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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054291/neuroscience-informed-psychoeducation-for-addiction-medicine-a-neurocognitive-perspective
#1
Hamed Ekhtiari, Tara Rezapour, Robin L Aupperle, Martin P Paulus
Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050951/microinjection-of-baclofen-and-cgp7930-into-the-ventral-tegmental-area-suppresses-alcohol-self-administration-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#2
REVIEW
Paola Maccioni, Irene Lorrai, Andrea Contini, Kimberly Leite-Morris, Giancarlo Colombo
Systemic administration of the orthosteric agonist, baclofen, and several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor has repeatedly been reported to decrease operant oral alcohol self-administration in rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the mesolimbic dopamine system to the reducing effect of baclofen and GABAB PAMs on the reinforcing properties of alcohol. To this end, baclofen or the GABAB PAM CGP7930 were microinjected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats trained to self-administer alcohol...
October 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049538/3d-printed-mitral-valve-models-affordable-simulation-for-robotic-mitral-valve-repair
#3
Ned Premyodhin, Divneet Mandair, Alice S Ferng, Timothy S Leach, Ryan P Palsma, Mohammad Z Albanna, Zain I Khalpey
OBJECTIVES: 3D printed mitral valve (MV) models that capture the suture response of real tissue may be utilized as surgical training tools. Leveraging clinical imaging modalities, 3D computerized modelling and 3D printing technology to produce affordable models complements currently available virtual simulators and paves the way for patient- and pathology-specific preoperative rehearsal. METHODS: We used polyvinyl alcohol, a dissolvable thermoplastic, to 3D print moulds that were casted with liquid platinum-cure silicone yielding flexible, low-cost MV models capable of simulating valvular tissue...
July 31, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049278/illicit-drug-use-illicit-drug-use-disorders-and-drug-overdose-deaths-in-metropolitan-and-nonmetropolitan-areas-united-states
#4
Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones, Michael F Ballesteros
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. REPORTING PERIOD: Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015...
October 20, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048214/validation-of-a-full-immersion-simulation-platform-for-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-using-3d-printing-technology
#5
Ahmed Ghazi, Timothy Campbell, Rachel Melnyk, Changyong Feng, Alex Andrusco, Jonathan Stone, Erdal Erturk
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The restriction of resident hours with an increasing focus on patient safety and a reduced caseload has impacted surgical training. A complex and complication prone procedure such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with a steep learning curve may create an unsafe environment for hands-on resident training. In this study, we validate a high fidelity, inanimate PCNL model within a full immersion simulation environment. METHODS: Anatomically correct models of the human pelvicalyceal system (PCS), kidney, and relevant adjacent structures were created using poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels and 3D-printed injection molds...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046715/mental-health-training-for-primary-health-care-workers-and-implication-for-success-of-integration-of-mental-health-into-primary-care-evaluation-of-effect-on-knowledge-attitude-and-practices-kap
#6
Getinet Ayano, Dawit Assefa, Kibrom Haile, Asrat Chaka, Kelemua Haile, Melat Solomon, Kalkidan Yohannis, Akilew Awoke, Kemal Jemal
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are always remained a neglected public health problems in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), most people with mental disorders never receive effective care and there is a large treatment gap. In order to solve the problem integration of mental health into primary health care is recommended and in Ethiopia implementation of the scale of mental health services at primary health care level was started in 2014. For the success of the integration of mental health into primary health care, primary care health professionals are the key personnel who are responsible for the management of mental, neurologic and substance use disorders...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034489/modification-of-automatic-alcohol-approach-tendencies-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#7
Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029228/development-of-a-whole-task-simulator-for-carotid-endarterectomy
#8
Gabrielle Santangelo, Doran Mix, Ahmed Ghazi, Michael Stoner, G Edward Vates, Jonathan J Stone
BACKGROUND: Surgical education relies on operative exposure with live patients. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) demands an experienced surgeon with a very low complication rate. The high-risk nature of this procedure and the decline in number of CEAs performed annually has created a gap in residency training. OBJECTIVE: To develop a high-fidelity whole-task simulation for CEA that demonstrates content, construct, and face validity. METHODS: Anatomically accurate models of the human neck were created using multilayered poly-vinyl alcohol hydrogels...
