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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099780/the-genetic-architecture-of-defense-as-resistance-to-and-tolerance-of-bacterial-infection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Virginia M Howick, Brian P Lazzaro
Defense against pathogenic infection can take two forms: resistance and tolerance. Resistance is the ability of the host to limit a pathogen burden, whereas tolerance is the ability to limit the negative consequences of infection at a given level of infection intensity. Evolutionarily, a tolerance strategy that is independent of resistance could allow the host to avoid mounting a costly immune response and, theoretically, to avoid a coevolutionary arms race between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Biomedically, understanding the mechanisms of tolerance and how they relate to resistance could potentially yield treatment strategies that focus on health improvement instead of pathogen elimination...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065266/production-of-recombinant-rhomboid-proteases
#2
E Arutyunova, R Panigrahi, K Strisovsky, M J Lemieux
Rhomboid proteases are intramembrane enzymes that hydrolyze peptide bonds of transmembrane proteins in the lipid bilayer. They play a variety of roles in key biological events and are linked to several disease states. Over the last decade a great deal of structural and functional knowledge has been generated on this fascinating class of proteases. Both structural and kinetic analyses require milligram amounts of protein, which may be challenging for membrane proteins such as rhomboids. Here, we present a detailed protocol for optimization of expression and purification of three rhomboid proteases from Escherichia coli (ecGlpG), Haemophilus influenzae (hiGlpG), and Providencia stuartii (AarA)...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061888/antibacterial-activities-of-the-methanol-extract-fractions-and-compounds-from-elaeophorbia-drupifera-thonn-stapf-euphorbiaceae
#3
Igor K Voukeng, Blaise K Nganou, Louis P Sandjo, Ilhami Celik, Veronique P Beng, Pierre Tane, Victor Kuete
BACKGROUND: Elaeophorbia drupifera (Thonn.) Stapf. (Euphorbiaceae) is used in Cameroonian folk medicine to treat several ailments including bacterial-related diseases such as skin infections. In this study, the methanol extract from the leaves (EDL), fractions (EDLa-d), sub-fractions EDLc1-7 and EDLc31-35 as well as isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities against a panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes...
January 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031276/patients-upgraded-to-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-due-to-pacing-induced-cardiomyopathy-are-at-low-risk-of-life-threatening-ventricular-arrhythmias-a-long-term-cause-of-death-analysis
#4
Sergio Barra, Rudolf Duehmke, Rui Providencia, Eloi Marijon, Serge Boveda, Munmohan Virdee, Patrick Heck, Simon Fynn, David Begley, Andrew Grace, Sharad Agarwal
AIMS: Upgrade to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) should be offered to patients who have developed pacing-induced cardiomyopathy with conventional right ventricular pacing. The extent to which these patients would also benefit from defibrillator back-up at the time of CRT upgrade is, however, unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective observational cohort study of 199 patients with pacing-induced cardiomyopathy and no history of sustained ventricular arrhythmia, including 104 upgraded to CRT-Pacemaker (CRT-P) and 95 upgraded to CRT-Defibrillator (CRT-D)...
December 28, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984803/identification-of-new-bacteria-harboring-qnrs-and-aac-6-ib-cr-and-mutations-possibly-involved-in-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-raw-sewage-and-activated-sludge-samples-from-a-full-scale-wwtp
#5
Magna C Paiva, Mariana P Reis, Patrícia S Costa, Marcela F Dias, Lucas Bleicher, Larissa L S Scholte, Regina M D Nardi, Andréa M A Nascimento
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) harbor bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes, favoring gene exchange events and resistance dissemination. Here, a culture-based and metagenomic survey of qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, and aac(6')-Ib genes from raw sewage (RS) and activated sludge (AS) of a full-scale municipal WWTP was performed. A total of 96 bacterial isolates were recovered from nalidixic acid-enrichment cultures. Bacteria harboring the aac(6')-Ib gene predominated in RS, whereas qnrS-positive isolates were specific to AS...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942243/prevalence-seasonal-variation-and-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-of-enteric-bacterial-pathogens-among-hospitalized-diarrheic-children-in-suburban-regions-of-central-kenya
#6
Mohammad Shah, Cyrus Kathiiko, Akihiro Wada, Erick Odoyo, Martin Bundi, Gabriel Miringu, Sora Guyo, Mohamed Karama, Yoshio Ichinose
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of enteric pathogens has not been well studied in Kenya because of wide disparities in health status across the country. Therefore, the present study describes the prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria, their seasonal variation, and antibiotic resistance profiles among hospitalized diarrheic children in a suburban region of central Kenya. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected between July 2009 and December 2013 from a total of 1410 children younger than 5 years, hospitalized with acute diarrhea in Kiambu County Hospital, Kenya...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939024/partial-versus-complete-removal-of-the-infected-mesh-after-abdominal-wall-hernia-repair
#7
José Bueno-Lledó, Antonio Torregrosa-Gallud, Omar Carreño-Saénz, Providencia García-Pastor, Fernando Carbonell-Tatay, Santiago Bonafé-Diana, José Iserte-Hernández
BACKGROUND: To compare the results with complete mesh removal (CMR) versus partial mesh removal (PMR) in the treatment of mesh infection after abdominal wall hernia repair (AWHR). METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients who underwent surgery for mesh infection between January 2004 and May 2014 at a tertiary center. RESULTS: Of 3470 cases of AWHR, we reported 66 cases (1.9%) of mesh infection, and 48 repairs (72.7%) required mesh explantation...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895127/the-pathogenic-potential-of-proteus-mirabilis-is-enhanced-by-other-uropathogens-during-polymicrobial-urinary-tract-infection
