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Translational Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646744/systematic-biobanking-novel-imaging-techniques-and-advanced-molecular-analysis-for-precise-tumor-diagnosis-and-therapy-the-polish-mobit-project
#1
Jacek Niklinski, Adam Kretowski, Marcin Moniuszko, Joanna Reszec, Anna Michalska-Falkowska, Magdalena Niemira, Michal Ciborowski, Radoslaw Charkiewicz, Dorota Jurgilewicz, Miroslaw Kozlowski, Rodryg Ramlau, Cezary Piwkowski, Miroslaw Kwasniewski, Monika Kaczmarek, Andrzej Ciereszko, Tomasz Wasniewski, Robert Mroz, Wojciech Naumnik, Ewa Sierko, Magdalena Paczkowska, Joanna Kisluk, Anetta Sulewska, Adam Cybulski, Zenon Mariak, Boguslaw Kedra, Jacek Szamatowicz, Paweł Kurzawa, Lukasz Minarowski, Angelika Edyta Charkiewicz, Barbara Mroczko, Jolanta Malyszko, Christian Manegold, Lothar Pilz, Heike Allgayer, Mohammed L Abba, Hartmut Juhl, Frauke Koch
Personalized and precision medicine is gaining recognition due to the limitations by standard diagnosis and treatment; many areas of medicine, from cancer to psychiatry, are moving towards tailored and individualized treatment for patients based on their clinical characteristics and genetic signatures as well as novel imaging techniques. Advances in whole genome sequencing have led to identification of genes involved in a variety of diseases. Moreover, biomarkers indicating severity of disease or susceptibility to treatment are increasingly being characterized...
June 21, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619856/childhood-trauma-ptsd-and-the-cautious-forensic-expert
#2
Lance Amols, Spencer Eth
For centuries, medicine and psychiatry mirrored society's equivocations regarding childhood trauma. Those conflicts have mostly resolved, with widespread agreement that children are commonly exposed to traumatic events that may lead to PTSD and other mental conditions. The psychiatric and legal arguments should no longer be about the reality of childhood trauma in general; instead, experts should focus on the methodology of translating a particular child's narrative truth of maltreatment into a historical account, so that the expert can be qualified to offer criminal or civil court testimony after examining the child...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608853/genetic-tests-in-major-psychiatric-disorders-integrating-molecular-medicine-with-clinical-psychiatry-why-is-it-so-difficult
#3
REVIEW
U Demkow, T Wolańczyk
With the advent of post-genomic era, new technologies create extraordinary possibilities for diagnostics and personalized therapy, transforming todays' medicine. Rooted in both medical genetics and clinical psychiatry, the paper is designed as an integrated source of information of the current and potential future application of emerging genomic technologies as diagnostic tools in psychiatry, moving beyond the classical concept of patient approach. Selected approaches are presented, starting from currently used technologies (next-generation sequencing (NGS) and microarrays), followed by newer options (reverse phenotyping)...
June 13, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607459/the-arf6-activator-efa6-psd3-confers-regional-specificity-and-modulates-ethanol-consumption-in-drosophila-and-humans
#4
D A Gonzalez, T Jia, J H Pinzón, S F Acevedo, S A Ojelade, B Xu, N Tay, S Desrivières, J L Hernandez, T Banaschewski, C Büchel, A L W Bokde, P J Conrod, H Flor, V Frouin, J Gallinat, H Garavan, P A Gowland, A Heinz, B Ittermann, M Lathrop, J-L Martinot, T Paus, M N Smolka, A R Rodan, G Schumann, A Rothenfluh
Ubiquitously expressed genes have been implicated in a variety of specific behaviors, including responses to ethanol. However, the mechanisms that confer this behavioral specificity have remained elusive. Previously, we showed that the ubiquitously expressed small GTPase Arf6 is required for normal ethanol-induced sedation in adult Drosophila. Here, we show that this behavioral response also requires Efa6, one of (at least) three Drosophila Arf6 guanine exchange factors. Ethanol-naive Arf6 and Efa6 mutants were sensitive to ethanol-induced sedation and lacked rapid tolerance upon re-exposure to ethanol, when compared with wild-type flies...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599832/model-based-control-in-dimensional-psychiatry
#5
REVIEW
Valerie Voon, Andrea Reiter, Miriam Sebold, Stephanie Groman
We use parallel interacting goal-directed and habitual strategies to make our daily decisions. The arbitration between these strategies is relevant to inflexible repetitive behaviors in psychiatric disorders. Goal-directed control, also known as model-based control, is based on an affective outcome relying on a learned internal model to prospectively make decisions. In contrast, habit control, also known as model-free control, is based on an integration of previous reinforced learning autonomous of the current outcome value and is implicit and more efficient but at the cost of greater inflexibility...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584287/rescue-of-impaired-sociability-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-cacna1c-deficient-mice-by-pharmacologically-targeting-eif2%C3%AE
#6
Z D Kabir, A Che, D K Fischer, R C Rice, B K Rizzo, M Byrne, M J Glass, N V De Marco Garcia, A M Rajadhyaksha
CACNA1C, encoding the Cav1.2 subunit of L-type Ca(2+) channels, has emerged as one of the most prominent and highly replicable susceptibility genes for several neuropsychiatric disorders. Cav1.2 channels play a crucial role in calcium-mediated processes involved in brain development and neuronal function. Within the CACNA1C gene, disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with impaired social and cognitive processing and altered prefrontal cortical (PFC) structure and activity. These findings suggest that aberrant Cav1...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578923/acoustic-startle-response-and-its-modulation-in-schizophrenia-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-asian-subjects
#7
REVIEW
Hidetoshi Takahashi, Yoko Kamio
The acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation, including prepulse inhibition (PPI), are considered to be promising neurophysiological indices for translational research in psychiatry. Impairment of the PPI has been reported in several psychiatric disorders, but particularly in schizophrenia, where PPI is considered to be a candidate endophenotype of the disorder. Although the profiles of the ASR differ between races, recent studies of single ethnicity samples in Asia were in accord with a number of studies from Western countries, in reporting that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired PPI...
