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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655670/wettability-of-hands-during-15-second-and-30-second-handrub-time-intervals-a-prospective-randomized-crossover-study
#1
Helga Paula, Robert Becker, Ojan Assadian, Claus-Dieter Heidecke, Axel Kramer
OBJECTIVE: At present, the shortest recommended application time of alcoholic handrubs is an application interval of 30 seconds. However, application times shorter than 30 seconds are regularly practiced. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a 15-second application time achieves a comparable wettability of hands to a 30-second handrub application. SETTING: The wettability of 20 healthy volunteers' hands was compared after 15 seconds or 30 seconds of application time of an ultraviolet-light-active handrub, both before and after training in the application technique...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653379/enhanced-erythrocyte-antioxidant-status-following-an-8-week-aerobic-exercise-training-program-in-heavy-drinkers
#2
Kalliopi Georgakouli, Eirini Manthou, Ioannis G Fatouros, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Chariklia K Deli, Yiannis Koutedakis, Yannis Theodorakis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas
Alcohol-induced oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of various pathological conditions and diseases. On the other hand, exercise training has been shown to improve redox status, thus attenuating oxidative stress-associated disease processes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise training program that has been previously reported to decrease alcohol consumption on blood redox status in heavy drinkers. In a non-randomized within-subject design, 11 sedentary, heavily drinking men (age: 30...
December 2, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651257/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-substance-and-behavioral-addictions-a-systematic-review
#3
Marta Sancho, Marta De Gracia, Rita C Rodríguez, Núria Mallorquí-Bagué, Jéssica Sánchez-González, Joan Trujols, Isabel Sánchez, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Jose M Menchón
Background: Emotion (dys)regulation as well as the interventions for improving these difficulties are receiving a growing attention in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to conduct a systematic review about the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in both substance and behavioral addictions (BAs). Method: A literature search was conducted using Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science. Fifty-four randomized controlled trials published in English since 2009 to April 2017 were included into a narrative synthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649583/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonism-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-alcohol-self-administration-intra-bla-propranolol-impairs-reconsolidation-of-alcohol-self-administration
#4
Rose Chesworth, Laura H Corbit
A critical barrier to recovery from alcohol addiction is relapse propensity. Alcohol cues can trigger relapse, and pharmacologically facilitating processes such as extinction, which decreases cue associations, may help prevent relapse. The noradrenergic system mediates extinction learning for alcohol; however, the neural locus of this effect is unknown. This study sought to determine whether the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for fear extinction, also mediates extinction of alcohol seeking. Hooded Wistar rats (N = 12-15 per experiment) were implanted with bilateral cannula targeting the BLA and trained to lever press for 10% ethanol during auditory or visual cues...
April 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644987/preventing-and-managing-workplace-violence-against-healthcare-workers-in-emergency-departments
#5
Gabriele D'Ettorre, Vincenza Pellicani, Mauro Mazzotta, Annamaria Vullo
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Healthcare workers (HCWs) employed in Emergency Departments (EDs) frequently face with patients becoming violent because of long wait or diseases or under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Globally, workplace violence (WPV) in EDs is a major challenge to safety for HCWs, involving significant consequences to the victims, patients, and healthcare organizations. We reviewed the current literature with the aim to explore the topics focused on and to detect new evidences about approaching the issue of WPV toward HCWs in EDs...
February 21, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628018/barriers-and-facilitators-affecting-the-implementation-of-substance-use-screening-in-primary-care-clinics-a-qualitative-study-of-patients-providers-and-staff
#6
Jennifer McNeely, Pritika C Kumar, Traci Rieckmann, Erica Sedlander, Sarah Farkas, Christine Chollak, Joseph L Kannry, Aida Vega, Eva A Waite, Lauren A Peccoralo, Richard N Rosenthal, Dennis McCarty, John Rotrosen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality that frequently go unidentified in medical settings. As part of a multi-phase study to implement electronic health record-integrated substance use screening in primary care clinics, we interviewed key clinical stakeholders to identify current substance use screening practices, barriers to screening, and recommendations for its implementation. METHODS: Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 67 stakeholders, including patients, primary care providers (faculty and resident physicians), nurses, and medical assistants, in two urban academic health systems...
April 9, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609850/effect-of-a-training-programme-on-blood-culture-contamination-rate-in-critical-care
#7
M M Sánchez-Sánchez, S Arias-Rivera, P Fraile-Gamo, R Jareño-Collado, S López-Román, P Vadillo-Obesso, S García-González, M T Pulido-Martos, E I Sánchez-Muñoz, J Cacho-Calvo, A Martín-Pellicer, L Panadero-Del Olmo, F Frutos-Vivar
Blood culture contamination can occur from extraction to processing; its rate should not exceed 3%. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a training programme on the rate of contaminated blood cultures after the implementation of sample extraction recommendations based on the best evidence. METHOD: Prospective before-after study in a polyvalent intensive care unit with 18 beds. Two phases were established (January-June 2012, October 2012-October 2015) with a training period between them...
