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Translational Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325731/pharmacogenomic-testing-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-an-evidence-based-review
#1
Anna M Wehry, Laura Ramsey, Shane E Dulemba, Sarah A Mossman, Jeffrey R Strawn
Significant advances have been made in the application of pharmacogenomic testing for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders. Over the past decade, a number of studies have evaluated the utility of pharmacogenomic testing in pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders. The evidence base for pharmacogenomic testing in youth with depressive and anxiety disorders as well as attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed in this article. General pharmacogenomic principles are summarized and functional polymorphisms in P450 enzymes (and associated metabolizer phenotypes), the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms, serotonin 2 A receptor genes (e...
January 8, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321711/validity-and-reliability-of-the-turkish-version-of-dsm-5-social-anxiety-disorder-severity-scale-child-form
#2
Şermin Yalin Sapmaz, Dilek Ergin, Nesrin Şen Celasin, Duygu Karaarslan, Masum Öztürk, Handan Özek Erkuran, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.) (DSM-5) Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale- Child Form. Method: The scale was prepared by carrying out the translation and back translation of the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form. The study group consisted of 31 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and 99 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321707/validity-and-reliability-of-the-turkish-version-for-dsm-5-level-2-anger-scale-child-form-for-children-aged-11-17-years-and-parent-form-for-children-aged-6-17-years
#3
Şermin Yalin Sapmaz, Handan Özek Erkuran, Nefize Yalin, Özlem Önen, Siğnem Öztekin, Canem Kavurma, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) Level 2 Anger Scale. Methods: The scale was prepared by translation and back translation of DSM-5 Level 2 Anger Scale. Study groups consisted of a clinical sample of cases diagnosed with depressive disorder and treated in a child and adolescent psychiatry unit and a community sample. The study was continued with 218 children and 160 parents...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317742/psychiatric-genetics-and-the-structure-of-psychopathology
#4
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller, Ole A Andreassen, Howard J Edenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Stephen J Glatt, Kenneth S Kendler
For over a century, psychiatric disorders have been defined by expert opinion and clinical observation. The modern DSM has relied on a consensus of experts to define categorical syndromes based on clusters of symptoms and signs, and, to some extent, external validators, such as longitudinal course and response to treatment. In the absence of an established etiology, psychiatry has struggled to validate these descriptive syndromes, and to define the boundaries between disorders and between normal and pathologic variation...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310970/lithium-stress-and-resilience-in-bipolar-disorder-deciphering-this-key-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-regulator
#5
REVIEW
Rodrigo Machado-Vieira
BACKGROUND: Lithium is the lightest metal and the only mood stabilizer that has been used for over half a century for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). As a small ion, lithium is omnipresent, and consequently, its molecular mechanisms and targets are widespread. Currently, lithium is a crucial pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute mood episodes, prophylactic therapy, and suicide prevention in BD. Besides, lithium blood level is the most widely used biomarker in clinical psychiatry...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306954/management-of-functional-somatic-syndromes-and-bodily-distress
#6
Peter Henningsen, Stephan Zipfel, Heribert Sattel, Francis Creed
Functional somatic syndromes (FSS), like irritable bowel syndrome or fibromyalgia and other symptoms reflecting bodily distress, are common in practically all areas of medicine worldwide. Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to these symptoms and syndromes vary substantially across and within medical specialties from biomedicine to psychiatry. Patients may become frustrated with the lack of effective treatment, doctors may experience these disorders as difficult to treat, and this type of health problem forms an important component of the global burden of disease...
January 6, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302928/trends-in-md-phd-graduates-entering-psychiatry-assessing-the-physician-scientist-pipeline
#7
Melissa R Arbuckle, Sean X Luo, Harold Alan Pincus, Joshua A Gordon, Joyce Y Chung, Mark Chavez, Maria A Oquendo
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify trends in MD/PhD graduates entering psychiatry, to compare these trends with other specialties, and to review strategies for enhancing the physician-scientist pipeline. METHODS: Data on 226,588 medical students graduating from Liaison Committee on Medical Education accredited programs between 1999 and 2012 (6626 MD/PhDs) were used to evaluate the number, percentage, and proportion of MD/PhDs entering psychiatry in comparison with other specialties (neurology, neurosurgery, internal medicine, family medicine, and radiation oncology)...
