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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526075/testing-times-trends-in-availability-price-and-market-share-of-malaria-diagnostics-in-the-public-and-private-healthcare-sector-across-eight-sub-saharan-african-countries-from-2009-to-2015
#1
Kara Hanson, Catherine Goodman
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization guidelines have recommended that all cases of suspected malaria should receive a confirmatory test with microscopy or a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), however evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) illustrates that only one-third of children under five with a recent fever received a test. The aim of this study was to evaluate availability, price and market share of microscopy and RDT from 2009/11 to 2014/15 in 8 SSA countries, to better understand barriers to improving access to malaria confirmatory testing in the public and private health sectors...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520961/building-a-middle-range-theory-of-free-public-healthcare-seeking-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-realist-review
#2
Emilie Robert, Oumar Mallé Samb, Bruno Marchal, Valéry Ridde
Realist reviews are a new form of knowledge synthesis aimed at providing middle-range theories (MRTs) that specify how interventions work, for which populations, and under what circumstances. This approach opens the 'black box' of an intervention by showing how it triggers mechanisms in specific contexts to produce outcomes. We conducted a realist review of health user fee exemption policies (UFEPs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This article presents how we developed both the intervention theory (IT) of UFEPs and a MRT of free public healthcare seeking in SSA, building on Sen's capability approach...
May 16, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520682/progress-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-cardiac-manifestations-of-neonatal-lupus
#3
Peter Izmirly, Amit Saxena, Jill P Buyon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide new insights into pathogenesis, prevention and management of cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus (cardiac neonatal lupus) and issues pertinent to all anti-SSA/Ro positive individuals of childbearing age. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibody specificity with high risk for cardiac neonatal lupus remains elusive, but high titers of Ro60, Ro52 or Ro52p200 antibodies appear to be required. Varying antibody specificities to the p200 region of Ro52 can induce first-degree block in a rodent model...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512351/non-homologous-dna-end-joining-and-alternative-pathways-to-double-strand-break-repair
#4
REVIEW
Howard H Y Chang, Nicholas R Pannunzio, Noritaka Adachi, Michael R Lieber
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most dangerous type of DNA damage because they can result in the loss of large chromosomal regions. In all mammalian cells, DSBs that occur throughout the cell cycle are repaired predominantly by the non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Defects in NHEJ result in sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the ablation of lymphocytes. The NHEJ pathway utilizes proteins that recognize, resect, polymerize and ligate the DNA ends in a flexible manner. This flexibility permits NHEJ to function on a wide range of DNA-end configurations, with the resulting repaired DNA junctions often containing mutations...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511110/determination-of-regional-relationships-among-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-retail-pork-circulating-in-the-chiang-mai-municipality-area-using-a-wgs-data-approach
#5
Prapas Patchanee, Thanaporn Eiamsam-Ang, Juntakarn Vanaseang, Phacharaporn Boonkhot, Pakpoom Tadee
Salmonella is recognized as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen, and pork products are involved in one-fifth of infections. Whole genome sequencing data of Salmonella isolated from retail's pork circulating in the Chiang Mai Municipality area between April 2013 and September 2014, were used to focus on genetic diversity and proven in pig-human transmission based on Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Additionally, WGS data were used to investigate virulence genes, to assess the hazard or pathogenic potential transferred into the food production chain...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507729/difference-in-clinical-presentation-between-women-and-men-in-incident-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#6
Jorge I Ramírez Sepúlveda, Marika Kvarnström, Susanna Brauner, Chiara Baldini, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
BACKGROUND: A more severe disease phenotype has been reported in men compared to women in several rheumatic diseases. However, studies have not conclusively established sex-related clinical features in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). In this study, we therefore investigated the clinical presentation of pSS in women and men at diagnosis. METHODS: Incident, treatment naïve patients (n = 199) during a 5-year period in a specified area were prospectively included and examined for items of classification criteria for pSS as well as extraglandular manifestations (EGM)...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506006/immediate-responses-to-backpack-carriage-on-postural-angles-in-young-adults-a-crossover-randomized-self-controlled-study-with-repeated-measures
#7
Ukachukwu O Abaraogu, Elochukwu F Ezenwankwo, Ijeoma B Nwadilibe, Geoffrey C Nwafor, Bianca O Ugwuele, Pascal C Uzoh, Ifunanya Ani, Kinsley Amarachineke, Collins Atuma, Obed Ewelunta
BACKGROUND: Heavy backpacks have been associated with various postural changes and consequently musculoskeletal disorders. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the immediate responses of varying backpack loads on cranio-vertebral angle (CVA), sagittal shoulder angle (SSA) and trunk forward lean (TFL) of young adults between the ages of 18-25 years. METHODS: This was a 3×3 cross over randomized controlled study with repeated measures among a convenience sample of young adults (n = 30; 50% male, 50% female)...
