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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228416/dental-health-in-patients-affected-by-alcohol-use-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
P F Manicone, C Tarli, A Mirijello, L Raffaelli, G A Vassallo, M Antonelli, M M Rando, C Mosoni, A Cossari, L Lavorgna, F Caputo, A D'Addona, A Gasbarrini, G Addolorato
OBJECTIVE: Chronic alcohol abuse represents a risk factor for oral diseases, in particular, oral cancer. Periodontal disease has been showed to be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and liver steatosis. The role of chronic alcohol consumption on periodontitis is still controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol abuse on oral health. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three alcohol use disorders (AUD) patients and twenty-three healthy social drinkers underwent an oral examination by trained oral clinicians in order to evaluate oral and dental health...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214926/aerobic-training-performed-at-ventilatory-threshold-improves-liver-enzymes-and-lipid-profile-related-to-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#2
Camila Tc de Lira, Marcos Am Dos Santos, Priscyla P Gomes, Yara L Fidelix, Ana Co Dos Santos, Thiago Rs Tenório, Mara C Lofrano-Prado, Wagner L do Prado
BACKGROUND: Despite the positive effects of high-intensity training on weight management and health-related outcomes, it is postulated that high-intensity training may also induce oxidative stress, increasing hepatic damage. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low versus high-intensity training on biomarkers related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: For this study 107 adolescents (15 ± 1 years) with obesity (BMI = 34...
December 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203714/exercise-heat-shock-proteins-and-insulin-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Ashley E Archer, Alex T Von Schulze, Paige C Geiger
Best known as chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSPs) also have roles in cell signalling and regulation of metabolism. Rodent studies demonstrate that heat treatment, transgenic overexpression and pharmacological induction of HSP72 prevent high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Overexpression of skeletal muscle HSP72 in mice has been shown to increase endurance running capacity nearly twofold and increase mitochondrial content by 50%. A positive correlation between HSP72 mRNA expression and mitochondrial enzyme activity has been observed in human skeletal muscle, and HSP72 expression is markedly decreased in skeletal muscle of insulin resistant and type 2 diabetic patients...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202557/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-lifestyle-modifications-focusing-on-physical-activity
#4
Min-Sun Kwak, Donghee Kim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis is increasing as the population with NAFLD ages. To date, lifestyle modifications including weight loss, increased physical activity, and dietary changes remain the treatment of choice for NAFLD because there are no approved effective pharmacologic agents. Increased physical activity has therapeutic effects on NAFLD by reducing hepatic fat independent of weight reduction...
December 6, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198562/disease-burden-and-costs-from-excess-alcohol-consumption-obesity-and-viral-hepatitis-fourth-report-of-the-lancet-standing-commission-on-liver-disease-in-the-uk
#5
REVIEW
Roger Williams, Graeme Alexander, Iain Armstrong, Alastair Baker, Neeraj Bhala, Ginny Camps-Walsh, Matthew E Cramp, Simon de Lusignan, Natalie Day, Anil Dhawan, John Dillon, Colin Drummond, Jessica Dyson, Graham Foster, Ian Gilmore, Mark Hudson, Deirdre Kelly, Andrew Langford, Neil McDougall, Petra Meier, Kieran Moriarty, Philip Newsome, John O'Grady, Rachel Pryke, Liz Rolfe, Peter Rice, Harry Rutter, Nick Sheron, Alison Taylor, Jeremy Thompson, Douglas Thorburn, Julia Verne, John Wass, Andrew Yeoman
This report contains new and follow-up metric data relating to the eight main recommendations of the Lancet Standing Commission on Liver Disease in the UK, which aim to reduce the unacceptable harmful consequences of excess alcohol consumption, obesity, and viral hepatitis. For alcohol, we provide data on alcohol dependence, damage to families, and the documented increase in alcohol consumption since removal of the above-inflation alcohol duty escalator. Alcoholic liver disease will shortly overtake ischaemic heart disease with regard to years of working life lost...