June 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574009/potential-biomarkers-for-bipolar-disorder-where-do-we-stand
#8
REVIEW
Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, recurrent mood disorder, associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, with high rates of suicides and medical comorbidities. There is a high risk of mood disorders among the first-degree relatives of patients with BD. In the current clinical practice, the diagnosis of BD is made by history taking, interview and behavioural observations, thereby lacking an objective, biological validation. This approach may result in underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis and eventually poorer outcomes...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545836/symptom-severity-classification-with-gradient-tree-boosting
#9
Yang Liu, Yu Gu, John Chu Nguyen, Haodan Li, Jiawei Zhang, Yuan Gao, Yang Huang
In this paper, we present our system as submitted in the CEGS N-GRID 2016 task 2 RDoC classification competition. The task was to determine symptom severity (0-3) in a domain for a patient based on the text provided in his/her initial psychiatric evaluation. We first preprocessed the psychiatry notes into a semi-structured questionnaire and transformed the short answers into either numerical, binary, or categorical features. We further trained weak Support Vector Regressors (SVR) for each verbose answer and combined regressors' output with other features to feed into the final gradient tree boosting classifier with resampling of individual notes...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540928/anxiety-associated-increased-cpg-methylation-in-the-promoter-of-asb1-a-translational-approach-evidenced-by-epidemiological-and-clinical-studies-and-a-murine-model
#10
Rebecca T Emeny, Jens Baumert, Anthony S Zannas, Sonja Kunze, Simone Wahl, Stella Iurato, Janine Arloth, Angelika Erhardt, Georgia Balsevich, Mathias V Schmidt, Peter Weber, Anja Kretschmer, Liliane Pfeiffer, Johannes Kruse, Konstantin Strauch, Michael Roden, Christian Herder, Wolfgang Koenig, Christian Gieger, Melanie Waldenberger, Annette Peters, Elisabeth B Binder, Karl-Heinz Ladwig
Epigenetic regulation in anxiety is suggested, but evidence from large studies is needed. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on anxiety in a population-based cohort and validated our finding in a clinical cohort as well as a murine model. In the KORA cohort, participants (n=1522, age 32-72 years) were administered the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, whole blood DNA methylation was measured (Illumina 450 K BeadChip) and circulating levels of hs-CRP and IL-18 were assessed in the association between anxiety and methylation...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481595/steven-reiss-1947-2016
#11
Richard J McNally
This article memorializes Steven Reiss (1947-2016), an eminent clinical psychologist. He was professor emeritus of psychology and psychiatry at the Ohio State University. Reiss has made major contributions to three areas of psychology. He formulated the concept of anxiety sensitivity, an individual difference variable signifying a person's proneness to respond fearfully to bodily sensations that accompany anxiety. He was the key developer of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), a self-report measure of the fear of anxiety sensations translated into more than 20 languages...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480739/translation-and-purification-ayurvedic-psychiatry-allopathic-psychiatry-spirits-and-occult-violence-in-kerala-south-india
#12
Claudia Lang
In this paper, the author traces two parallel movements of institutionalized Ayurvedic psychiatry, an emergent field of specialization in Kerala, India: the 'work of purification' and the 'work of translation' that Latour has described as characteristic of the 'modern constitution.' The author delineates these processes in terms of the relationship of Ayurvedic psychiatry to (1) allopathic psychiatry, (2) bhutavidya, a branch of textual Ayurveda dealing with spirits, and (3) occult violence. The aim is to offer a model of these open and hidden processes and of Ayurvedic psychiatry's positioning within a hierarchical mental health field characterized simultaneously by biopsychiatric hegemony and a persistent vernacular healing tradition...
May 8, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477247/why-psychiatry-needs-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-a-child-psychiatrist-s-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Ben Sessa
Since the late 1980s the psychoactive drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has had a well-known history as the recreationally used drug ecstasy. What is less well known by the public is that MDMA started its life as a therapeutic agent and that in recent years an increasing amount of clinical research has been undertaken to revisit the drug's medical potential. MDMA has unique pharmacological properties that translate well to its proposed agent to assist trauma-focused psychotherapy. Psychological trauma-especially that which arises early in life from child abuse-underpins many chronic adult mental disorders, including addictions...