#8
Chelsie E Armbruster, Sara N Smith, Alexandra O Johnson, Valerie DeOrnellas, Kathryn A Eaton, Alejandra Yep, Lona Mody, Weisheng Wu, Harry L T Mobley
Urinary catheter use is prevalent in health care settings, and polymicrobial colonization by urease-positive organisms, such as Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii, commonly occurs with long-term catheterization. We previously demonstrated that coinfection with P. mirabilis and P. stuartii increased overall urease activity in vitro and disease severity in a model of urinary tract infection (UTI). In this study, we expanded these findings to a murine model of catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI), delineated the contribution of enhanced urease activity to coinfection pathogenesis, and screened for enhanced urease activity with other common CAUTI pathogens...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892815/monitoring-trihalomethanes-and-nitrogenous-disinfection-by-products-in-blending-desalinated-waters-using-solid-phase-microextraction-and-gas-chromatography
#9
Providencia González-Hernández, Manuel Hernández-Padrón, Verónica Pino, Ana M Afonso, Juan H Ayala
A simple and efficient method has been developed for the extraction and determination of 16 common volatile halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (four trihalomethanes, six haloacetonitriles, and six halonitromethanes) in blending desalinated waters, using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-SPME/GC-FID). After the optimization using factorial designs of the HS-SPME parameters (optimum: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane such as fiber, extraction time of 60 min at 30°C, pH 7, addition of 40% (w/v) of sodium chloride, and desorption time of 2 min at 250°C), quantification limits ranged from 3...
December 14, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876392/metallothionein-assisted-periplasmic-lead-sequestration-as-lead-sulfite-by-providencia-vermicola-strain-sj2a
#10
Jaya Sharma, Kashif Shamim, Santosh Kumar Dubey, Ram Murti Meena
Lead resistant Providencia vermicola strain SJ2A was isolated from the waste of a battery manufacturing industry which could tolerate upto 3.0mM lead nitrate in the minimal medium. Interestingly, this isolate showed presence of a plasmid borne metallothionein gene, bmtA that matched significantly (96%) with that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Scanning electron micrographs of bacterial cells exposed to lead revealed a unique alteration in the cell morphology from rods to long inter-connected filaments. On the other hand, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) clearly indicated no significant lead adsorption therefore, we speculated intracellular sequestration in this bacterial strain...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865198/a-propensity-matched-case-control-study-comparing-efficacy-safety-and-costs-of-the-subcutaneous-vs-transvenous-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator
#11
S Honarbakhsh, R Providencia, N Srinivasan, S Ahsan, M Lowe, E Rowland, R J Hunter, M Finlay, O Segal, M J Earley, A Chow, R J Schilling, P D Lambiase
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (S-ICD) have become more widely available. However, comparisons with conventional transvenous ICDs (TV-ICD) are scarce. METHODS: We conducted a propensity matched case-control study including all patients that underwent S-ICD implantation over a five-year period in a single tertiary centre. Controls consisted of all TV-ICD implant patients over a contemporary time period excluding those with pacing indication, biventricular pacemakers and those with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia requiring anti-tachycardia pacing...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863291/adenosine-guided-pulmonary-vein-isolation-versus-conventional-pulmonary-vein-isolation-in-patients-undergoing-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-an-updated-meta-analysis
#12
Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Rui Providência, Neil Srinivasan, Kostas Bronis, Francisco Moscoso Costa, Diogo Cavaco, Pedro Adragão, Dimitris Tousoulis, Ross J Hunter, Richard J Schilling, Oliver R Segal, Anthony Chow, Edward Rowland, Martin Lowe, Pier D Lambiase
BACKGROUND: Recurrent atrial fibrillation episodes following pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) are frequently due to reconnection of PVs. Adenosine can unmask dormant conduction, leading to additional ablation to improve AF-free survival. We performed a meta-analysis of the literature to assess the role of adenosine testing in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched through until December 2015 for studies reporting on the role of adenosine guided-PVI versus conventional PVI in AF ablation...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859671/rapid-differentiation-of-cocci-mixed-bacteria-from-rods-in-voided-urine-culture-of-women-with-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections
#13
Chun-Chun Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei Yang, Hui-Ching Hung, I-Ni Chiang, Chiung-Hui Peng, Shang-Jen Chang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of laser flow cytometry to predict cocci/mixed growth in the pre-analytical phase of urine specimens. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed urine samples from women with uncomplicated urinary tract infections from urologic clinics for study. Urine analyses were performed with laser flow cytometry (UF1000i, Sysmex, Kobe, Japan) and then diagrams were generated (forward scatter vs. fluorescent light scatter). Each specimen (bacteria count >357 BACT/μL) was classified as either cocci bacteria or rods/mixed growth according to the diagrams...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843267/bacteriology-of-urine-specimens-obtained-from-men-with-symptomatic-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#14
Jude Orumuah Agbugui, E O Obarisiagbon, I I Osaigbovo
BACKGROUND: Bacteriuria and urinary tract infections are common sequelae of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, the knowledge of urine bacteriology in men with symptomatic BPH in our environment may play a complementary role in management. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of bacteriuria and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates in cultured urine samples of men with symptomatic BPH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a 1 year prospective study...