January 4, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289701/dopamine-transporter-knockdown-mice-in-the-behavioral-pattern-monitor-a-robust-reproducible-model-for-mania-relevant-behaviors
#8
Molly A Kwiatkowski, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Zackary A Cope, Arpi Minassian, William Perry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
Efforts to replicate results from both basic and clinical models have highlighted problems with reproducibility in science. In psychiatry, reproducibility issues are compounded because the complex behavioral syndromes make many disorders challenging to model. We develop translatable tasks that quantitatively measure psychiatry-relevant behaviors across species. The behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) was designed to analyze exploratory behaviors, which are altered in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), especially during mania episodes...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279071/portuguese-adaptation-and-input-for-the-validation-of-the-views-on-inpatient-care-voice-outcome-measure-to-assess-service-users-perceptions-of-inpatient-psychiatric-care
#9
João Palha, Filipa Palha, Pedro Dias, Manuel Gonçalves-Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Patient satisfaction is an important measure of health care quality. Patients' views have seldom been considered in the construction of measures addressing satisfaction with inpatient facilities in psychiatry. The Views on Inpatient Care - VOICE - is a first service-user generated outcome measure relying solely on their perceptions of acute care, representing a valuable indicator of service users' perceived quality of care. The present study aimed to contribute to the validation of the Portuguese version of VOICE...
November 29, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248906/the-vividness-of-movement-imagery-questionnaire-vmiq-2-translation-and-reliability-of-a-hebrew-version
#10
Gal Ziv, Ronnie Lidor, Michal Arnon, Aviva Zeev
INTRODUCTION: The Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire 2 (VMIQ-2) assesses individuals' ability to imagine themselves performing 12 simple motor tasks, from three perspectives: internal visual imagery, external visual imagery and kinesthetic imagery. The purpose of the current study was twofold: (a) to describe the translation process of the VMIQ-2 into a Hebrew version, and (b) to test the reliability of the Hebrew version. METHOD: Eighty-eight physical education students completed the questionnaire twice (test, re-test), with two weeks in-between the tests...
2017: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246661/a-quantitative-approach-to-neuropsychiatry-the-why-and-the-how
#11
REVIEW
Martien J Kas, Brenda Penninx, Bernd Sommer, Alessandro Serretti, Celso Arango, Hugh Marston
The current nosology of neuropsychiatric disorders allows for a pragmatic approach to treatment choice, regulation and clinical research. However, without a biological rationale for these disorders, drug development has stagnated. The recently EU-funded PRISM project aims to develop a quantitative biological approach to the understanding and classification of neuropsychiatric diseases to accelerate the discovery and development of better treatments. By combining clinical data sets from major worldwide disease cohorts and by applying innovative technologies to deeply phenotype stratified patient groups, we will define a set of quantifiable biological parameters for social withdrawal and cognitive deficits common to Schizophrenia (SZ), Major Depression (MD), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD)...
December 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236920/brazilian-version-of-the-cognitive-failures-questionnaire-cfq-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-evidence-of-validity-and-reliability
#12
Jonas J de Paula, Danielle S Costa, Débora M de Miranda, Marco A Romano-Silva
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive failures are simple mistakes in routine activities, such as forgetting commitments and experiencing difficulty concentrating. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was designed to assess the frequency of these errors in everyday life. Although widely used in psychiatry and psychology, both in clinical and research settings, it has not been adapted for use in Brazil. Our objective was to perform cross-cultural adaptation of the CFQ for the Brazilian reality and assess its validity and reliability...
December 11, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218677/40%C3%A2-hz-auditory-steady-state-response-the-impact-of-handedness-and-gender
#13
Sigita Melynyte, Evaldas Pipinis, Vaida Genyte, Aleksandras Voicikas, Tonia Rihs, Inga Griskova-Bulanova
The 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is a periodic response to a periodic stimulation. Its sources are located in the primary auditory cortex and the asymmetry of the planum temporale has previously been associated with hand preference and gender-related differences; thus subject's handedness and gender could potentially influence ASSRs. Nevertheless, electrophysiological studies of ASSRs are mainly dominated by right-handed participants and the observed findings can only be generalized to the right-handed populations...
