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Translational Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892069/reduction-of-plasma-glutathione-in-psychosis-associated-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-in-translational-psychiatry
#1
L G Nucifora, T Tanaka, L N Hayes, M Kim, B J Lee, T Matsuda, F C Nucifora, T Sedlak, R Mojtabai, W Eaton, A Sawa
The establishment of mechanism-driven peripheral markers is important for translational psychiatry. Many groups, including ours, have addressed molecular alterations in peripheral tissues in association with symptomatic changes in major illnesses. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) through studies of patient peripheral tissues and animal models. Although the relationship between peripheral changes and brain pathology remain elusive, oxidative stress may bridge such translational efforts...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834527/the-neurobiology-of-transition-to-psychosis-clearing-the-cache
#2
Lena Palaniyappan, Tushar Das, Kara Dempster
The prepsychotic phase of schizophrenia is not only important for indicated prevention strategies, but also crucial for developing mechanistic models of the emergence of frank psychosis (transition). This commentary highlights the work of Dukart and colleagues, published in this issue of the Journal of Psychiatry and Neurosicence, who sought to identify MRI-based anatomic endophenotypes of psychosis in a well-characterized sample of patients with at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP)...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805182/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-research-tool-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
J P Robbins, J Price
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a novel, timely approach for investigating the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although we are starting to gain more insight into the specific mechanisms that cause Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, this has not resulted in therapies to slow the pathological processes. Animal models have been paramount in studying the neurobiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, these human conditions cannot be entirely recapitulated in rodents...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801755/a-cross-national-comparison-of-violence-among-young-men-in-china-and-the-uk-psychiatric-and-cultural-explanations
#4
Jeremy Coid, Junmei Hu, Constantinos Kallis, Yuan Ping, Juying Zhang, Yueying Hu, Laura Bui, Simone Ullrich, Paul Bebbington
PURPOSE: Public health psychiatry has a key role in violence prevention. Cross-national comparisons of violence and associated psychiatric morbidity can indicate targets for preventive interventions. METHOD: Data on young adult men in households, 18-34 years, were drawn from the Second Men's Modern Lifestyles survey in Great Britain (n = 2046) and from a corresponding survey in Chengdu, China (n = 4132), using a translated questionnaire. Binary logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the cross-national differences for different types of violence and to identify explanatory variables...
August 11, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756348/measuring-alterations-in-oscillatory-brain-networks-in-schizophrenia-with-resting-state-meg-state-of-the-art-and-methodological-challenges
#5
REVIEW
Golnoush Alamian, Ana-Sofía Hincapié, Annalisa Pascarella, Thomas Thiery, Etienne Combrisson, Anne-Lise Saive, Véronique Martel, Dmitrii Althukov, Frédéric Haesebaert, Karim Jerbi
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of disturbed resting-state brain networks in Schizophrenia (SZ). However, untangling the neuronal mechanisms that subserve these baseline alterations requires measurement of their electrophysiological underpinnings. This systematic review specifically investigates the contributions of resting-state Magnetoencephalography (MEG) in elucidating abnormal neural organization in SZ patients. METHOD: A systematic literature review of resting-state MEG studies in SZ was conducted...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690972/computational-psychiatry-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#6
Sarah K Fineberg, Dylan Stahl, Philip Corlett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the literature on the use and potential use of computational psychiatry methods in Borderline Personality Disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Computational approaches have been used in psychiatry to increase our understanding of the molecular, circuit, and behavioral basis of mental illness. This is of particular interest in BPD, where the collection of ecologically valid data, especially in interpersonal settings, is becoming more common and more often subject to quantification...
March 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646744/systematic-biobanking-novel-imaging-techniques-and-advanced-molecular-analysis-for-precise-tumor-diagnosis-and-therapy-the-polish-mobit-project
#7
Jacek Niklinski, Adam Kretowski, Marcin Moniuszko, Joanna Reszec, Anna Michalska-Falkowska, Magdalena Niemira, Michal Ciborowski, Radoslaw Charkiewicz, Dorota Jurgilewicz, Miroslaw Kozlowski, Rodryg Ramlau, Cezary Piwkowski, Miroslaw Kwasniewski, Monika Kaczmarek, Andrzej Ciereszko, Tomasz Wasniewski, Robert Mroz, Wojciech Naumnik, Ewa Sierko, Magdalena Paczkowska, Joanna Kisluk, Anetta Sulewska, Adam Cybulski, Zenon Mariak, Boguslaw Kedra, Jacek Szamatowicz, Paweł Kurzawa, Lukasz Minarowski, Angelika Edyta Charkiewicz, Barbara Mroczko, Jolanta Malyszko, Christian Manegold, Lothar Pilz, Heike Allgayer, Mohammed L Abba, Hartmut Juhl, Frauke Koch
Personalized and precision medicine is gaining recognition due to the limitations by standard diagnosis and treatment; many areas of medicine, from cancer to psychiatry, are moving towards tailored and individualized treatment for patients based on their clinical characteristics and genetic signatures as well as novel imaging techniques. Advances in whole genome sequencing have led to identification of genes involved in a variety of diseases. Moreover, biomarkers indicating severity of disease or susceptibility to treatment are increasingly being characterized...
