonates having AKI from those who do not...
April 20, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413463/diagnostic-value-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-for-renal-injury-in-asphyxiated-preterm-infants
#5
Yu'E Song, Shuzhen Sun, Yonghui Yu, Gang Li, Jia Song, Hong Zhang, Chunmei Yan
The aim of the present study was to analyze the diagnostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in renal injury in asphyxiated preterm infants. In total, 48 cases of asphyxiated preterm infants, 45 cases of premature infants and 45 cases of normal newborn infants were included in the study. Using ELISA we evaluated the level of urine NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), cystatin C (Cys-C) and serum creatinine (Scr). We also calculated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402972/eeg-a-valuable-biomarker-of-brain-injury-in-preterm-infants
#6
Elena Pavlidis, Rhodri O Lloyd, Geraldine B Boylan
This review focuses on the role of electroencephalography (EEG) in monitoring abnormalities of preterm brain function. EEG features of the most common developmental brain injuries in preterm infants, including intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and perinatal asphyxia, are described. We outline the most common EEG biomarkers associated with these injuries, namely seizures, positive rolandic sharp waves, EEG suppression/increased interburst intervals, mechanical delta brush activity, and other deformed EEG waveforms, asymmetries, and asynchronies...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395175/oxygen-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-perinatal-period
#7
REVIEW
Isabel Torres-Cuevas, Anna Parra-Llorca, Angel Sánchez-Illana, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, Julia Kuligowski, Consuelo Cháfer-Pericás, María Cernada, Justo Escobar, Máximo Vento
Fetal life evolves in a hypoxic environment. Changes in the oxygen content in utero caused by conditions such as pre-eclampsia or type I diabetes or by oxygen supplementation to the mother lead to increased free radical production and correlate with perinatal outcomes. In the fetal-to-neonatal transition asphyxia is characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxia ischemia that may evolve to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with neurocognitive, motor, and neurosensorial impairment. Free radicals generated upon reoxygenation may notably increase brain damage...
March 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392287/blocked-delayed-or-obstructed-what-causes-poor-white-matter-development-in-intrauterine-growth-restricted-infants
#8
REVIEW
Mary Tolcos, Steven Petratos, Jonathan J Hirst, Flora Wong, Sarah J Spencer, Aminath Azhan, Ben Emery, David W Walker
Poor white matter development in intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) babies remains a major, untreated problem in neonatology. New therapies, guided by an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie normal and abnormal oligodendrocyte development and myelin formation, are required. Much of our knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie impaired myelination come from studies in adult demyelinating disease, preterm brain injury, or experimental models of hypoxia-ischemia. However relatively less is known for IUGR which is surprising because IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity, second only to premature birth...
April 6, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387144/antenatal-dexamethasone-before-asphyxia-promotes-cystic-neural-injury-in-preterm-fetal-sheep-by-inducing-hyperglycemia
#9
Christopher A Lear, Joanne O Davidson, Georgia R Mackay, Paul P Drury, Robert Galinsky, Josine S Quaedackers, Alistair J Gunn, Laura Bennet
Antenatal glucocorticoid therapy significantly improves the short-term systemic outcomes of prematurely born infants, but there is limited information available on their impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes in at-risk preterm babies exposed to perinatal asphyxia. Preterm fetal sheep (0.7 of gestation) were exposed to a maternal injection of 12 mg dexamethasone or saline followed 4 h later by asphyxia induced by 25 min of complete umbilical cord occlusion. In a subsequent study, fetuses received titrated glucose infusions followed 4 h later by asphyxia to examine the hypothesis that hyperglycemia mediated the effects of dexamethasone...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370230/interventions-to-reduce-neonatal-mortality-a-mathematical-model-to-evaluate-impact-of-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Jennifer B Griffin, Elizabeth M McClure, Beena D Kamath-Rayne, Bonnie M Hepler, Doris J Rouse, Alan H Jobe, Robert L Goldenberg
AIM: To determine which interventions would have the greatest impact on reducing neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa in 2012. METHODS: We used MANDATE, a mathematical model, to evaluate scenarios for the impact of available interventions on neonatal deaths from primary causes, including: (i) for birth asphyxia - obstetric care preventing intrapartum asphyxia, newborn resuscitation and treatment of asphyxiated infants; (ii) for preterm birth - corticosteroids, oxygen, continuous positive air pressure and surfactant; and, (iii) for serious newborn infection - clean delivery, chlorhexidine cord care and antibiotics...