September 27, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026766/hand-hygiene-knowledge-of-primary-health-care-workers-in-abha-city-south-western-saudi-arabia
#9
Ahmed A Mahfouz, Ahmed Abolyazid, Hasan M Al-Musa, Nabil J Awadallah, Aesha Faraheen, Shamsunhar Khalil, Mohammad N El-Gamal, Khalid M Al-Musa
PURPOSE: The aim of this is to find out the hand hygiene (HH) knowledge among primary health care workers (PHCWs) in Abha health district, southwestern Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Data were collected through an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on a WHO "Knowledge Questionnaire for Health Care Workers." RESULTS: The study included 478 PHCWs (239 males and 239 females). The sample included 186 physicians, 212 nurses, and 80 technicians...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021108/effects-of-a-multifaceted-implementation-intervention-to-increase-utilization-of-pharmacological-treatments-for-alcohol-use-disorders-in-the-us-veterans-health-administration
#10
Alex H S Harris, Randall Brown, Michael Dawes, Eric Dieperink, Donald Hugh Myrick, Heather Gerould, Todd H Wagner, Jennifer P Wisdom, Hildi J Hagedorn
Over 16 million Americans meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD), but only 7.8% of them receive formal treatment each year. Safe and effective pharmacological treatments for AUD exist; however, they are rarely prescribed. Therefore, we developed and pilot tested a multifaceted implementation intervention to improve consideration and receipt of effective pharmacologic treatments for AUD, focusing on primary care settings where patients have the most frequent contact with healthcare systems. The intervention included training of local providers to serve as champions and a website for primary care providers that included educational materials, a case-finding dashboard, and contact information for local and national clinical experts...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018340/impaired-spatial-memory-and-enhanced-habit-memory-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#11
Jarid Goodman, Christa K McIntyre
High levels of emotional arousal can impair spatial memory mediated by the hippocampus, and enhance stimulus-response (S-R) habit memory mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). The present study was conducted to determine whether these memory systems may be similarly affected in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a "single-prolonged stress" (SPS) procedure and 1 week later received training in one of two distinct versions of the plus-maze: a hippocampus-dependent place learning task or a DLS-dependent response learning task...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016995/ultra-brief-mindfulness-training-reduces-alcohol-consumption-in-at-risk-drinkers-a-randomized-double-blind-active-controlled-experiment
#12
Sunjeev K Kamboj, Damla Irez, Shirley Serfaty, Emily Thomas, Ravi K Das, Tom P Freeman
Background: Like other complex psychosocial interventions, mindfulness-based treatments comprise various modality-specific components as well as nonspecific therapeutic ingredients that collectively contribute to efficacy. Consequently, the isolated effects of mindfulness strategies per se remain unclear. Methods: Using a randomized double-blind design, we compared the isolated effects of 11-minutes of "supervised" mindfulness instruction against a closely matched active control (relaxation) on subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of maladaptive alcohol responding in drinkers at risk of harm from alcohol use (n = 68)...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016701/modifying-alcohol-consumption-to-reduce-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-feasibility-study-of-a-complex-community-based-intervention-for-men
#13
Linda Irvine, Iain K Crombie, Kathryn B Cunningham, Brian Williams, Falko F Sniehotta, John Norrie, Ambrose J Melson, Claire Jones, Peter Rice, Peter W Slane, Marcus Achison, Andrew McKenzie, Elena D Dimova, Sheila Allan
Objectives: Being obese and drinking more than 14 units of alcohol per week places men at very high risk of developing liver disease. This study assessed the feasibility of a trial to reduce alcohol consumption. It tested the recruitment strategy, engagement with the intervention, retention and study acceptability. Methods: Men aged 35-64 years who drank >21 units of alcohol per week and had a BMI > 30 were recruited by two methods: from GP patient registers and by community outreach...
September 18, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994361/prediction-of-drug-abuse-recurrence-a-swedish-national-study
#14
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, K Sundquist, J Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Relapse from drug abuse (DA) is common, but has rarely been studied in general population samples using a wide range of objective predictors. METHOD: Using nationwide registries, we ascertained 44 523 subjects first registered for DA between the ages of 15 and 40 in 1998 to 2004 and followed for 8 years. We predicted relapse in subjects defined as a second DA registration. We also predicted DA relapse in relative pairs concordant for DA but discordant for relapse...
