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Preterm asphyxia

Sylvie Chokron, Gordon N Dutton
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) has become the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in children in industrialized countries. Its prevalence has increased sharply, due to increased survival rates of children who sustain severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. Improved diagnosis has probably contributed to this increase. As in adults, the nature and severity of CVI in children relate to the cause, location and extent of damage to the brain. In the present paper, we define CVI and how this impacts on visual function...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kathryn J Sharma, Tania F Esakoff, Alyson Guillet, Richard M Burwick, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adverse outcomes were more common in late preterm pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and growth restriction compared to those affected by preeclampsia alone. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 8,927 singleton pregnancies with preeclampsia. Pregnancies with small for gestational age (SGA) neonates (birthweight <10(th) percentile) were compared to those appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates. Maternal outcomes included cesarean delivery (CD) rate, CD for fetal heart rate (FHR) abnormalities, abruption, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), maternal transfusion, acute renal failure, and peripartum cardiomyopathy...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Guang-Fu Chen, Hui-Tao Li, Jin-Jie Huang, Zhang-Xing Wang, Yun Li, Chuan-Zhong Yang, Ben-Qing Wu, Wen-Lan Liu, Li-Hui Liu, Qi Kong, Rong-Tian Liu
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in serum and brain injury in preterm infants. METHODS: Three hundred and four preterm infants (gestational age: 28-34 weeks) born between October 2014 and September 2015 were enrolled in this study. Brain injury was diagnosed using cerebral ultrasound and MRI. The levels of EPO, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and myelin basic protein (MBP) in serum were detected using ELISA...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
M Ahlberg, C Elvander, S Johansson, S Cnattingius, O Stephansson
AIM: This study compared obstetric units practicing routine or selective umbilical cord blood gas analysis, with respect to the risk of missing samples in high-risk deliveries and in infants with birth asphyxia. METHODS: This was a Swedish population-based cohort study that used register data for 155 235 deliveries of live singleton infants between 2008 and 2014. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate the association between routine and selective umbilical cord blood gas sampling strategies and the risk of missing samples...
September 30, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Vinay Vamadev Kulkarni, Sourabh Dutta, Venkataseshan Sundaram, Shiv Sajan Saini
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether preterm thrombocytopenia within 24 hours of birth is associated with delayed closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and higher proportion of hemodynamically significant PDA (Hs-PDA). METHODS: Neonates (gestation 26(0/7)-33(6/7) weeks, age <24 hours) with known platelet count and PDA on echocardiogram were prospectively enrolled. Asphyxia, congenital infections, structural heart disease, major malformations and clinical sepsis were exclusions...
September 28, 2016: Pediatrics
Marina Colella, Valérie Biran, Olivier Baud
Brain injury related to preterm birth and neonatal asphyxia is a leading cause of childhood neuromotor and cognitive disabilities. Unfortunately, the strategies to prevent perinatal brain damages remain limited. Among the candidate molecules, melatonin appears to be one of the most promising agents for its antioxidant and neuromodulatory action. Robust preclinical evidences and few clinical studies have suggested a neuroprotective benefit conferred by neonatal exposure to melatonin. This review recapitulates current basic research, safety and pharmacokinetic data and ongoing clinical trials on the use of melatonin as a neuroprotective agent in the newborn...
September 9, 2016: Early Human Development
Suada Heljic, Sajra Uzicanin, Feriha Catibusic, Smail Zubcevic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze prognostic indicators for mortality in neonates with seizures in a level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 100 neonates with clinically manifested seizures hospitalized in the NICU during 4 years period was prospectively monitored for the first year of life. The cohort consisted of 33 preterm and 67 full-term babies with 60 male and 40 female infants. RESULTS: The mortality rate in the first year of life of infants with seizures in the neonatal period was 23%...
June 2016: Medical Archives
Fauzia Mohsin, Shareen Khan, Md Abdul Baki, Bedowra Zabeen, Kiswhar Azad
Women with diabetes in pregnancy, either pre-gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2) or Gestational Diabetes, are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm labour and increased foetal mortality rate. Adequate glycaemic control before and during pregnancy is crucial for improving foetal and perinatal outcomes in these babies. Perinatal and neonatal morbidities and mortality rates have declined since the development of specialized maternal, foetal, and neonatal care for women with diabetes and their offspring...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Fauzia Mohsin, Shareen Khan, Md Abdul Baki, Bedowra Zabeen, Kiswhar Azad
Women with diabetes in pregnancy, either pre-gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2) or Gestational Diabetes, are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm labour and increased foetal mortality rate. Adequate glycaemic control before and during pregnancy is crucial for improving foetal and perinatal outcomes in these babies. Perinatal and neonatal morbidities and mortality rates have declined since the development of specialized maternal, foetal, and neonatal care for women with diabetes and their offspring...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Qi Lu, Shupeng Cheng, Min Zhou, Jialin Yu
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates is devastating, and risk-factor identification is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for NEC in different gestational age (GA) groups. METHODS: Risk factors associated with NEC were investigated using a retrospective case-control design. Patients with Bell's Stage NEC≥II were divided into three groups based on GA: I, <34 weeks; II, ≥34 weeks but <37 weeks; III, ≥37 weeks. Each case was paired with two GA- and weight-matched controls...