March 31, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330965/greater-sympathoadrenal-activation-with-longer-pre-ventilation-intervals-after-immediate-cord-clamping-increases-hemodynamic-lability-at-birth-in-preterm-lambs
#11
Joseph J Smolich, Kelly R Kenna, Murray David Esler, Sarah E Phillips, Gavin W Lambert
This study tested the hypothesis that varying degrees of hemodynamic fluctuations seen after birth following immediate cord clamping were related to development of asphyxia with longer cord clamp-to-ventilation intervals, resulting in higher perinatal circulating levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi), and thus increased heart rate, blood pressures and cardiac contractility after birth. Anesthetized preterm fetal lambs were instrumented with 1) aortic (AoT) and pulmonary trunk (PT) micromanometers to obtain pressures and the maximal rate of pressure rise (dP/dtmax) as a surrogate measure of ventricular contractility, and 2) an AoT catheter to obtain samples for blood gas and catecholamine analyses...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326198/could-perinatal-asphyxia-induce-a-synaptopathy-new-highlights-from-an-experimental-model
#12
REVIEW
María Inés Herrera, Matilde Otero-Losada, Lucas Daniel Udovin, Carlos Kusnier, Rodolfo Kölliker-Frers, Wanderley de Souza, Francisco Capani
Birth asphyxia also termed perinatal asphyxia is an obstetric complication that strongly affects brain structure and function. Central nervous system is highly susceptible to oxidative damage caused by perinatal asphyxia while activation and maturity of the proper pathways are relevant to avoiding abnormal neural development. Perinatal asphyxia is associated with high morbimortality in term and preterm neonates. Although several studies have demonstrated a variety of biochemical and molecular pathways involved in perinatal asphyxia physiopathology, little is known about the synaptic alterations induced by perinatal asphyxia...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302208/-diagnostic-values-of-prealbumin-and-retinol-binding-protein-for-liver-damage-caused-by-different-degrees-of-neonatal-asphyxia
#13
Yun-Su Zou, Yan Guo, Rui Cheng, Xiao-Guang Zhou, Zhao-Lan Cao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic values of prealbumin (PAB) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) for liver damage caused by mild or severe asphyxia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 185 neonates (including 84 premature infants and 101 full-term infants) with asphyxia. Based on the Apgar score, they were divided into two groups: mild asphyxia group (n=150) and severe asphyxia group (n=35). The levels of PAB, RBP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured and compared...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300820/children-born-at-32-to-35-weeks-with-birth-asphyxia-and-later-cerebral-palsy-are-different-from-those-born-after-35-weeks
#14
J Garfinkle, P Wintermark, M I Shevell, M Oskoui
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to (1) establish the proportion of cerebral palsy (CP) that occurs with a history suggestive of birth asphyxia in children born at 32 to 35 weeks and (2) evaluate their characteristics in comparison with children with CP born at ⩾36 weeks with such a history. STUDY DESIGN: Using the Canadian CP Registry, children born at 32 to 35 weeks of gestation with CP with a history suggestive of birth asphyxia were compared with corresponding ⩾36 weeks of gestation children...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267854/association-between-maternal-body-mass-index-in-early-pregnancy-and-incidence-of-cerebral-palsy
#15
Eduardo Villamor, Kristina Tedroff, Mark Peterson, Stefan Johansson, Martin Neovius, Gunnar Petersson, Sven Cnattingius
Importance: Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of preterm delivery, asphyxia-related neonatal complications, and congenital malformations, which in turn are associated with increased risks of cerebral palsy. It is uncertain whether risk of cerebral palsy in offspring increases with maternal overweight and obesity severity and what could be possible mechanisms. Objective: To study the associations between early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and rates of cerebral palsy by gestational age and to identify potential mediators of these associations...