October 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992377/a-single-session-of-attentional-bias-modification-reduces-alcohol-craving-and-implicit-measures-of-alcohol-bias-in-young-adult-drinkers
#15
Peter Luehring-Jones, Courtney Louis, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary, Joel Erblich
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques for reducing problematic alcohol consumption hold promise as highly-accessible and cost-effective treatment approaches. A growing body of literature has examined ABM as a potentially efficacious intervention for reducing drinking and drinking-related cognitions in alcohol-dependent individuals as well as those at-risk of developing problem drinking habits. METHODS: The present study tested the effectiveness of a single session of visual probe-based ABM training in a cohort of 60 non-treatment-seeking young adult drinkers, with a focus on examining mechanisms underlying training efficacy...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988623/stakeholder-perceptions-of-lowering-the-blood-alcohol-concentration-standard-in-the-united-states
#16
Lisa J Molnar, David W Eby, Lidia P Kostyniuk, Renée M St Louis, Nicole Zanier
PURPOSE: This study sought to better understand the past change in the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) standard from 0.10% to 0.08% in the United States, as well as explore stakeholder perceptions about potential health and other impacts of further lowering the standard below 0.08%. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 20 organizations considered to have an interest and investment in the potential impacts of strategies to decrease alcohol-impaired related crashes and injuries...
September 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988545/a-controlled-trial-of-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-for-treatment-sbirt-implementation-in-primary-care-in-the-united-arab-emirates
#17
Catriona Matheson, Christiane Pflanz-Sinclair, Amna Almarzouqi, Christine M Bond, Amanda J Lee, Anwar Batieha, H Al Ghaferi, A El Kashef
Aim This project evaluated the effectiveness of screening brief intervention and referral for treatment (SBIRT) in primary care in Abu Dhabi to manage patients with problematic substance use. This study aimed to determine whether: (i) training primary care physicians on the SBIRT model increased the identification of patients using substances at a harmful, hazardous or dependent level; (ii) training improved physicians' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in self-efficacy in managing substance use. BACKGROUND: Substance use is increasing in the United Arab Emirates yet there has been no formal primary care intervention...
October 9, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982159/prevalence-associated-factors-awareness-treatment-and-control-of-hypertension-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study-conducted-as-a-part-of-a-community-based-intervention-trial-in-surkhet-mid-western-region-of-nepal
#18
Mahesh Kumar Khanal, Raja Ram Dhungana, Pratiksha Bhandari, Yadav Gurung, K N Paudel
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the leading public health problems globally. About half of the deaths from cardiovascular diseases were attributed to hypertension in 2008. Reduction of blood pressure to normal range is one of the major challenges in preventing complications and future burden of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aims to determine prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and its associated factors in Nepal. METHODS: This was a community based cross-sectional study conducted as a part of a community based intervention trial in Birendranagar Municipality of Surkhet district located at the Mid-western region of Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978498/a-mobile-phone-based-life-skills-training-program-for-substance-use-prevention-among-adolescents-pre-post-study-on-the-acceptance-and-potential-effectiveness-of-the-program-ready4life
#19
Severin Haug, Raquel Paz Castro, Christian Meyer, Andreas Filler, Tobias Kowatsch, Michael P Schaub
BACKGROUND: Substance use and misuse often first emerge during adolescence. Generic life skills training that is typically conducted within the school curriculum is effective at preventing the onset and escalation of substance use among adolescents. However, the dissemination of such programs is impeded by their large resource requirements in terms of personnel, money, and time. Life skills training provided via mobile phones might be a more economic and scalable approach, which additionally matches the lifestyle and communication habits of adolescents...
October 4, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977388/-drinkthink-alcohol-screening-and-brief-intervention-for-young-people-a-qualitative-evaluation-of-training-and-implementation
#20
J Derges, J Kidger, F Fox, R Campbell, E Kaner, G Taylor, C McMahon, L Reeves, M Hickman
Background: Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention (ASBI) helps reduce risky drinking in adults, but less is known about its effectiveness with young people. This article explores implementation of DrinkThink, an ASBI co-produced with young people, by health, youth and social care professionals trained in its delivery. Methods: A qualitative evaluation was conducted using focus groups with 33 staff trained to deliver DrinkThink, and eight interviews with trained participants and service managers...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Public Health
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