December 7, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203851/dynamic-landscape-of-the-local-translation-at-activated-synapses
#14
T M Khlebodarova, V V Kogai, E A Trifonova, V A Likhoshvai
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is the central regulator of cap-dependent translation at the synapse. Disturbances in mTOR pathway have been associated with several neurological diseases, such as autism and epilepsy. RNA-binding protein FMRP, a negative regulator of translation initiation, is one of the key components of the local translation system. Activation and inactivation of FMRP occurs via phosphorylation by S6 kinase and dephosphorylation by PP2A phosphatase, respectively...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192944/-reliability-and-validity-study-of-the-turkish-version-of-hypomania-checklist-32-revised
#15
Simavi Vahip, Ömer Aydemir, Cengiz Akkaya, Kürşat Altınbaş, Kaan Kora, Didem Sücüllüoğlu Dikici, Fatma Akdeniz, Fatma Kalaycı, Timuçin Oral, Işıl Vahip, Müge Alkan, Jules Angst
OBJECTIVE: In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Hypomania Checklist-32-Revised. METHOD: The study was carried out with 80 patients diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, 26 patients diagnosed with bipolar II disorder and 42 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder attending the out- and in-patient psychiatry departments of three university hospitals and one training hospital, and 116 healthy volunteers consisting of university students...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179742/neuroimaging-genomics-in-psychiatry-a-translational-approach
#16
REVIEW
Mary S Mufford, Dan J Stein, Shareefa Dalvie, Nynke A Groenewold, Paul M Thompson, Neda Jahanshad
Neuroimaging genomics is a relatively new field focused on integrating genomic and imaging data in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying brain phenotypes and neuropsychiatric disorders. While early work in neuroimaging genomics focused on mapping the associations of candidate gene variants with neuroimaging measures in small cohorts, the lack of reproducible results inspired better-powered and unbiased large-scale approaches. Notably, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of brain imaging in thousands of individuals around the world have led to a range of promising findings...
November 27, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166691/-emil-kraepelin-s-time-in-dorpat-did-this-stay-made-marks-in-russian-and-soviet-psychiatry
#17
Birk Engmann, Holger Steinberg
In Russia, German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) is regarded as an influential and famous personality in the history of the field. This study discusses whether it was his period in the Russian Empire in the years 1886 to 1891 when he worked at Dorpat University (today Tartu, Estonia) that raised his popularity in Russia. Our research shows that all of his writings which had been translated into Russian language derive from a period much later than Dorpat. Moreover, none of his students has ever reached a scientific position which would have enabled him to become a proponent of Kraepelin's ideas in Russia...
November 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158584/ketamine-enhances-structural-plasticity-in-mouse-mesencephalic-and-human-ipsc-derived-dopaminergic-neurons-via-ampar-driven-bdnf-and-mtor-signaling
#18
L Cavalleri, E Merlo Pich, M J Millan, C Chiamulera, T Kunath, P F Spano, G Collo
Among neurobiological mechanisms underlying antidepressant properties of ketamine, structural remodeling of prefrontal and hippocampal neurons has been proposed as critical. The suggested mechanism involves downstream activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, which trigger mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent structural plasticity via brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and protein neo-synthesis. We evaluated whether ketamine elicits similar molecular events in dopaminergic (DA) neurons, known to be affected in mood disorders, using a novel, translational strategy that involved mouse mesencephalic and human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived DA neurons...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158577/vgf-function-in-depression-and-antidepressant-efficacy
#19
C Jiang, W-J Lin, M Sadahiro, B Labonté, C Menard, M L Pfau, C A Tamminga, G Turecki, E J Nestler, S J Russo, S R Salton
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a critical effector of depression-like behaviors and antidepressant responses. Here, we show that VGF (non-acronymic), which is robustly regulated by BDNF/TrkB signaling, is downregulated in hippocampus (male/female) and upregulated in nucleus accumbens (NAc) (male) in depressed human subjects and in mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-Cre-mediated Vgf ablation in floxed VGF mice, in dorsal hippocampus (dHc) or NAc, led to pro-depressant or antidepressant behaviors, respectively, while dHc- or NAc-AAV-VGF overexpression induced opposite outcomes...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133952/engaging-homeostatic-plasticity-to-treat-depression
#20
E R Workman, F Niere, K F Raab-Graham
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous mood disorder, making it difficult to develop a generalized, pharmacological therapy that is effective for all who suffer from MDD. Through the fortuitous discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as effective antidepressants, we have gained key insights into how antidepressant effects can be produced at the circuit and molecular levels. NMDAR antagonists act as rapid-acting antidepressants such that relief from depressive symptoms occurs within hours of a single injection...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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