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Alona Keren-Paz, Vlad Brumfeld, Yaara Oppenheimer-Shaanan, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
In nature, bacteria predominantly exist as highly structured biofilms, which are held together by extracellular polymeric substance and protect their residents from environmental insults, such as antibiotics. The mechanisms supporting this phenotypic resistance are poorly understood. Recently, we identified a new mechanism maintaining biofilms - an active production of calcite minerals. In this work, a high-resolution and robust µCT technique is used to study the mineralized areas within intact bacterial biofilms...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
Jing Yu, Hui Ye, Jiang Li, Ning Li, Zong-Ming Shi, Xue-Zhi Zhang
Mass Galla chinesis et camelliae Fermentata ( Chinese gall leaven , CGL) was investigated for activities against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) both in vitro and in vivo . The agar dilution method and time-kill curves, as in vitro assays and an in vivo study using a Kunming mice model, were performed. CGL demonstrated a strong anti- Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro with the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against multiple H. pylori strains of 0.5~8 mg/ml and the decreasing trend time-kill curves when increasing CGL concentrations...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Ferial El-Kalla, Nadia Elwan, Rehab Badawi, Nehad Hawash, Shaimaa Soliman, Samah Soliman, Walaa Elkhalawany, Mennat-Allah ElSawaf, Asem Elfert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities associated with liver dysfunction. Lactulose is a nonabsorbable disaccharide presently used to treat HE. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) has a broad-spectrum activity against urease-producing bacteria, so it decreases ammonia production and is therefore expected to reverse the symptoms of HE. A previous pilot study on HE patients given NTZ and lactulose had encouraging results with regard to amelioration of the clinical picture...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Wenqi Jiang, Jing Gao, Zheng Cheng, Peng Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Donghui Liu
Antibiotic contamination in agricultural lands through manure application causes changes in soil enzyme activity and the abundance of microbes, which may affect the fate of agrochemicals. A clear understanding of antibiotic-pesticide interactions is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the persistence of triazine and chloroacetanilide herbicides in soil under a combined application scenario. Soil enzyme activity and the abundance of soil microbes disturbed by OTC were measured...
April 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Xiuqing Zhai, Zhongwu Li, Bin Huang, Ninglin Luo, Mei Huang, Qiu Zhang, Guangming Zeng
The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils is a great challenge for global environmental sciences and engineering. To control the ecological risks of heavy metal-contaminated soil more effectively, the present study focused on the combination of soil washing (with FeCl3 ) and in situ immobilization (with lime, biochar, and black carbon). The results showed that the removal rate of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu was 62.9%, 52.1%, 30.0%, and 16.7%, respectively, when washed with FeCl3 . After the combined remediation (immobilization with 1% (w/w) lime), the contaminated soils showed 36...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Vignesh Suresh, Ong Qunya, Bera Lakshmi Kanta, Lee Yeong Yuh, Karen S L Chong
This work describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a paper-based microfluidic device for ultra-low detection of urea through enzyme catalysis. The microfluidic system comprises an entry port, a fluidic channel, a reaction zone and two electrodes (contacts). Wax printing was used to create fluidic channels on the surface of a chromatography paper. Pre-conceptualized designs of the fluidic channel are wax-printed on the paper substrate while the electrodes are screen-printed. The paper printed with wax is heated to cause the wax reflow along the thickness of the paper that selectively creates hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones inside the paper...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Qing Huang, Shiwei Zhou, Lina Lin, Yongchun Huang, Fangjun Li, Zhengguo Song
Herein, we utilize sequential extraction and high-throughput sequencing to investigate the effects of nanomaterial additives on As volatilization from flooded soils. We reveal that maximum volatilization is achieved in the fourth week and is followed by stabilization. The extent of volatilization decreased in the order of control > nano-zerovalent iron >40-nm hydroxyapatite > nano-Fe3 O4  > 20-nm hydroxyapatite > multilayer graphene oxide > high-quality graphene oxide. The most abundant forms of As in soil corresponded to As-Fe and Al oxides...