May 5, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461701/activation-of-a-novel-p70-s6-kinase-1-dependent-intracellular-cascade-in-the-basolateral-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-is-required-for-the-acquisition-of-extinction-memory
#14
T N Huynh, E Santini, E Mojica, A E Fink, B S Hall, R N Fetcho, L Grosenick, K Deisseroth, J E LeDoux, C Liston, E Klann
Repeated presentations of a previously conditioned stimulus lead to a new form of learning known as extinction, which temporarily alters the response to the original stimulus. Previous studies have shown that the consolidation of extinction memory requires de novo protein synthesis. However, the role of specific nodes of translational control in extinction is unknown. Using auditory threat conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and its effector p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in the extinction of auditory threat conditioning...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461696/a-relationship-between-the-aldosterone-mineralocorticoid-receptor-pathway-and-alcohol-drinking-preliminary-translational-findings-across-rats-monkeys-and-humans
#15
E G Aoun, V A Jimenez, L F Vendruscolo, N A R Walter, E Barbier, A Ferrulli, C L Haass-Koffler, P Darakjian, M R Lee, G Addolorato, M Heilig, R Hitzemann, G F Koob, K A Grant, L Leggio
Aldosterone regulates electrolyte and fluid homeostasis through binding to the mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs). Previous work provides evidence for a role of aldosterone in alcohol use disorders (AUDs). We tested the hypothesis that high functional activity of the mineralocorticoid endocrine pathway contributes to vulnerability for AUDs. In Study 1, we investigated the relationship between plasma aldosterone levels, ethanol self-administration and the expression of CYP11B2 and MR (NR3C2) genes in the prefrontal cortex area (PFC) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in monkeys...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420604/a-digital-tool-to-promote-alcohol-and-drug-use-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-skill-translation-a-mobile-app-development-and-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#16
Derek D Satre, Khanh Ly, Maria Wamsley, Alexa Curtis, Jason Satterfield
BACKGROUND: Translation of knowledge and skills from classroom settings to clinical practice is a major challenge in healthcare training, especially for behavioral interventions. For example, screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a highly-promoted approach to identifying and treating individuals at risk for alcohol or drug problems, yet effective, routine use of SBIRT has lagged. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the development, pilot testing, and trial protocol of a mobile app based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to promote SBIRT skill translation and application...
April 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418288/immunopsychiatry-important-facts
#17
G M Khandaker, R Dantzer, P B Jones
Accumulating evidence indicate a role for the immune system particularly inflammation and autoimmunity in the aetiology of major psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In this paper, we discuss some of the key advances in immunopsychiatry in order to highlight to psychiatrists and other health professionals how an increased understanding of this field might enhance our knowledge of illness mechanism and approaches to treatment. We present a brief overview of clinical research that link inflammation and autoimmunity with depression and psychosis, including potential role of inflammation in treatment response, current evidence for the effectiveness of immune-modulating treatment for depression and psychosis, and possible role of inflammation in common physical comorbidities for these disorders such as coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus...
April 18, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403846/the-new-field-of-precision-psychiatry
#18
Brisa S Fernandes, Leanne M Williams, Johann Steiner, Marion Leboyer, André F Carvalho, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine is a new and important topic in psychiatry. Psychiatry has not yet benefited from the advanced diagnostic and therapeutic technologies that form an integral part of other clinical specialties. Thus, the vision of precision medicine as applied to psychiatry - 'precision psychiatry' - promises to be even more transformative than in other fields of medicine, which have already lessened the translational gap. DISCUSSION: Herein, we describe 'precision psychiatry' and how its several implications promise to transform the psychiatric landscape...
April 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398342/two-subgroups-of-antipsychotic-naive-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-identified-with-a-gaussian-mixture-model-on-cognition-and-electrophysiology
#19
N Bak, B H Ebdrup, B Oranje, B Fagerlund, M H Jensen, S W Düring, M Ø Nielsen, B Y Glenthøj, L K Hansen
Deficits in information processing and cognition are among the most robust findings in schizophrenia patients. Previous efforts to translate group-level deficits into clinically relevant and individualized information have, however, been non-successful, which is possibly explained by biologically different disease subgroups. We applied machine learning algorithms on measures of electrophysiology and cognition to identify potential subgroups of schizophrenia. Next, we explored subgroup differences regarding treatment response...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397840/neuronal-plasticity-and-neurotrophic-factors-in-drug-responses
#20
E Castrén, H Antila
Neurotrophic factors, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other members of the neurotrophin family, are central mediators of the activity-dependent plasticity through which environmental experiences, such as sensory information are translated into the structure and function of neuronal networks. Synthesis, release and action of BDNF is regulated by neuronal activity and BDNF in turn leads to trophic effects such as formation, stabilization and potentiation of synapses through its high-affinity TrkB receptors...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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