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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149907/mapping-evidence-on-the-distribution-of-human-papillomavirus-related-cancers-in-sub-saharan-africa-scoping-review-protocol
#1
Bridget K M Lekoane, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Themba G Ginindza
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of HPV vaccines, the incidence of HPV-related cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vulvar, vagina, head, and neck) in sub-Saharan Africa has been rising. The increasing incidence of these HPV-related cancers has been attributed to changes in lifestyle-related risk factors, most notably sexual behavior. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of HIV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review to explore, describe, and map literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa...
November 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148927/flat-serrated-polyps-at-ct-colonography-relevance-appearance-and-optimizing-interpretation
#2
David H Kim, Meghan G Lubner, Ashley R Cahoon, B Dustin Pooler, Perry J Pickhardt
Serrated polyps are a recently recognized family of colonic polyps with subgroups that harbor future malignant potential. In the past, the significance of these lesions to the colorectal cancer carcinogenesis pathway was not recognized nor well understood. It is now known that serrated polyps account for approximately one-fourth of all sporadic colorectal cancers. The sessile serrated polyp (SSP) (also known as a sessile serrated adenoma [SSA]) is the main lesion of interest given its prevalence and subtle presentation...
November 17, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147879/increased-risk-for-colon-polyps-in-patients-with-reflux-disease
#3
Amnon Sonnenberg, Kevin O Turner, Robert M Genta
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found an increased risk for colonic neoplasm in patients with Barrett's esophagus. It is unknown whether such risk applies similarly to other types of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIMS: To test whether GERD represents a risk factor for the occurrence of colon polyps. METHODS: The Miraca Life Sciences Database is a large national electronic repository of histopathologic records of patients distributed throughout the entire USA...
November 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145062/differentiating-multiple-vs-single-lifetime-suicide-attempters-with-bipolar-disorders-a-retrospective-study
#4
Chiara Arici, Laura Cremaschi, Cristina Dobrea, Matteo Vismara, Benedetta Grancini, Beatrice Benatti, Massimiliano Buoli, Shefali Miller, Terence A Ketter, A Carlo Altamura, Bernardo Dell'Osso
BACKGROUND: The risk of suicide in Bipolar Disorder (BD) has been estimated up to 20-30 times higher compared with the general population. Previous suicide attempts (SAs) represent a well-established risk factor for further attempts and for death by suicide in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the socio-demographic and clinical profile of BD patients with a history of multiple SAs (MSAs). The present study sought to characterize BD patients with MSAs versus single suicide attempt (SSA) within a large Italian sample...
October 19, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144533/anaemia-and-iron-deficiency-in-heart-failure-epidemiological-gaps-diagnostic-challenges-and-therapeutic-barriers-in-sub-saharan-africa
#5
REVIEW
Abel Makubi, Johnson Lwakatare, Okechukwu S Ogah, Lars Rydén, Lars H Lund, Julie Makani
Anaemia and iron deficiency (ID) are common and of prognostic importance in heart failure (HF). In both conditions the epidemiology, diagnosis and therapies have been extensively studied in high-income countries but are still largely unexplored in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The lack of adequate and robust epidemiological data in SSA makes it difficult to recognise the significance of anaemia and ID in HF. From a clinical perspective, less attention is paid by clinicians to screening for anaemia in HF, and as far as interventions are concerned, there are no clinical trials in SSA that provide guidance on the appropriate interventional approach...
September 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143625/trends-in-hepatitis-b-virus-testing-practices-and-management-in-hiv-clinics-across-sub-saharan-africa
#6
REVIEW
Patrick A Coffie, Matthias Egger, Michael J Vinikoor, Marcel Zannou, Lameck Diero, Akouda Patassi, Mark H Kuniholm, Moussa Seydi, Guillaume Bado, Ponsiano Ocama, Monique I Andersson, Eugène Messou, Albert Minga, Philippa Easterbrook, Kathryn Anastos, François Dabis, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of HIV-infected individuals are co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Knowledge of HBV status is important to guide optimal selection of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and monitor/prevent liver-related complications. We describe changes in testing practices and management of HBV infection over a 3-year period in HIV clinics across SSA. METHODS: A medical chart review was conducted in large urban HIV treatment centers in Côte d'Ivoire (3 sites), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, Uganda and Zambia (1 site each)...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143124/the-effect-of-inhibition-on-stimulus-specific-adaptation-in-the-inferior-colliculus
#7
Yaneri A Ayala, Manuel S Malmierca
The inferior colliculus is a center of convergence for inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs that may be activated simultaneously by sound stimulation. Stimulus repetition may generate response habituation by changing the efficacy of neuron's synaptic inputs. Specialized IC neurons reduce their response to repetitive tones, but restore their firing when a different and infrequent tone occurs, a phenomenon known as stimulus specific adaptation. Here, using the microiontophoresis technique, we determined the role of GABAA-, GABAB-, and glycinergic receptors in stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA)...
