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Translational Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734227/fear-processing-psychophysiology-and-ptsd
#1
Seth Davin Norrholm, Tanja Jovanovic
The processing and regulation of fear is one of the key components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fear can involve both acute and potential threats that can manifest in different behaviors and result from activity within different neural nodes and networks. Fear circuits have been studied extensively in animal models for several decades and in human neuroimaging research for almost 20 years. Therefore, the centrality of fear processing to PTSD lends the disorder to be more tractable to investigation at the level of brain and behavior, and provides several observable phenotypes that can be linked to PTSD symptoms...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691958/brain-based-treatment-a-new-approach-or-a-well-forgotten-old-one
#2
Vanya Matanova, Zlatomira Kostova, Martin Kolev
For a relatively long period of time, mental functioning was mainly associated with personal profile while brain functioning went by the wayside. After the 90s of the 20th century, or the so called "Decade of the Brain", today, contemporary specialists work on the boundary between fundamental science and medicine. This brings neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy closer to each other. Today, we definitely know that brain structures are being built and altered thanks to experience...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687938/trait-and-state-biomarkers-for-psychiatric-disorders-importance-of-infrastructure-to-bridge-the-gap-between-basic-and-clinical-research-and-industry
#3
Yukiko Y Lema, Nao J Gamo, Kun Yang, Koko Ishizuka
To further improve clinical activities in psychiatry by early diagnosis and early intervention with novel mechanism-guided treatments, there is a great need for biomarkers that reflect "trait" and "state" in major mental disorders. Stable trait biomarkers would allow early diagnosis, prognosis, and hopefully early intervention in these disorders, while dynamic state markers that reflect symptomatic changes would help to develop treatments that target these molecular mechanisms. However, in the search for such biomarkers, and eventually translating them to the clinic and industry, challenges currently exist at multiple levels, from basic scientific understanding, patient sample collection, and sample and data management, to bridging the gap between basic and clinical research and industry...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665225/objective-and-quantitative-equilibriometric-evaluation-of-individual-locomotor-behaviour-in-schizophrenia-translational-and-clinical-implications
#4
Svetlozar Haralanov, Evelina Haralanova, Emil Milushev, Diana Shkodrova, Claus-Frenz Claussen
Psychiatry is the only medical specialty that lacks clinically applicable biomarkers for objective evaluation of the existing pathology at a single-patient level. On the basis of an original translational equilibriometric method for evaluation of movement patterns, we have introduced in the everyday clinical practice of psychiatry an easy-to-perform computerized objective quantification of the individual locomotor behaviour during execution of the Unterberger stepping test. For the last 20 years, we have gradually collected a large database of more than 1000 schizophrenic patients, their relatives, and matched psychiatric, neurological, and healthy controls via cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604314/zebrafish-models-relevant-to-studying-central-opioid-and-endocannabinoid-systems
#5
REVIEW
Konstantin A Demin, Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Kristina A Antonova, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Polina A Alekseeva, Maria M Firuleva, Anton M Lakstygal, Murilo S de Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Wandong Bao, Ashton J Friend, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Denis B Rosemberg, Pavel E Musienko, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
The endocannabinoid and opioid systems are two interplaying neurotransmitter systems that modulate drug abuse, anxiety, pain, cognition, neurogenesis and immune activity. Although they are involved in such critical functions, our understanding of endocannabinoid and opioid physiology remains limited, necessitating further studies, novel models and new model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as one of the most effective translational models in neuroscience and biological psychiatry. Due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, zebrafish may be effectively used to study the endocannabinoid and opioid systems...