November 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195957/effect-of-a-commercial-tannin-on-the-sensorial-temporality-of-astringency
#6
M Medel-Marabolí, J L Romero, E Obreque-Slier, A Contreras, A Peña-Neira
Astringency is a tactile sensation that is generated by a reduction in lubrication in the oral cavity and is generally attributed to the interaction of procyanidins or condensed tannins with salivary proteins. Several factors influence tannin-protein interactions, such as pH, alcohol, sweetness, oxygen and polyphenol content. A scarcely studied factor is the effect of the tannin content on the perception of astringency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of commercial oenological tannin (COT) on the timing of the perception of astringency...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195680/communication-of-alcohol-and-smoking-lifestyle-advice-to-the-gastroenterological-patient
#7
REVIEW
Andrew D Spence, Mais Khasawneh, Patrick B Allen, Jennifer Addley
Effective communication between healthcare staff and patients is central to development of the patient-professional relationship. Many barriers influence this communication, often resulting in patients' lack of understanding and retention of information, particularly affecting advice regarding lifestyle habits, such as alcohol consumption and smoking. Alcohol and smoking misuse are potentially modifiable risk factors known to adversely affect a variety of gastroenterological conditions and improvements in communication with patients regarding this is an important management component...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195591/variability-in-motivational-interviewing-adherence-across-sessions-providers-sites-and-research-contexts
#8
Kevin A Hallgren, Aaron Dembe, Brian T Pace, Zac E Imel, Christine M Lee, David C Atkins
Providers' adherence in the delivery of behavioral interventions for substance use disorders is not fixed, but instead can vary across sessions, providers, and intervention sites. This variability can substantially impact the quality of intervention that clients receive. However, there has been limited work to systematically evaluate the extent to which substance use intervention adherence varies from session-to-session, provider-to-provider, and site-to-site. The present study quantifies the extent to which adherence to Motivational Interviewing (MI) for alcohol and drug use varies across sessions, providers, and intervention sites and compares the extent of this variability across three common MI research contexts that evaluate MI efficacy, MI effectiveness, and MI training...
January 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188013/scaling-up-primary-health-care-based-prevention-and-management-of-alcohol-use-disorder-at-the-municipal-level-in-middle-income-countries-in-latin-america-background-and-pre-protocol-for-a-three-country-quasi-experimental-study
#9
Peter Anderson, Amy O'Donnell, Eileen Kaner, Antoni Gual, Bernd Schulte, Augusto Pérez Gómez, Hein de Vries, Guillermina Natera Rey, Jürgen Rehm
Background: While primary health care (PHC)-based prevention and management of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is clinically effective and cost-effective, it remains poorly implemented in routine practice. Systematic reviews and multi-country studies have demonstrated the ability of training and support programmes to increase PHC-based screening and brief advice activity to reduce heavy drinking. However, gains have been only modest and short term at best. WHO studies have concluded that a more effective uptake could be achieved by embedding PHC activity within broader community and municipal support...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187144/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-associations-among-adolescents-in-an-urban-sri-lankan-community
#10
Shaman Rajindrajith, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, Chamilka Jayasinghe, Dulani Kottahachchi, Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Shamila T de Silva, Madunil A Niriella, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Arjuna P de Silva, H Janaka de Silva
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common problem across the world. We aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD and its associations in Sri Lankan adolescents living in an urban Sri Lankan community. METHOD: The study population consisted of the birth cohort of the year 2000, residing in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health area. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data [anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and total body fat distribution] of these adolescents were collected by trained data collectors...
November 29, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184896/formative-evaluation-on-cultural-tailoring-breathing-awareness-meditation-smartphone-apps-to-reduce-stress-and-blood-pressure
#11
John C Sieverdes, Zachary W Adams, Lynne Nemeth, Brenda Brunner-Jackson, Martina Mueller, Ashley Anderson, Sachin Patel, Luke Sox, Frank A Treiber
Background: Chronic stress is an independent risk factor for essential hypertension (EH), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and is sometimes confronted by mal-adaptive coping behaviors (e.g., stress eating, excessive alcohol consumption, etc.). Pre-essential hypertension (preEH) is the leading predictor of future EH status. Breathing awareness meditation (BAM) can result in clinically beneficial blood pressure (BP) reductions, though face-to-face sessions presents barriers to reach those in need...
2017: MHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183687/functional-role-for-cortical-striatal-circuitry-in-modulating-alcohol-self-administration
#12
Anel A Jaramillo, Patrick A Randall, Spencer Stewart, Brayden Fortino, Kalynn VanVoorhies, Joyce Besheer
The cortical-striatal brain circuitry is heavily implicated in drug-use. As such, the present study investigated the functional role of cortical-striatal circuitry in modulating alcohol self-administration. Given that a functional role for the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) in modulating alcohol-reinforced responding has been established, we sought to test the role of cortical brain regions with afferent projections to the AcbC: the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the insular cortex (IC). Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer alcohol (15% alcohol (v/v)+2% sucrose (w/v)) during 30 min sessions...
November 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183220/the-effect-of-low-volume-sprint-interval-training-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Catriona MacLean, John Dillon, John A Babraj, Niels Bj Vollaard
OBJECTIVES: Exercise is an important part of disease management in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but adherence to current exercise recommendations is poor. Novel low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) protocols with total training time commitments of ≤30 min per week have been shown to improve cardiometabolic risk and functional capacity in healthy sedentary participants, but the efficacy of such protocols in the management of NAFLD remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a low-volume SIT protocol can be used to improve liver function, insulin resistance, body composition, physical fitness, cognitive function and general well-being in patients with NAFLD...