May 6, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505404/activated-porous-carbon-spheres-with-customized-mesopores-through-assembly-of-diblock-copolymers-for-electrochemical-capacitor
#8
Jing Tang, Jie Wang, Lok Kumar Shrestha, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Zeid Abdullah Alothman, Yusuke Yamauchi, Katsuhiko Ariga
A series of porous carbon spheres with precisely adjustable mesopores (4~16 nm), high specific surface area (SSA, ~2000 m2 g-1), and sub-micrometer particle size (~300 nm) have been synthesized through a facile co-assembly of diblock polymer micelles with a nontoxic dopamine source, and a common post-activation process. The mesopore size can be controlled by the diblock polymer, polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) templates and has an almost linear dependence on the square root of the degree of polymerization of the PS blocks...
May 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501592/endoscopic-and-molecular-characterization-of-colorectal-sessile-serrated-adenoma-polyps-with-cytological-dysplasia
#9
Yoshihito Tanaka, Hiro-O Yamano, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Hiro-O Matushita, Hironori Aoki, Kenjiro Yoshikawa, Ryo Takagi, Eiji Harada, Michiko Nakaoka, Yuko Yoshida, Makoto Eizuka, Tamotsu Sugai, Hiromu Suzuki, Hiroshi Nakase
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps), which are precursor lesions of colorectal cancer (CRC) with BRAF mutation and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), develop cytological dysplasia (CD) during the progression of colorectal tumorigenesis. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the endoscopic and molecular signatures of SSA/Ps, with and without CD. METHODS: A series of 208 serrated lesions, including 41 hyperplastic polyps (HPs), 90 SSA/Ps, 33 SSA/Ps with CD and 44 traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs), were observed and resected using magnifying endoscopy...
May 10, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498739/feasibility-of-a-cardiovascular-cohort-in-a-sub-saharan-africa-community-preliminary-report-of-the-pilot-project-tahes-tanv%C3%A3-health-study-in-benin
#10
Yessito Corine Houehanou, Carmelle Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Salimanou Amidou, Iléana Désormais, Martin Houénassi, Pierre-Marie Preux, Benoit Marin, Dismand Houinato, Philippe Lacroix
BACKGROUND: Faced with the growing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including atherosclerotic in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the development of appropriate prediction tools, based on large cohorts, appears useful for prevention. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the pilot project TAHES (Tanvè Health Study) was to explore the feasibility of a large cohort study focused on CVD and risk factors in Benin. METHODS: We implemented a prospective cohort over 2 years...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496155/selection-of-reference-genes-for-microrna-analysis-associated-to-early-stress-response-to-handling-and-confinement-in-salmo-salar
#11
Eduardo Zavala, Daniela Reyes, Robert Deerenberg, Rodrigo Vidal
MicroRNAs are key non-coding RNA molecules that play a relevant role in the regulation of gene expression through translational repression and/or transcript cleavage during normal development and physiological adaptation processes like stress. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become the approach normally used to determine the levels of microRNAs. However, this approach needs the use of endogenous reference. An improper selection of endogenous references can result in confusing interpretation of data...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494577/sessile-serrated-adenomas-how-to-detect-characterize-and-resect
#12
REVIEW
Michael X Ma, Michael J Bourke
Serrated polyps are important contributors to the burden of colorectal cancers (CRC). These lesions were once considered to have no malignant potential, but currently up to 30% of all CRC are recognized to arise from the serrated neoplasia pathway. The primary premalignant lesions are sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), although traditional serrated adenomas are relatively uncommon. Compared to conventional adenomas, SSA/Ps are morphologically subtle with indistinct borders, may be difficult to detect endoscopically, are more prevalent than previously thought, are associated with synchronous and metachronous advanced neoplasia, and have a higher risk of incomplete resection...