March 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603509/translational-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-a-conceptual-analysis
#6
Ivana S Marková
As rapidly developing research disciplines and enterprises, the translational sciences have made significant impact on research direction in medicine. Psychiatry has likewise been affected, and in this regard, the translational neurosciences have been the major drivers. This paper explores the conceptual underpinnings of this enterprise in relation to psychiatry. It shows that translation is used in a metaphorical sense in this context but that this can be misleading because of the resultant connotation that there is equivalence between neurobiological states and mental states...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594942/the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-in-neuroprogressive-diseases-emerging-pathophysiological-role-and-translational-implications
#7
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Basant K Puri, Ken Walder, Michael Berk, Brendon Stubbs, Michael Maes, André F Carvalho
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main cellular organelle involved in protein synthesis, assembly and secretion. Accumulating evidence shows that across several neurodegenerative and neuroprogressive diseases, ER stress ensues, which is accompanied by over-activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Although the UPR could initially serve adaptive purposes in conditions associated with higher cellular demands and after exposure to a range of pathophysiological insults, over time the UPR may become detrimental, thus contributing to neuroprogression...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557757/why-has-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-had-so-little-impact-on-psychiatry
#8
Kathy Y Liu, Robert Howard
Hippocampal neurogenesis continues throughout adult life and potentially plays a crucial role in mood and cognitive disorders. We summarise the preclinical insights and potential translational steps that could be taken to investigate the role and importance of this phenomenon in disease and health in humans. Declaration of interest None.
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546658/translational-research-as-prerequisite-for-personalized-psychiatry
#9
EDITORIAL
Martin E Keck, Nils Kappelmann, Johannes Kopf-Beck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530516/fear-extinction-in-the-human-brain-a-meta-analysis-of-fmri-studies-in-healthy-participants
#10
REVIEW
Miquel A Fullana, Anton Albajes-Eizagirre, Carles Soriano-Mas, Bram Vervliet, Narcís Cardoner, Olívia Benet, Joaquim Radua, Ben J Harrison
The study of fear extinction represents an important example of translational neuroscience in psychiatry and promises to improve the understanding and treatment of anxiety and fear-related disorders. We present the results of a set of meta-analyses of human fear extinction studies in healthy participants, conducted with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and reporting whole-brain results. Meta-analyses of fear extinction learning primarily implicate consistent activation of brain regions linked to threat appraisal and experience, including the dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices...
May 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505971/validation-of-adolescent-suicide-assessment-protocol-20-asap-20-to-sri-lankan-adolescents
#11
A S Malalagama, S Tennakoon, D R R Abeyasinghe
PURPOSE: Youth suicide rates are rising worldwide, including Sri Lanka, where 46.5/100,000 among 15-19yrs was reported in 1986. Identifying high risk adolescents is vital. Dearth of trained professionals, demands an instrument utilizable by non-psychiatrists. Such was not available in Sinhalese. Adolescent Suicide Assessment Protocol (ASAP-20) and its' manual was translated and validated to Sri Lankan adolescents. METHOD: A validation study. Forward/back translations followed by cultural adaptation...
March 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483673/deep-brain-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression-an-integrative-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-findings-and-translational-implications
#12
M P Dandekar, A J Fenoy, A F Carvalho, J C Soares, J Quevedo
Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment choice for Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor and movement disorders, its effectiveness for the management of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains unclear. Herein, we conducted an integrative review on major neuroanatomical targets of DBS pursued for the treatment of intractable TRD. The aim of this review article is to provide a critical discussion of possible underlying mechanisms for DBS-generated antidepressant effects identified in preclinical studies and clinical trials, and to determine which brain target(s) elicited the most promising outcomes considering acute and maintenance treatment of TRD...
May 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467818/knowledge-transfer-a-worldwide-challenge-in-child-mental-health-a-recommendation-to-the-readership-of-capmh-concerning-the-revised-version-of-the-iacapap-textbook-of-child-and-adolescent-mental-health
#13
Anna T Maier, Rebecca C Brown, Joerg M Fegert
Background: Transfer of knowledge is an important issue throughout all scientific disciplines, especially in the medical and psycho-social field. The issue of worldwide knowledge transfer in child mental health is one of the aims and goals of the journal Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health (CAPMH). The demand for mental health training is high worldwide, and especially in low- to lower-middle income countries, where inadequate access to knowledge resources in the field of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) is prevalent...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431144/paradigm-shift-purity-progress-and-the-origins-of-first-episode-psychosis
#14
Suze G Berkhout
First-episode psychosis has garnered significant attention and resources within mental health services in North America, Europe and Australia/New Zealand since the 1990s. Despite this widespread embrace, little scholarship exists that examines underlying concepts, ideologies and imagery embedded within the early intervention paradigm. In this paper, I offer a sociohistorical analysis of the emergence of first-episode psychosis and early intervention as entities in psychiatry, drawing on contemporary philosophical thought to explore various concepts embedded in them...
