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Majid Daneshvar, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini
A straightforward, highly efficient, and low-cost biological route was introduced for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. Three urease-positive bacteria namely, Bacillus subtilis, B. pasteurii, and B. licheniformis were used to biosynthesize ammonia and biosurfactants required for the nanoparticle production. Also, the features of the applied biological approach was compared with a chemical co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Bilquees Bano, Kanwal, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Arif Lodhi, Uzma Salar, Farida Begum, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Taha, Shahnaz Perveen
The current study deals with the synthesis of urea and thiourea derivatives 1-37 which were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques including FAB-MS, 1 H-, and 13 C NMR. The synthetic compounds were subjected to urease inhibitory activity and compounds exhibited good to moderate urease inhibitory activity having IC50 values in range of 10.11-69.80 µM. Compound 1 (IC50  = 10.11 ± 0.11 µM) was found to be most active and even better as compared to the standard acetohydroxamic acid (IC50  = 27...
June 5, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Farajzadah Sheikh Ahmad, Mohammad Jaafar Yadyad, Hamed Goodarzi, Seyed Jalal Hashemi, Sajad Aslani, Mohammad-Ali Assarzadegan, Reza Ranjbar
BACKGROUND: Allelic variation of the virulence genes, vacA and cagA, as the most important virulence associated genes play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe gastrointestinal disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify the diversity of the virulence genes in patients with Gastric Cancer (GC), who were referred to the gastro-endoscopy unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical science, Ahvaz, Iran. METHODS: Gastric biopsy specimens from 301 patients suspected to gastrointestinal disorders, were analyzed for H...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Man Shun Fu, Carolina Coelho, Carlos M De Leon-Rodriguez, Diego C P Rossi, Emma Camacho, Eric H Jung, Madhura Kulkarni, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and its interaction with macrophages is a key event determining the outcome of infection. Urease is a major virulence factor in C. neoformans but its role during macrophage interaction has not been characterized. Consequently, we analyzed the effect of urease on fungal-macrophage interaction using wild-type, urease-deficient and urease-complemented strains of C. neoformans. The frequency of non-lytic exocytosis events was reduced in the absence of urease...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Muhammad Athar Abbasi, Mubashir Hassan, Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Sabahat Zahra Siddiqui, Hussain Raza, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Sung-Yum Seo
The present article describes the synthesis, in vitro urease inhibition and in silico molecular docking studies of a novel series of bi-heterocyclic bi-amides. The synthesis of title compounds was initiated by benzoylation, with benzoyl chloride (1), of the key starter ethyl 2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)acetate (2) in weak basic aqueous medium followed by hydrazide formation, 4, and cyclization with CS2 to reach the parent bi-heterocyclic nucleophile, N-{4-[(5-sulfanyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl}benzamide (5)...
June 7, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Li Zhang, Jing Wang, Guozhan Fu, Yonggan Zhao
Soil rotational tillage is an effective measure to overcome the problems caused by long-term of a single tillage, but the effect of the interval time of rotational tillage practices is not very well understood. Therefore, we conducted a 3-year field study in a wheat-maize cropping system to evaluate the effects of rotary tillage (RT) in rotation with plowing tillage (PT) on soil properties in northern China. Four practices were designed as follows: 3 years of RT to a depth of 10-15 cm (3RT), 3 years of PT to a depth of 30-35 cm (3PT), 1 year of PT followed by 2 years of RT (PT+2RT), and 2 years of PT followed by 1 year of RT (2PT+RT)...
2018: PloS One
Amy L Hamilton, Michael A Kamm, Siew C Ng, Mark Morrison
Proteus species, members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, are usually considered commensals in the gut and are most commonly recognized clinically as a cause of urinary tract infections. However, the recent identification of Proteus spp. as potential pathogens in Crohn's disease recurrence after intestinal resection serves as a stimulus to examine their potential role as gut pathogens. Proteus species possess many virulence factors potentially relevant to gastrointestinal pathogenicity, including motility; adherence; the production of urease, hemolysins, and IgA proteases; and the ability to acquire antibiotic resistance...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Gülay Akyüz, Emre Menteşe, Mustafa Emirik, Nimet Baltaş
A new series of 2,3-disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-one compounds including oxadiazole and furan rings was synthesized. Their inhibitory activities on urease were assessed in vitro. All newly synthesized compounds exhibited potent urease inhibitory activity in the range of IC50  = 1.55 ± 0.07-2.65 ± 0.08 µg/mL, when compared with the standard urease inhibitors such as thiourea (IC50  = 15.08 ± 0.71 µg/mL) and acetohydroxamic acid (IC50  = 21.05 ± 0.96 µg/mL). 2,3-Disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives containing furan ring (3a-e) were found to be the most active inhibitors when compared with the compounds 2a-e bearing oxadiazole ring...