June 21, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619856/childhood-trauma-ptsd-and-the-cautious-forensic-expert
#8
Lance Amols, Spencer Eth
For centuries, medicine and psychiatry mirrored society's equivocations regarding childhood trauma. Those conflicts have mostly resolved, with widespread agreement that children are commonly exposed to traumatic events that may lead to PTSD and other mental conditions. The psychiatric and legal arguments should no longer be about the reality of childhood trauma in general; instead, experts should focus on the methodology of translating a particular child's narrative truth of maltreatment into a historical account, so that the expert can be qualified to offer criminal or civil court testimony after examining the child...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608853/genetic-tests-in-major-psychiatric-disorders-integrating-molecular-medicine-with-clinical-psychiatry-why-is-it-so-difficult
#9
REVIEW
U Demkow, T Wolańczyk
With the advent of post-genomic era, new technologies create extraordinary possibilities for diagnostics and personalized therapy, transforming todays' medicine. Rooted in both medical genetics and clinical psychiatry, the paper is designed as an integrated source of information of the current and potential future application of emerging genomic technologies as diagnostic tools in psychiatry, moving beyond the classical concept of patient approach. Selected approaches are presented, starting from currently used technologies (next-generation sequencing (NGS) and microarrays), followed by newer options (reverse phenotyping)...
June 13, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607459/the-arf6-activator-efa6-psd3-confers-regional-specificity-and-modulates-ethanol-consumption-in-drosophila-and-humans
#10
D A Gonzalez, T Jia, J H Pinzón, S F Acevedo, S A Ojelade, B Xu, N Tay, S Desrivières, J L Hernandez, T Banaschewski, C Büchel, A L W Bokde, P J Conrod, H Flor, V Frouin, J Gallinat, H Garavan, P A Gowland, A Heinz, B Ittermann, M Lathrop, J-L Martinot, T Paus, M N Smolka, A R Rodan, G Schumann, A Rothenfluh
Ubiquitously expressed genes have been implicated in a variety of specific behaviors, including responses to ethanol. However, the mechanisms that confer this behavioral specificity have remained elusive. Previously, we showed that the ubiquitously expressed small GTPase Arf6 is required for normal ethanol-induced sedation in adult Drosophila. Here, we show that this behavioral response also requires Efa6, one of (at least) three Drosophila Arf6 guanine exchange factors. Ethanol-naive Arf6 and Efa6 mutants were sensitive to ethanol-induced sedation and lacked rapid tolerance upon re-exposure to ethanol, when compared with wild-type flies...
June 13, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599832/model-based-control-in-dimensional-psychiatry
#11
REVIEW
Valerie Voon, Andrea Reiter, Miriam Sebold, Stephanie Groman
We use parallel interacting goal-directed and habitual strategies to make our daily decisions. The arbitration between these strategies is relevant to inflexible repetitive behaviors in psychiatric disorders. Goal-directed control, also known as model-based control, is based on an affective outcome relying on a learned internal model to prospectively make decisions. In contrast, habit control, also known as model-free control, is based on an integration of previous reinforced learning autonomous of the current outcome value and is implicit and more efficient but at the cost of greater inflexibility...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584287/rescue-of-impaired-sociability-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-cacna1c-deficient-mice-by-pharmacologically-targeting-eif2%C3%AE
#12
Z D Kabir, A Che, D K Fischer, R C Rice, B K Rizzo, M Byrne, M J Glass, N V De Marco Garcia, A M Rajadhyaksha
CACNA1C, encoding the Cav1.2 subunit of L-type Ca(2+) channels, has emerged as one of the most prominent and highly replicable susceptibility genes for several neuropsychiatric disorders. Cav1.2 channels play a crucial role in calcium-mediated processes involved in brain development and neuronal function. Within the CACNA1C gene, disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with impaired social and cognitive processing and altered prefrontal cortical (PFC) structure and activity. These findings suggest that aberrant Cav1...
August 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578923/acoustic-startle-response-and-its-modulation-in-schizophrenia-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-asian-subjects
#13
REVIEW
Hidetoshi Takahashi, Yoko Kamio
The acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation, including prepulse inhibition (PPI), are considered to be promising neurophysiological indices for translational research in psychiatry. Impairment of the PPI has been reported in several psychiatric disorders, but particularly in schizophrenia, where PPI is considered to be a candidate endophenotype of the disorder. Although the profiles of the ASR differ between races, recent studies of single ethnicity samples in Asia were in accord with a number of studies from Western countries, in reporting that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired PPI...