February 3, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417236/working-across-species-down-on-the-farm-howard-s-liddell-and-the-development-of-comparative-psychopathology-c-1923-1962
#15
Robert G W Kirk, Edmund Ramsden
Seeking a scientific basis for understanding and treating mental illness, and inspired by the work of Ivan Pavlov, American physiologists, psychiatrists and psychologists in the 1920s turned to nonhuman animals. This paper examines how new constructs such as "experimental neurosis" emerged as tools to enable psychiatric comparison across species. From 1923 to 1962, the Cornell "Behavior Farm" was a leading interdisciplinary research center pioneering novel techniques to experimentally study nonhuman psychopathology...
February 7, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407722/validation-of-the-spanish-and-catalan-versions-of-the-health-of-the-nation-outcome-scale-for-children-and-adolescents-honosca
#16
Anna Ballesteros-Urpí, Héctor Pardo-Hernández, Andreu Ferrero-Gregori, Jordi Torralbas-Ortega, Joaquim Puntí-Vidal, Pere Tàpies Olivet, Jon Izaguirre Eguren, Pere Vergés Balasch, Anaís Lara Lloveras, Santiago Bertomeu, Montserrat Peramiquel, Victoria Herreros, Àngela Vidal, Elena Font, Soledad Romero, Marta Garcia, Luisa Lázaro, Àstrid Morer
Outcome measurement in outpatient and day-care mental health facilities for children and adolescents in Spain remains limited, in part due to a lack of validated scales. To address this issue, we translated HoNOSCA (glossary, score sheet, self-rated questionnaire, and parent/legal guardian questionnaire) into Spanish and Catalan using a reverse translation approach. We ascertained the validity and psychometric quality of the HoNOSCA in Spanish by assessing correlation with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS)...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401044/machine-learning-approaches-for-clinical-psychology-and-psychiatry
#17
Dominic B Dwyer, Peter Falkai, Nikolaos Koutsouleris
Machine learning approaches for clinical psychology and psychiatry explicitly focus on learning statistical functions from multidimensional data sets to make generalizable predictions about individuals. The goal of this review is to provide an accessible understanding of why this approach is important for future practice because of its potential to augment decisions associated with the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of people suffering from mental illness using clinical and biological data. To this end, the limitations of current statistical paradigms in mental health research are critiqued, and an introduction is provided to the critical machine learning methods used in clinical studies...
January 29, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369526/generative-models-for-clinical-applications-in-computational-psychiatry
#18
REVIEW
Stefan Frässle, Yu Yao, Dario Schöbi, Eduardo A Aponte, Jakob Heinzle, Klaas E Stephan
Despite the success of modern neuroimaging techniques in furthering our understanding of cognitive and pathophysiological processes, translation of these advances into clinically relevant tools has been virtually absent until now. Neuromodeling represents a powerful framework for overcoming this translational deadlock, and the development of computational models to solve clinical problems has become a major scientific goal over the last decade, as reflected by the emergence of clinically oriented neuromodeling fields like Computational Psychiatry, Computational Neurology, and Computational Psychosomatics...
January 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325731/pharmacogenomic-testing-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-an-evidence-based-review
#19
Anna M Wehry, Laura Ramsey, Shane E Dulemba, Sarah A Mossman, Jeffrey R Strawn
Significant advances have been made in the application of pharmacogenomic testing for the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders. Over the past decade, a number of studies have evaluated the utility of pharmacogenomic testing in pediatric patients with psychiatric disorders. The evidence base for pharmacogenomic testing in youth with depressive and anxiety disorders as well as attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed in this article. General pharmacogenomic principles are summarized and functional polymorphisms in P450 enzymes (and associated metabolizer phenotypes), the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms, serotonin 2A receptor genes (e...
February 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321711/validity-and-reliability-of-the-turkish-version-of-dsm-5-social-anxiety-disorder-severity-scale-child-form
#20
Şermin Yalin Sapmaz, Dilek Ergin, Nesrin Şen Celasin, Duygu Karaarslan, Masum Öztürk, Handan Özek Erkuran, Ertuğrul Köroğlu, Ömer Aydemir
Introduction: This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.) (DSM-5) Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale- Child Form. Method: The scale was prepared by carrying out the translation and back translation of the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale - Child Form. The study group consisted of 31 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and 99 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
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