June 22, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Sindhu K Srinivas, Dylan S Small, Michelle Macheras, Jesse Y Hsu, Donna Caldwell, Scott Lorch
BACKGROUND: The laborist model of obstetric care represents a change in care delivery with the potential of improving maternal and neonatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of the laborist model of care compared to the traditional model of obstetric care using specific maternal and neonatal outcome measures. STUDY DESIGN: This is a population cohort study with laborist and non-laborist hospitals matched 1:2 on delivery volume, geography, teaching status and NICU level using data from the National Perinatal Information Center/Quality Analytic Services (NPIC/QAS) database...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Abbot R Laptook
Birth asphyxia, also termed perinatal hypoxia-ischemia, is a modifiable condition as evidenced by improved outcomes of infants ≥36 weeks' gestation provided hypothermia treatment in randomized trials. Preterm animal models of asphyxia in utero demonstrate that hypothermia can provide short-term neuroprotection for the developing brain, supporting the interest in extending therapeutic hypothermia to preterm infants. This review focuses on the challenge of identifying preterm infants with perinatal asphyxia; the neuropathology of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury across extreme, moderate, and late preterm infants; and patterns of brain injury, use of therapeutic hypothermia, and approach to patient selection for neuroprotective treatments among preterm infants...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Robert L Goldenberg, Margo S Harrison, Elizabeth M McClure
Stillbirths are among the most common pregnancy-related adverse outcomes but are more common in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. In high-income countries, most stillbirths occur early in the preterm period, whereas in low-income and middle-income countries, most occur in term or in late preterm births. In low-income and middle-income countries, conditions, such as prolonged or obstructed labor, placental abruption, preeclampsia/eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, fetal distress, breech and other abnormal presentations, and multiple births, are associated with stillbirth...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Merlin Pinto, Anne Lee Solevåg, Megan OʼReilly, Khalid Aziz, Po-Yin Cheung, Georg M Schmölzer
AIM: Guidelines for newborn resuscitation state that if the heart rate does not increase despite adequate ventilation and chest compressions, adrenaline administration should be considered. However, controversy exists around the safety and effectiveness of adrenaline in newborn resuscitation. The aim of this review was to summarise a selection of the current knowledge about adrenaline during resuscitation and evaluate its relevance to newborn infants. METHODS: A search in PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar until September 1, 2015, using search terms including adrenaline/epinephrine, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, death, severe brain injury, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and adrenaline versus vasopressin/placebo...
August 13, 2016: Neonatology
Jeddú Cruz-Hernández, Pilar Hernández-García, Jacinto Lang-Prieto, Marelys Yanes-Quesada, Ileydis Iglesias-Marichal, Antonio Márquez-Guillén
Gestational diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder affecting pregnant women and its prevalence is on the rise. Prevalence in Cuba is about 5.8%, and global prevalence ranges from 2% to 18% depending on the criteria applied. Gestational diabetes can lead to adverse gestational outcomes, such as fetal death, preterm delivery, dystocia, perinatal asphyxia and neonatal complications. Prompt, accurate diagnosis allowing early treatment can benefit both mother and child. The disease is asymptomatic, so clinical laboratory testing plays a key role in its screening and diagnosis...
July 2016: MEDICC Review
Margrete Larsen Burns, Hans Jørgen Stensvold, Kari Risnes, Hans Jørgen Guthe, Henriette Astrup, S Marianne Nordhov, Terje Reidar Selberg, Arild Rønnestad, Astri Maria Lang
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of inotropic drugs and the characteristics of neonates receiving such treatment in a national cohort of patients admitted to neonatal ICUs in Norway. DESIGN: A national registry study of patients included in the Norwegian Neonatal Network database 2009-2014. Demographic and treatment data, including the use of inotropic drugs (dopamine, dobutamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, milrinone, and levosimendan) and outcomes, were retrieved and analyzed...
October 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Joanna H Tu, Jochen Profit, Kathryn Melsop, Taylor Brown, Alexis Davis, Elliot Main, Henry C Lee
Objective The objective of this study was to assess utilization of specialist coverage and checklists in perinatal settings and to examine utilization by birth asphyxia rates. Design This is a survey study of California maternity hospitals concerning checklist use to prepare for delivery room resuscitation and 24-hour in-house specialist coverage (pediatrician/neonatologist, obstetrician, and obstetric anesthesiologist) and results linked to hospital birth asphyxia rates (preterm and low weight births were excluded)...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Larisa Stanislawczuk, Аntonina Dnistrianska
UNLABELLED: Objective of research was to study features of ontogenesis and feeding in the first months of life in children with laryngotracheitis (LT), recurrent laryngotracheitis (RLT) and asthma. METHODS: Questionnaire-based survey was performed to collect data on anamnesis of 1004 children aged 6-14 years (575 children with a history of LT, 60 children with asthma, and 369 children of control group) pertaining to preeclampsia in mothers, history of birth asphyxia, preterm birth and feeding during the first months of life in children...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Robel Yirgu, Mitike Molla, Lynn Sibley, Abebe Gebremariam
INTRODUCTION: In Ethiopia, even if a significant reduction in child mortality is recorded recently, perinatal mortality rate is still very high. This study assessed the magnitude, determinants and causes of perinatal death in West Gojam zone, Ethiopia. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A nested case control study was conducted on 102 cases (mothers who lost their newborns for perinatal death) and 204 controls (mothers who had live infants in the same year) among a cohort of 4097 pregnant mothers in three districts of the West Gojam zone, from Feb 2011 to Mar 2012...
2016: PloS One
Thorsten Braun, Alexander Weichert, Hannah C Gil, Deborah M Sloboda, Boris Tutschek, Thomas Harder, Joachim W Dudenhausen, Andreas Plagemann, Wolfgang Henrich
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of betamethasone on fetal growth and neonatal outcomes in twins. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of twins delivered at one center in Berlin, Germany, between 1993 and 2011. The betamethasone group included twin pregnancies with preterm labor, cervical shortening, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or vaginal bleeding, and exposure to betamethasone between 23(+5) and 33(+6) weeks. The control group included twin pregnancies with no betamethasone exposure matched for length at delivery...
September 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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