March 30, 2018: Enfermería Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606711/assessing-mental-health-first-aid-skills-using-simulated-patients
#8
Sarira El-Den, Timothy F Chen, Rebekah J Moles, Claire O'Reilly
Objective. To evaluate mental health first aid (MHFA) skills using simulated patients and to compare self-reported confidence in providing MHFA with performance during simulated patient roleplays. Methods. Pharmacy students self-evaluated their confidence in providing MHFA post-training. Two mental health vignettes and an assessment rubric based on the MHFA Action Plan were developed to assess students' observed MHFA skills during audio-recorded simulated patient roleplays. Results. There were 163 students who completed the MHFA training, of which 88% completed self-evaluations...
March 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604365/effects-of-ceftriaxone-on-hydrocodone-seeking-behavior-and-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-p-rats
#9
Fahad S Alshehri, Alqassem Y Hakami, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Hydrocodone (HYD) is one of the most widely prescribed opioid analgesic drugs. Several neurotransmitters are involved in opioids relapse. Among these neurotransmitters, glutamate is suggested to be involved in opioid dependence and relapse. Glutamate is regulated by several glutamate transporters, including glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT). In this study, we investigated the effects of ceftriaxone (CEF) (200 mg/kg, i.p.), known to upregulate GLT-1 and xCT, on reinstatement to HYD (5 mg/kg, i...
March 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602689/benefits-of-caseload-midwifery-to-prevent-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-discussion-paper
#10
Natasha Reid, Jenny Gamble, Debra K Creedy, Amy Finlay-Jones
BACKGROUND: Exposure to alcohol prenatally can result in a child being diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Affected infants experience lifelong impairments that can involve, physical, cognitive, behavioural and emotional difficulties that impact on their functional capacity. Effective prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is critically needed in Australia. Reduction in the prevalence of this disorder will only be possible if we prevent alcohol consumption during pregnancy...
March 27, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602178/ethanol-exposure-history-and-alcoholic-reward-differentially-alter-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-to-a-reward-predictive-cue
#11
Amanda M Fiorenza, Tatiana A Shnitko, Kaitlin M Sullivan, Sudheer R Vemuru, Alexander Gomez-A, Julie Y Esaki, Charlotte A Boettiger, Claudio Da Cunha, Donita L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Conditioned stimuli (CS) that predict reward delivery acquire the ability to induce phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. This dopamine release may facilitate conditioned approach behavior, which often manifests as approach to the site of reward delivery (called 'goal-tracking') or to the CS itself (called 'sign-tracking'). Previous research has linked sign-tracking in particular to impulsivity and drug self-administration, and addictive drugs may promote the expression of sign-tracking...
March 30, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595402/implementing-single-item-screening-for-drug-use-in-a-veterans-health-administration-outpatient-setting
#12
Dominic Hodgkin, Wenwu Gao, Elizabeth L Merrick, Charles E Drebing, Mary Jo Larson, Constance M Horgan, Monica Sharma, Nancy M Petry, Richard Saitz
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy drug use is a concern in many settings, including military and veteran populations. In 2013, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical center in Bedford, Massachusetts, started requiring routine screening for unhealthy drug use in outpatient primary care and mental health settings, using a validated single question. METHODS: This study used descriptive and multivariable analyses of VHA electronic records for patients eligible for the screening program (N = 16,118)...
March 29, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593021/lifestyle-advice-to-cancer-survivors-a-qualitative-study-on-the-perspectives-of-health-professionals
#13
Dimitrios A Koutoukidis, Sonia Lopes, Abigail Fisher, Kate Williams, Helen Croker, Rebecca J Beeken
OBJECTIVES: Adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviours has shown promising effectiveness in reducing the high morbidity burden of cancer survivors. Health professionals (HPs) are well suited to provide lifestyle advice but few survivors report receiving guidance from them. This study aimed to explore HPs' perspective of lifestyle advice (on healthy eating, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol) for cancer survivors. DESIGN: In-depth semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted by telephone or face to face...
March 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590725/nutritional-issues-and-nutrition-support-in-older-home-care-patients-in-the-city-of-zagreb
#14
Darija Vranešić Bender, Marta Kovačević, Miro Hanževački, Božena Vrabec, Vanesa Benković, Viktor Domislović, Željko Krznarić
Population aging is a global demographic trend showing continuous growth and among its consequences is a rise in malnutrition that is characteristic for the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional status of elderly home care patients immediately after hospital discharge and to determine factors that affect nutritional status using questionnaires based on validated tools (NRS-2002, DETERMINE checklist) and basic medical history data. The study involved 76 elderly individuals (51.3% of them older than 70) living in the City of Zagreb...