April 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Philippe Lehours
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach of half of humanity. The prevalence of this infection is higher among people of low socioeconomic status and from developing countries. In the absence of effective antibiotic treatment, the infection persists decades or even lifetime. The diagnosis of H. pylori can be made by invasive methods when biopsies are obtained: culture, histological examination, polymerase chain reaction or rapid urease test. Non-invasive methods have been developed, including the urea breath test, a test of high reliability, particularly suitable for post treatment monitoring, but also the fecal antigen test, as well as the detection of antibodies in the serum...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Walquíria F Teixeira, Evandro B Fagan, Luis H Soares, Jérssica N Soares, Klaus Reichardt, Durval D Neto
The application of amino acids in crops has been a common practice in recent years, although most of the time they are associated with products based on algae extracts or on fermented animal or vegetable wastes. However, little is known about the isolated effect of amino acids on the development of crops. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the in some steps of the soybean nitrogen metabolism and on productivity. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and in the field with the application of the amino acids glutamate (Glu), phenylalanine (Phe), cysteine (Cys) and glycine (Gly) and as a set (Glu+Phe+Cys+Gly), as seed treatment (ST), as foliar application (FA) and both (ST+FA), at the V4 growth stage...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fujing Pan, Wei Zhang, Yueming Liang, Shujuan Liu, Kelin Wang
Studying the influence of topography and litter and soil nutrients on soil enzymes and microbial biomass is important to the understanding of soil nutrient transformation and cycling, but these relationships in heterogeneous soils of karst ecosystem remains poorly understood. We determined environment factors influencing the urease (URS) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) with advancing vegetation succession. The results showed that ALP increased but URS decreased with the advancing vegetation succession...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vijaya Bharathi Srinivasan, Govindan Rajamohan
In this study, we present the genome sequence of Serratia marcescens SM03, recovered from a human gut in India. The final assembly consists of 26 scaffolds (4620 coding DNA sequences, 5.08 Mb, 59.6% G + C ratio) and 79 tRNA genes. Analysis identified novel genes associated with lactose utilization, virulence, P-loop GTPases involved in urease production, CFA/I fimbriae apparatus and Yersinia - type CRISPR proteins. Antibiotic susceptibility testing indicated drug tolerant phenotype and inhibition assays demonstrated involvement of extrusion in resistance...
April 5, 2018: Genomics
Thiago Carrazoni, Christine Nguyen, Lucas F Maciel, Andres Delgado-Cañedo, Bryan A Stewart, Angela B Lange, Chariston A Dal Belo, Celia R Carlini, Ian Orchard
BACKGROUND: Plants have developed a vast range of mechanisms to compete with phytophagous insects, including entomotoxic proteins such as ureases. The legume Canavalia ensiformis produces several urease isoforms, of which the more abundant is called Jack Bean Urease (JBU). Previews work has demonstrated the potential insecticidal effects of JBU, by mechanisms so far not entirely elucidated. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the JBU-induced activity upon neurotransmitter release on insect neuromuscular junctions...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Paul Carini, Christopher L Dupont, Alyson E Santoro
Thaumarchaea are ubiquitous in marine habitats where they participate in carbon and nitrogen cycling. Although metatranscriptomes suggest thaumarchaea are active microbes in marine waters, we understand little about how thaumarchaeal gene expression patterns relate to substrate utilization and activity. Here, we report the global transcriptional response of the marine ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeon 'Candidatus Nitrosopelagicus brevis' str. CN25 to ammonia limitation using RNA-Seq. We further describe the genome and transcriptome of Ca...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Mariia Pukalchik, Filip Mercl, Vera Terekhova, Pavel Tlustoš
We conducted a pot experiment with biochar (BC), wood ash (WA), and humic substances (HS) to investigate their effect on As, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb mobility in soil, as well as enzyme activities involved in C-, N-, and P-cycles, and Eisenia foetida toxicity in multi-contaminated soils. Amendments were dosed to increase еру soil pH from initial 6.0 to ∼6.5 and ∼7.0. Applying amendments has revealed, that WA significantly immobilized Cu, Zn and Pb, BC - Cu and Zn, and HS decreased solely Cu mobility in soil...