March 7, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263524/foetal-asphyxia-as-a-strong-stimulator-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-in-the-brain-case-report
#16
Ingrid Brucknerová, Eduard Ujházy
The aim of the study was to analyse case report of prenatally unknown asphyxia of the foetus (a preterm newborn from the second pregnancy delivered by urgent caesarean section in 31st gestational week; birth weight 850 grams, birth length 41 cm, value of Apgar score 7/8) with signs of respiratory insufficiency immediately after birth with hypotonicity. The authors present the case of postnatal at the 1st day of life assessed cystic malformation in the brain of premature newborn. They emphasize the importance of detailed prenatal investigation as most important in preventing prenatal asphyxia and consequent complications...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260850/the-role-of-serum-apelin-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#17
Yasser F Ali, Salah El-Morshedy, Abdulbasit Abdulhalim Imam, Nasser Ismai A Abdelrahman, Riad M Elsayed, Usama M Alkholy, Nermin Abdalmonem, Mohammed M Shehab
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of serum apelin as a diagnostic tool in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight preterm infants (60% male) with gestational age ranging from 30 to 36 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, KJO Hospital, Saudi Arabia with proven diagnosis of ROP were included in the study. In addition, 27 preterm infants without ROP served as controls. All newborn infants in the study were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, and fundus examination by indirect ophthalmoscope (at 4-6 weeks) as well as determination of serum apelin at birth and at 4-6 weeks of age...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238681/early-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-for-monitoring-neonates-at-high-risk-for-brain-injury
#18
Gabriel Fernando Todeschi Variane, Maurício Magalhães, Renato Gasperine, Heitor Castelo Branco Rodrigues Alves, Thiago Luiz Pereira Donoso Scoppetta, Rodrigo de Jesus Gonçalves Figueredo, Francisco Paulo Martins Rodrigues, Alexandre Netto, Marcelo Jenne Mimica, Clery Bernardi Gallacci
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to correlate amplitude-integrated electroencephalography findings with early outcomes, measured by mortality and neuroimaging findings, in a prospective cohort of infants at high risk for brain injury in this center in Brazil. METHODS: This blinded prospective cohort study evaluated 23 preterm infants below 31 weeks of gestational age and 17 infants diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy secondary to perinatal asphyxia, with gestational age greater than 36 weeks, monitored with amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in a public tertiary center from February 2014 to January 2015...
February 23, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237510/retrospective-evaluation-of-a-national-guideline-to-prevent-neonatal-hypoglycemia
#19
Annett Helleskov Rasmussen, Sonja Wehberg, Jesper Fenger-Groen, Henrik Thybo Christesen
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is common in neonates and may cause adverse neurological outcomes. Guidelines should aim to prevent repeated hypoglycemic episodes in risk groups, but they are not usually stratified according to the severity of hypoglycemia risk, which may lead to inappropriate and redundant interventions. We evaluated the effect of a national prevention guideline stratified according to mild, moderate, and severe risks of hypoglycemia. METHODS: From national registers, a population cohort of 22,725 neonates was identified retrospectively before and after implementation of a national guideline...
January 24, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222717/causes-of-death-in-very-preterm-infants-cared-for-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units-a-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Tim Schindler, Louise Koller-Smith, Kei Lui, Barbara Bajuk, Srinivas Bolisetty
BACKGROUND: While there are good data to describe changing trends in mortality and morbidity rates for preterm populations, there is very little information on the specific causes and pattern of death in terms of age of vulnerability. It is well established that mortality increases with decreasing gestational age but there are limited data on the specific causes that account for this increased mortality. The aim of this study was to establish the common causes of hospital mortality in a regional preterm population admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
February 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
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