June 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574009/potential-biomarkers-for-bipolar-disorder-where-do-we-stand
#14
REVIEW
Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, recurrent mood disorder, associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, with high rates of suicides and medical comorbidities. There is a high risk of mood disorders among the first-degree relatives of patients with BD. In the current clinical practice, the diagnosis of BD is made by history taking, interview and behavioural observations, thereby lacking an objective, biological validation. This approach may result in underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis and eventually poorer outcomes...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545836/symptom-severity-classification-with-gradient-tree-boosting
#15
Yang Liu, Yu Gu, John Chu Nguyen, Haodan Li, Jiawei Zhang, Yuan Gao, Yang Huang
In this paper, we present our system as submitted in the CEGS N-GRID 2016 task 2 RDoC classification competition. The task was to determine symptom severity (0-3) in a domain for a patient based on the text provided in his/her initial psychiatric evaluation. We first preprocessed the psychiatry notes into a semi-structured questionnaire and transformed the short answers into either numerical, binary, or categorical features. We further trained weak Support Vector Regressors (SVR) for each verbose answer and combined regressors' output with other features to feed into the final gradient tree boosting classifier with resampling of individual notes...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540928/anxiety-associated-increased-cpg-methylation-in-the-promoter-of-asb1-a-translational-approach-evidenced-by-epidemiological-and-clinical-studies-and-a-murine-model
#16
Rebecca T Emeny, Jens Baumert, Anthony S Zannas, Sonja Kunze, Simone Wahl, Stella Iurato, Janine Arloth, Angelika Erhardt, Georgia Balsevich, Mathias V Schmidt, Peter Weber, Anja Kretschmer, Liliane Pfeiffer, Johannes Kruse, Konstantin Strauch, Michael Roden, Christian Herder, Wolfgang Koenig, Christian Gieger, Melanie Waldenberger, Annette Peters, Elisabeth B Binder, Karl-Heinz Ladwig
Epigenetic regulation in anxiety is suggested, but evidence from large studies is needed. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on anxiety in a population-based cohort and validated our finding in a clinical cohort as well as a murine model. In the KORA cohort, participants (n=1522, age 32-72 years) were administered the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) instrument, whole blood DNA methylation was measured (Illumina 450 K BeadChip) and circulating levels of hs-CRP and IL-18 were assessed in the association between anxiety and methylation...
May 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481595/steven-reiss-1947-2016
#17
Richard J McNally
This article memorializes Steven Reiss (1947-2016), an eminent clinical psychologist. He was professor emeritus of psychology and psychiatry at the Ohio State University. Reiss has made major contributions to three areas of psychology. He formulated the concept of anxiety sensitivity, an individual difference variable signifying a person's proneness to respond fearfully to bodily sensations that accompany anxiety. He was the key developer of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), a self-report measure of the fear of anxiety sensations translated into more than 20 languages...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480739/translation-and-purification-ayurvedic-psychiatry-allopathic-psychiatry-spirits-and-occult-violence-in-kerala-south-india
#18
Claudia Lang
In this paper, the author traces two parallel movements of institutionalized Ayurvedic psychiatry, an emergent field of specialization in Kerala, India: the 'work of purification' and the 'work of translation' that Latour has described as characteristic of the 'modern constitution.' The author delineates these processes in terms of the relationship of Ayurvedic psychiatry to (1) allopathic psychiatry, (2) bhutavidya, a branch of textual Ayurveda dealing with spirits, and (3) occult violence. The aim is to offer a model of these open and hidden processes and of Ayurvedic psychiatry's positioning within a hierarchical mental health field characterized simultaneously by biopsychiatric hegemony and a persistent vernacular healing tradition...
May 8, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477247/why-psychiatry-needs-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-a-child-psychiatrist-s-perspective
#19
REVIEW
Ben Sessa
Since the late 1980s the psychoactive drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has had a well-known history as the recreationally used drug ecstasy. What is less well known by the public is that MDMA started its life as a therapeutic agent and that in recent years an increasing amount of clinical research has been undertaken to revisit the drug's medical potential. MDMA has unique pharmacological properties that translate well to its proposed agent to assist trauma-focused psychotherapy. Psychological trauma-especially that which arises early in life from child abuse-underpins many chronic adult mental disorders, including addictions...
July 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461701/activation-of-a-novel-p70-s6-kinase-1-dependent-intracellular-cascade-in-the-basolateral-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-is-required-for-the-acquisition-of-extinction-memory
#20
T N Huynh, E Santini, E Mojica, A E Fink, B S Hall, R N Fetcho, L Grosenick, K Deisseroth, J E LeDoux, C Liston, E Klann
Repeated presentations of a previously conditioned stimulus lead to a new form of learning known as extinction, which temporarily alters the response to the original stimulus. Previous studies have shown that the consolidation of extinction memory requires de novo protein synthesis. However, the role of specific nodes of translational control in extinction is unknown. Using auditory threat conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and its effector p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in the extinction of auditory threat conditioning...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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