July 2016: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760824/rna-interference-directed-against-the-transglutaminase-gene-triggers-dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-in-drosophila
#15
Sanae Sekihara, Toshio Shibata, Mai Hyakkendani, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
We recently reported that transglutaminase (TG) suppresses immune deficiency pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptides (IMD-AMPs), thereby conferring immune tolerance to gut microbes, and that RNAi of the TG gene in flies decreases the lifespan compared with non-TG-RNAi flies. Here, analysis of the bacterial composition of the Drosophila gut by next-generation sequencing revealed that gut microbiota comprising one dominant genus of Acetobacter in non-TG-RNAi flies was shifted to that comprising two dominant genera of Acetobacter and Providencia in TG-RNAi flies...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744637/bacteriological-analysis-of-saliva-from-partially-or-fully-engorged-female-adult-rhipicephalus-microplus-by-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Liangliang Xiang, Błażej Poźniak, Tian-Yin Cheng
Tick-borne diseases are a major epidemiological problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition of saliva obtained from engorged adult Rhipicephalus microplus females. Saliva samples collected from partially or fully engorged adult female ticks were analysed using an ultra-high-throughput Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing system. To elucidate the possible routes of bacterial transmission, the bacterial flora from whole ticks were also investigated. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all samples, and Acinetobacter, Rickettsia, Escherichia and Coxiella were the major genera...
January 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681917/highly-variable-bacterial-communities-associated-with-the-octocoral-antillogorgia-elisabethae
#17
Veronica Robertson, Brad Haltli, Erin P McCauley, David P Overy, Russell G Kerr
Antillogorgia elisabethae (synonymous with Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae) is a common branching octocoral in Caribbean reef ecosystems. A. elisabethae is a rich source of anti-inflammatory diterpenes, thus this octocoral has been the subject of numerous natural product investigations, yet relatively little is known regarding the composition, diversity and the geographic and temporal stability of its microbiome. To characterize the composition, diversity and stability of bacterial communities of Bahamian A. elisabethae populations, 17 A...
July 5, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671220/acquired-resistance-to-chlorhexidine-is-it-time-to-establish-an-antiseptic-stewardship-initiative
#18
G Kampf
Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) is an antimicrobial agent used for different types of applications in hand hygiene, skin antisepsis, oral care, and patient washing. Increasing use raises concern regarding development of acquired bacterial resistance. Published data from clinical isolates with CHG minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reviewed and compared to epidemiological cut-off values to determine resistance. CHG resistance is rarely found in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667823/ndm-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-chinese-hospital-2014-2015-identification-of-ndm-producing-citrobacterwerkmanii-and-acquisition-of-blandm-1-carrying-plasmid-in-vivo-in-a-clinical-escherichia-coli-isolate
#19
Jingna An, Ling Guo, Lin Zhou, Yanning Ma, Yanping Luo, Chuanmin Tao, Jiyong Yang
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (NPE) shows prevalence in China. Little is known about the mechanisms related to the spread of NPE. Recently, a total of 51 non-duplicated NPE isolates were collected from a tertiary-care hospital in China and analysed for genetic relatedness by PFGE, antimicrobial susceptibility by Etest and sequence type by multilocus sequence typing. S1-PFGE and Southern blot analysis or PCR amplification were used for plasmid profiling. Between 2014 and 2015, 22 Escherichia coli, 10 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 9 Enterobacter cloacae, 2 Enterobacter aerogenes, 3 Providencia rettgeri, 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Proteus mirabilis, 1 Citrobacter freundii, 1 Citrobacterwerkmanii and 1 Raoultella planticola were identified as NPE...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626536/cryoballoon-or-radiofrequency-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation
#20
LETTER
Rui Providência, Pier D Lambiase, Eloi Marijon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
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