March 28, 2018: Chemosphere
Emy Koestanti S, Wiwik Misaco, Sri Chusniati, Lilik Maslachah
Background: Brucellosis in pigs at East Java Indonesia has not only cause great economic losses due to a decrease in productivity of livestock but also are zoonotic. Infection on free brucelosis pigs were initially begun with the infected pigs both male and female, or the use of superior male pigs together. The elimination of the disease either on a group or population is considered as the most effective way to prevent the spread of the disease in pigs. Prevention efforts mainly addressed to vaccination, sanitary maintenace and government policy...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hailong Che, Shoupeng Cao, Jan C M van Hest
Over the years, scientists have been inspired by nature to construct synthetic non-equilibrium systems which show life-like properties. In most cases, these self-regulating systems have been extensively investigated with regard to adaptive structural features, whereas temporal control over function still persists as a very intriguing challenge. Here we present the development of self-regulated and feedback-induced "breathing" polymersome nanoreactors that show temporally programmable bio-catalysis induced by a chemical fuel...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Muhammed A P Manzoor, Surya Ram Duwal, M Mujeeburahiman, Punchappady-Devasya Rekha
BACKGROUND: Formation of struvite stones is associated with urinary tract infection by urease-producing bacteria. Biogenic crystal growth in natural and synthetic materials is regulated by the action of inhibitors, ranging from small ions, molecules to large macromolecules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report the dynamics of in vitro crystallization of struvite in presence of vitamin C in synthetic urine using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate gel of specific gravity 1...
March 4, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Harjodh Singh, Manpreet Kaur, Shivani Sharma, Lakhwinder Kaur, Sunita Mishra, Naga Radha Srinivas Tanuku, Anil Kumar Pinnaka
An aerobic, endospore-forming, haloalkali-tolerant, Gram-stain-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain AK73T , was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Sambhar lake, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Colonies were circular, 1-2 mm in diameter, glossy, smooth, yellowish and convex with an entire margin after 48 h growth on marine agar at pH 9 and 37 °C. Growth occurred at 15-42 °C, 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl and at a pH range of 7-12. Strain AK73T was positive for catalase and arginine dihydrolase 2 activities, hydrolysis of Tweens 20, 40 and 80, and negative for esculinase, caseinase, gelatinase, β-galactosidase, lipase (Tween 60) and urease activities...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Ping-I Hsu, Feng-Woei Tsay, David Y Graham, Tzung-Jiun Tsai, Kuo-Wang Tsai, John Y Kao, Nan-Jing Peng, Chao-Hung Kuo, Sung-Shuo Kao, Huay-Min Wang, Te-Fu Lin, Deng-Chyang Wu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bismuth quadruple therapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in the United States but hybrid therapy is an alternative option. Reverse hybrid therapy (proton pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin for 14 days, and clarithromycin plus metronidazole for the initial 7 days) is a simplified hybrid treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacies of reverse hybrid therapy vs bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line treatments for patients with H pylori infection in a randomized trial...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Nupur Bansal, Zheng Zheng, Lin Frank Song, Jun Pei, Kenneth M Merz
Obtaining a detailed description of how active site flap motion affects substrate or ligand binding will advance structure-based drug design (SBDD) efforts on systems including the kinases, HSP90, HIV protease, ureases, etc. Through this understanding we will be able to design better inhibitors and better proteins that have desired functions. Herein we address this issue by generating the relevant configurational states of a protein flap on the molecular energy landscape using an approach we call MTFlex-b and then following this with a procedure to estimate the free energy associated with the motion of the flap region...
April 2, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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