December 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584485/evaluation-of-a-combination-of-community-initiatives-to-reduce-driving-while-intoxicated-and-other-alcohol-related-harms
#15
James C Fell, Erin Tanenbaum, Devi Chelluri
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the community of Redlands, California, created an initiative using evidence-based strategies to deter driving under the influence (DUI), underage drinking and driving, public intoxication, and alcohol-related calls for service. The initiative, called "Responsible Redlands," included adopting a social host and a deemed approved local ordinance, using minor-decoy and shoulder-tap operations, increasing sobriety checkpoints and saturation patrols, conducting responsible beverage service (RBS) training, using identification (ID) scanners to spot false IDs, and a publicity campaign to urge neighbors to report loud drinking parties...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581212/study-protocol-for-a-self-controlled-cluster-randomised-trial-of-the-alert-program-to-improve-self-regulation-and-executive-function-in-australian-aboriginal-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#16
Bree Wagner, James P Fitzpatrick, Trevor G Mazzucchelli, Martyn Symons, Heather Carmichael Olson, Tracy Jirikowic, Donna Cross, Edie Wright, Emma Adams, Maureen Carter, Kaashifah Bruce, Jane Latimer
INTRODUCTION: While research highlights the benefits of early diagnosis and intervention for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), there are limited data documenting effective interventions for Australian children living in remote communities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This self-controlled cluster randomised trial is evaluating the effectiveness of an 8-week Alert Program school curriculum for improving self-regulation and executive function in children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities...
March 25, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580220/pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-trauma-focused-guided-self-help-programme-versus-individual-trauma-focused-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-rapid-trial-protocol
#17
Claire Nollett, Catrin Lewis, Neil Kitchiner, Neil Roberts, Katy Addison, Lucy Brookes-Howell, Sarah Cosgrove, Katherine Cullen, Anke Ehlers, Sarah Heke, Mark Kelson, Karina Lovell, Kim Madden, Kirsten McEwan, Rachel McNamara, Ceri Phillips, Timothy Pickles, Natalie Simon, Jonathan Bisson
BACKGROUND: There is good evidence that trauma-focused therapies for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder are effective. However, they are not always feasible to deliver due a shortage of trained therapists and demands on the patient. An online trauma-focused Guided Self-Help (GSH) programme which could overcome these barriers has shown promise in a pilot study. This study will be the first to evaluate GSH against standard face-to-face therapy to assess its suitability for use in the NHS. METHODS: The study is a large-scale multi-centre pragmatic randomised controlled non-inferiority trial, with assessors masked to treatment allocation...
March 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575369/drink-less-enjoy-more-effects-of-a-multi-component-intervention-on-improving-adherence-to-and-knowledge-of-alcohol-legislation-in-a-uk-nightlife-setting
#18
Zara Quigg, Karen Hughes, Nadia Butler, Kat Ford, Ian Canning, Mark A Bellis
AIMS: To estimate the association between implementation of a community-based multi-component intervention (Drink Less Enjoy More) and sales of alcohol to pseudo-intoxicated patrons and nightlife patron awareness of associated legislation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pre-intervention and follow-up measurements including alcohol test purchases (using pseudo-intoxicated patrons) in licensed premises (stratified random sample; 2013, 2015) and a survey with nightlife patrons (convenience sample; 2014, 2015)...
March 25, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574175/developing-process-maps-as-a-tool-for-a-surgical-infection-prevention-quality-improvement-initiative-in-resource-constrained-settings
#19
Jared A Forrester, Luca A Koritsanszky, Demisew Amenu, Alex B Haynes, William R Berry, Seifu Alemu, Fekadu Jiru, Thomas G Weiser
BACKGROUND: Surgical infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). To improve adherence to critical perioperative infection prevention standards, we developed Clean Cut, a checklist-based quality improvement program to improve compliance with best practices. We hypothesized that process mapping infection prevention activities can help clinicians identify strategies for improving surgical safety. STUDY DESIGN: We introduced Clean Cut at a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
March 21, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572104/towards-developing-a-model-to-study-alcohol-drinking-and-craving-in-female-mice-housed-in-automated-cages
#20
Maryna Koskela, T Petteri Piepponen, Jaan-Olle Andressoo, Vootele Võikar, Mikko Airavaara
It is about half a century ago when the so-called "Wise model" to study alcohol drinking behavior in rats was established. The model was based on voluntary intermittent access to increasing concentrations of alcohol. We aimed to establish a model of alcohol craving and used an extinction test on withdrawal days 1 and 10 to study motivation for alcohol. For this purpose, the alcohol drinking training was paired with light cues to establish conditioning. The extinction test was carried out without alcohol but in the presence of light cues and empty bottles...
March 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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