June 4, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Xiaoping Fan, Chang Yin, Guochao Yan, Peiyuan Cui, Qi Shen, Qun Wang, Hao Chen, Nan Zhang, Mujun Ye, Yuhua Zhao, Tingqiang Li, Yongchao Liang
The urease inhibitor, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), has been proposed to reduce synthetic fertilizer-N losses, including nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from agricultural soils. However, the response of N2 O emission to NBPT amendment is inconsistent across soils and associated microbial mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we performed a meta-analysis of the effects of NBPT on N2 O emissions and found NBPT significantly reduced N2 O emissions in alkaline soils whereas no obvious effects exhibited in acid soils...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kojiro Kawachi, Yasuhisa Sakata, Megumi Hara, Eri Takeshita, Hiroharu Kawakubo, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Norihiro Okamoto, Ryo Shimoda, Ryuichi Iwakiri, Nanae Tsuruoka, Motoyasu Kusano, Kazuma Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in upper gastrointestinal symptoms between generations and genders in relatively healthy Japanese subjects. METHODS: Altogether, 4086 healthy Japanese male and female (M/F) adults (M/F: 2244/1842) were analyzed. Among them, 3505 subjects (M/F: 1922/1583) were underwent a routine medical checkup at one of five hospitals in Saga, Japan from January 2013 to December 2013. The others were 581 (M/F: 322/259) healthy young volunteers at the Saga Medical School from April 2007 to March 2013...
April 2018: Esophagus: Official Journal of the Japan Esophageal Society
Yahu Hu, Yu Huang, Jieqiong Su, Zhuo Gao, Shuqi Li, Zhongren Nan
Metal bioavailability and extracellular enzyme activity are two important indicators of soil quality in metal-contaminated soil. However, it is unclear how the chronosequence effect modifies these two factors in highly contaminated calcareous soils undergoing afforestation. We used Populus simonii Carr. and the calciphilous Ulmus macrocarpa Hance as contrasting tree species to study the chronosequence effect. We found that afforestation significantly increased soil total nitrogen (N) content as well as soil carbon (C)/phosphorus (P) and N/P ratios, but decreased soil total P content and soil C/N ratio, regardless of the tree species and stand age, suggesting strong P limitation...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Prithvi Simha, Jenna Senecal, Annika Nordin, Cecilia Lalander, Björn Vinnerås
In urine-separating sanitation systems, bacterial urease enzymes can hydrolyse urea to ammonia during the pipe transport and storage of urine. The present study investigated whether it was possible to reduce the urine volume without losing the nitrogen as ammonia. A method for stabilising the urine prior to dehydration was developed. Briefly, fresh human urine was stabilised by passage through an anion-exchanger, added to an alkaline media (wood ash or alkalised biochar), and dehydrated. Urine dehydration was investigated at three temperatures: 40, 45 and 50 °C...
June 2, 2018: Water Research
Theerapong Krajaejun, Thidarat Rujirawat, Teerat Kanpanleuk, Pitak Santanirand, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Yothin Kumsang, Pattarana Sae-Chew, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Preecha Patumcharoenpol
The oomycete microorganism, Pythium insidiosum , causes the life-threatening infectious condition, pythiosis, in humans and animals worldwide. Affected individuals typically endure surgical removal of the infected organ(s). Detection of P. insidiosum by the established microbiological, immunological, or molecular methods is not feasible in non-reference laboratories, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Biochemical assays have been used to characterize P. insidiosum , some of which could aid in the clinical identification of this organism...