May 11, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494290/importance-of-aerosol-non-sphericity-in-estimating-aerosol-radiative-forcing-in-indo-gangetic-basin
#13
Parul Srivastava, Sagnik Dey, Atul Kumar Srivastava, Sachchidanand Singh, S K Mishra, Suresh Tiwari
Aerosols are usually presumed spherical in shape while estimating the direct radiative forcing (DRF) using observations or in the models. In the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB), a regional aerosol hotspot where dust is a major aerosol species and has been observed to be non-spherical in shape, it is important to test the validity of this assumption. We address this issue using measured chemical composition at megacity Delhi, a representative site of the western IGB. Based on the observation, we choose three non-spherical shapes - spheroid, cylinder and chebyshev, and compute their optical properties...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492394/sub-saharan-african-migrants-have-slower-initial-cd4-cell-recovery-after-combined-antiretroviral-treatment-initiation-than-french-natives
#14
Rémonie Seng, Mathilde Ghislain, Pierre-Marie Girard, Laurent Cotte, Agnès Meybeck, François Raffi, Sophie Abgrall, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Cécile Goujard, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Laurence Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Poorer immunologic responses to combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) have been reported among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants than among native Europeans. We studied whether differences in CD4 cell recovery between French natives and SSA migrants starting first-line cART could be explained by differences in socioeconomic conditions, inflammatory marker levels, and other established determinants. METHODS: We compared 319 French natives and 175 SSA migrants (ANRS-COPANA cohort)...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492042/classifying-discoid-lupus-erythematosus-background-gaps-and-difficulties
#15
REVIEW
Jessica S Haber, Joseph F Merola, Victoria P Werth
To inform our ongoing efforts to develop defining features to be incorporated into a novel set of classification criteria for discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), we conducted a literature review using the Ovid MEDLINE database. A search was performed to identify studies reporting criteria used to distinguish DLE from other cutaneous lupus erythematosus subtypes. We examined which clinical, histopathologic, and serologic features have data to support their use as effective features in distinguishing DLE from other potential disease mimickers and cutaneous lupus subsets...
March 2017: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491235/a-systematic-review-of-physical-activity-policy-recommendations-and-interventions-for-people-with-mental-health-problems-in-sub-saharan-african-countries
#16
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Marc De Hert, Christy du Plessis, Caleb Ademola Omuwa Gbiri, Jepkemoi Kibet, Nancy Wanyonyi, James Mugisha
INTRODUCTION: There is a need for interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Implementation of physical activity (PA) within the rehabilitation of people with mental health problems (PMHP) could reduce the burden and facilitate recovery. The objective of the current review was to explore (1) the role of PA within mental health policies of SSA countries, and (2) the current research evidence for PA to improve mental health in SSA. METHODS: We screened the Mental Health Atlas and MiNDbank for mental health policies in SSA countries and searched PubMed for relevant studies on PA in PMHP in SSA...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490619/capacity-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-heart-failure-in-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Selma Carlson, Herbert C Duber, Jane Achan, Gloria Ikilezi, Ali H Mokdad, Andy Stergachis, Alexandra Wollum, Gene Bukhman, Gregory A Roth
OBJECTIVE: Heart failure is a major cause of disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). There is an urgent need for better strategies for heart failure management in this region. However, there is little information on the capacity to diagnose and treat heart failure in SSA. We aim to provide a better understanding of the capacity to diagnose and treat heart failure in Kenya and Uganda to inform policy planning and interventions. METHODS: We analysed data from a nationally representative survey of health facilities in Kenya and Uganda (197 health facilities in Uganda and 143 in Kenya)...
May 10, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490262/methods-for-safety-signal-detection-in-healthcare-databases-a-literature-review
#18
Mickael Arnaud, Bernard Bégaud, Nicolas Thurin, Nicholas Moore, Antoine Pariente, Francesco Salvo
With increasing availability, the use of healthcare databases as complementary data source for drug safety signal detection has been explored to circumvent the limitations inherent in spontaneous reporting. Areas covered: To review the methods proposed for safety signal detection in healthcare databases and their performance. Expert opinion: Fifteen different data mining methods were identified. They are based on disproportionality analysis, traditional pharmacoepidemiological designs (e.g. self-controlled designs), sequence symmetry analysis (SSA), sequential statistical testing, temporal association rules, supervised machine learning (SML), and the tree-based scan statistic...
May 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489009/-vanishing-lungs-a-case-report
#19
Thorunn Halldora Thordardottir, Arni Jon Geirsson, Sif Hansdottir
A 55 year old female with rheumatoid arthritis who was repeatedly admitted to internal medicine for fever, shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. Laboratory work up showed normal WBC but elevated CRP and sedimentatation rate. Cultures were negative. Imaging studies revealed elevated diaphragms, bilateral atelectasis and pleural fluid but normal lung parenchyma. Lung function testing showed restriction. Anti-dsDNA and anti-Ro/SSA were elevated. A clinical diagnosis of anti-TNF-induced lupus secondary to infliximab and shrinking lung syndrome was made...
May 2017: Læknablađiđ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488562/exploring-the-health-status-of-older-persons-in-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Keiron Audain, Michelle Carr, Derya Dikmen, Francis Zotor, Basma Ellahi
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has traditionally had a low life expectancy due to the onslaught of the HIV epidemic, high levels of chronic diseases, injuries, conflict and undernutrition. Therefore, research into public health concerns of older persons has largely been overlooked. With a growing population, the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment, and the effects of globalisation, SSA is experiencing an increase in the number of people over 50 years of age as well as an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD)...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
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