December 1, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181814/a-high-working-memory-load-prior-to-memory-retrieval-reduces-craving-in-non-treatment-seeking-problem-drinkers
#14
Anne Marije Kaag, Anna E Goudriaan, Taco J De Vries, Tommy Pattij, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Reconsolidation-based interventions have been suggested to be a promising treatment strategy for substance use disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a working memory intervention to interfere with the reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories in a sample of non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers. METHODS: Participants were randomized to one of the two conditions that underwent a 3-day intervention: in the experimental condition, a 30-min working memory training was performed immediately after a 15-min memory retrieval session (i...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179052/using-phone-sensors-and-an-artificial-neural-network-to-detect-gait-changes-during-drinking-episodes-in-the-natural-environment
#15
Brian Suffoletto, Pedram Gharani, Tammy Chung, Hassan Karimi
BACKGROUND: Phone sensors could be useful in assessing changes in gait that occur with alcohol consumption. This study determined (1) feasibility of collecting gait-related data during drinking occasions in the natural environment, and (2) how gait-related features measured by phone sensors relate to estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC). METHODS: Ten young adult heavy drinkers were prompted to complete a 5-step gait task every hour from 8pm to 12am over four consecutive weekends...
November 22, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178339/chemical-constituents-of-sweetpotato-genotypes-in-relation-to-textural-characteristics-of-processed-french-fries
#16
Ai Sato, Van-Den Truong, Suzanne D Johanningsmeier, Rong Reynolds, Kenneth V Pecota, G Craig Yencho
Sweetpotato French fries (SPFF) are growing in popularity, however limited information is available on SPFF textural properties in relation to chemical composition. This study investigated the relationship between chemical components of different sweetpotato varieties and textural characteristics of SPFF. Sixteen sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated for (1) chemical constituents; (2) instrumental and sensory textural properties of SPFF; and (3) the relationship between chemical components, instrumental measurements, and sensory attributes...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174052/development-and-validation-of-a-partial-least-squares-discriminant-analysis-pls-da-model-based-on-the-determination-of-ethyl-glucuronide-etg-and-fatty-acid-ethyl-esters-faees-in-hair-for-the-diagnosis-of-chronic-alcohol-abuse
#17
E Alladio, L Giacomelli, G Biosa, D Di Corcia, E Gerace, A Salomone, M Vincenti
The chronic intake of an excessive amount of alcohol is currently ascertained by determining the concentration of direct alcohol metabolites in the hair samples of the alleged abusers, including ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and, less frequently, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Indirect blood biomarkers of alcohol abuse are still determined to support hair EtG results and diagnose a consequent liver impairment. In the present study, the supporting role of hair FAEEs is compared with indirect blood biomarkers with respect to the contexts in which hair EtG interpretation is uncertain...
November 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172160/the-neurocognitive-effects-of-a-conducted-electrical-weapon-compared-to-high-intensity-interval-training-and-alcohol-intoxication-implications-for-miranda-and-consent
#18
D Dawes, J Ho, A S Vincent, P Nystrom, B Driver
While the physiologic effects of conducted electrical weapons (CEW) have been the subjects of numerous studies over nearly two decades, their effects on neurocognitive functioning, both short-term and long-term, have only recently been studied. In a 2014 study involving use-of-force scenarios, including a CEW scenario, we found that there was a decline in neurocognitive performance immediately post-scenario in all groups; however this effect was transient, of questionable clinical/legal significance, not statistically different between the groups, and, returned to baseline by one hour post-scenario...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172106/characteristics-of-prospectively-identified-negative-alcohol-related-events-among-college-students
#19
Matthew K Meisel, Shannon R Kenney, Nancy P Barnett
BACKGROUND: Throughout the first two years of college, the majority of drinkers experience one or more alcohol-related consequences. Research that examines the characteristics surrounding negative consequences typically utilizes global retrospective survey methods. The objective of the current study was to apply an event-based methodology to describe the circumstances of a recent drinking episode that resulted in one or more alcohol-related consequences among first- and second-year college students...
November 14, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169372/association-between-diet-and-gallstones-of-cholesterol-and-pigment-among-patients-with-cholecystectomy-a-case-control-study-in-korea
#20
Yongsoon Park, Doyeon Kim, Ju Seon Lee, Yu Na Kim, Yoon Kyung Jeong, Kyeong Geun Lee, Dongho Choi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cholesterol gallstones is high in Western populations, while pigment gallstones are common in Asian populations. Dietary factors are suggested to be associated with gallstone risk, but their relationship with gallstone type has not been evaluated. This study investigated the association between diet and risk of cholesterol gallstone or pigment gallstone in a Korean population whose dietary pattern and type of gallstone were changed during the last 30 years...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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