2018: PeerJ
Muhammad Alamzeb, Muhammad Omer, Mamoon Ur-Rashid, Muslim Raza, Saqib Ali, Behramand Khan, Asad Ullah
Urease enzyme is responsible for gastric cancer, peptic ulcer, hepatic coma, and urinary stones in millions of people across the world. So, there is a strong need to develop new and safe antiurease drugs, particularly from natural sources. In search for new and effective drugs from natural sources bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of Berberis glaucocarpa Stapf roots bark resulted in the isolation and characterization, on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR data, of two bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, oxyacanthine ( 1 ) and tetrandrine ( 2 ), followed by urease inhibition studies...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Woon-Jong Yu, Jae-Won Lee, Ngoc-Loi Nguyen, Sung-Keun Rhee, Soo-Je Park
Methanotrophic bacteria are widespread and use methane as a sole carbon and energy source. They also play a crucial role in marine ecosystems by preventing the escape of methane into the atmosphere from diverse methane sources, such as methane seeps and hydrothermal vents. Despite their importance for methane carbon cycling, relatively few marine methanotrophic bacteria have been isolated and studied at the genomic level. Herein, we report the genome of a marine methanotrophic member of the genus Methylomicrobium, metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) wino1, which was obtained through enrichment using methane as the sole carbon source...
May 29, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Meng Li, Zhenlin Liang, Myriam D Callier, Emmanuelle Roque d'orbcastel, Guoxiang Sun, Xiaona Ma, Xian Li, Shunkui Wang, Ying Liu, Xiefa Song
This study aims to investigate the effects of ammonia nitrogen loading rates and salinity levels on nutrients removal rates and substrate enzyme activities of constructed wetland (CW) microcosms planted with Salicornia bigelovii treating mariculture wastewater. Activities of urease (UA), dehydrogenase (DA), protease (PrA) and phosphatase (PA) were considered. Using principal component analysis (PCA), nutrient removal index (NRI) and enzyme activity index (EAI) were developed to evaluate the effects. The results revealed that increasing ammonia nitrogen loading rates had positive effects on nitrogen removal rates (i...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Brussine Nadège Wakeu Kweka, Jean-Bosco Jouda, Gertrude Foudjo Melacheu, Lazare Sidjui Sidjui, Pierre Mkounga, Mehreen Lateef, Muhammad Shaiq Ali, Jean Wandji, Céline Djama Mbazoa
A new lactam, oligoamide (1), along with three known compounds (2-4), stigmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), formononetin (3) and (-)-pinitol (4) were isolated from the CH2 Cl2 /CH3 OH (1:1) extract of the leaves of Angylocalyx oligophyllus by chromatographic separation. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). Compound 1 was found to have weak antioxidant and urease inhibitory potential.
June 8, 2018: Natural Product Research
Théo Veaudor, Marcia Ortega-Ramos, Thichakorn Jittawuttipoka, Hervé Bottin, Corinne Cassier-Chauvat, Franck Chauvat
Using a combination of various types of genetic manipulations (promoter replacement and gene cloning in replicating plasmid expression vector), we have overproduced the complex hydrogenase enzyme in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. This new strain overproduces all twelve following proteins: HoxEFUYH (hydrogen production), HoxW (maturation of the HoxH subunit of hydrogenase) and HypABCDEF (assembly of the [NiFe] redox center of HoxHY hydrogenase). This strain when grown in the presence of a suitable quantities of nickel and iron used here exhibits a strong (25-fold) increase in hydrogenase activity, as compared to the WT strain growing in the standard medium...
2018: PloS One
Mariusz Cycoń, Kamila Orlewska, Anna Markowicz, Agnieszka Żmijowska, Joanna Smoleń-Dzirba, Jolanta Bratosiewicz-Wąsik, Tomasz J Wąsik, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget
Despite many studies, our knowledge on the impact of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria on the metabolic activity of soil microbial communities is still limited. To ascertain this impact, the community level physiological profiles (CLPPs) and the activity of selected enzymes (dehydrogenase, urease, and phosphatases) in soils treated with vancomycin (VA) and/or multidrug resistant Citrobacter freundii were determined during a 90-day experiment. A multivariate analysis and the resistance (RS)/resilience (RL) concept were used to assess the potential of native microorganisms to maintain their catabolic activity under exposure of VA and/or a high level of C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
David G Levitt, Michael D Levitt
Increased blood ammonia (NH3 ) is an important causative factor in hepatic encephalopathy, and clinical treatment of hepatic encephalopathy is focused on lowering NH3 . Ammonia is a central element in intraorgan nitrogen (N) transport, and modeling the factors that determine blood-NH3 concentration is complicated by the need to account for a variety of reactions carried out in multiple organs. This review presents a detailed quantitative analysis of the major factors determining blood-NH3 homeostasis - the N metabolism of urea, NH3 , and amino acids by the liver, gastrointestinal system, muscle, kidney, and brain - with the ultimate goal of creating a model that allows for prediction of blood-NH3 concentration...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
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