November 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136226/testing-the-financial-capability-framework-findings-from-youthsave-impact-study-kenya
#8
Njeri Kagotho, Fred M Ssewamala, Michele Patak-Pietrafesa, William Byansi
In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), youths (23 years or younger)-who account for almost half the population-are particularly vulnerable to poverty and exclusion from financial markets and intermediaries. In addition, a significant factor in the financial instability of the region appears to be the economic functioning of its youths. In recent years, social work interventions throughout the region have focused on investing in the economic functioning of youths. This study looked at baseline data from one such intervention in Kenya (N = 3,965), using the financial capabilities framework to evaluate the factors related to youths' saving behaviors...
November 9, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135576/assisted-partner-notification-services-are-cost-effective-for-decreasing-hiv-burden-in-western-kenya-a-mathematical-modeling-analysis
#9
Monisha Sharma, Jennifer A Smith, Carey Farquhar, Roger Ying, Peter Cherutich, Matthew Golden, Beatrice Wamuti, David Bukusi, Hans Spiegel, Ruanne V Barnabas
BACKGROUND: Assisted partner services (aPS) or provider notification for sexual partners of persons diagnosed HIV-positive can increase HIV testing and linkage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and is a high yield strategy to identify HIV-positive persons. However, its cost-effectiveness is not well-evaluated. METHODS: Using effectiveness and cost data from an aPS trial in Kenya, we parameterized an individual-based, dynamic HIV transmission model. We estimated costs for both a program scenario and a task-shifting scenario using community health workers to conduct the intervention...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135063/conductive-microporous-covalent-triazine-based-framework-for-high-performance-electrochemical-capacitive-energy-storage
#10
Weiqiao Deng, Yajuan Li, Shuanghao Zheng, Xue Liu, Pan Li, Lei Sun, Ruixia Yang, Sen Wang, Zhongshuai Wu, Xinhe Bao
Nitrogen enriched porous nanocarbon, graphene and conductive polymers attracted increasing attention in the application of supercapacitors. However, the electrode material possessing large specific surface area (SSA) and high nitrogen doping concentration simultaneously, which is needed for excellent supercapacitors, has not been achieved thus far. Herein, we developed a class of tetracyanoquinodimethane-derived conductive microporous covalent triazine-based frameworks (marked as TCNQ-CTFs) with high nitrogen content (> 8%) and large SSA (> 3600 m²/g) at the same time...
November 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130141/sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-initially-presented-as-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-in-a-male-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
Xiaohan Xu, Tienan Zhu, Di Wu, Lu Zhang
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a potentially lethal multisystem disorder which could be caused by autoimmune diseases. However, the concomitant occurrence of TTP and Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an extremely uncommon scenario, especially in male patients. A 56-year-old Chinese male was admitted for the appearance of diffuse ecchymosis. Then he gradually developed transient slurred speech, progressive confusion, agitation, extremity weakness, and fever. Laboratory investigations suggested anemia, thrombocytopenia, significantly increased lactic dehydrogenase, schistocytes in peripheral blood smear, and a disintegrin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif type 1 member 13 (ADAMTS13) activity deficiency with high inhibitor titers...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129832/multiphoton-minimal-inertia-scanning-for-fast-acquisition-of-neural-activity-signals
#12
Renaud Schuck, Mary Ann Go, Stefania Garasto, Stephanie Reynolds, Pier Luigi Dragotti, Simon Schultz
OBJECTIVE: Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy provides a powerful tool for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural circuit activity. It is, however, intrinsically a point scanning technique. Standard raster scanning enables imaging at subcellular resolution; however, acquisition rates are limited by the size of the field of view to be scanned. Recently developed scanning strategies such as Travelling Salesman Scanning (TSS) have been developed to maximize cellular sampling rate by scanning only select regions in the field of view corresponding to locations of interest such as somata...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129712/estimating-the-annual-risk-of-hiv-transmission-within-hiv-sero-discordant-couples-in-sub-saharan-africa
#13
Susanne F Awad, Hiam Chemaitelly, Laith J Abu-Raddad
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual risk of HIV transmission (ϕ) within HIV sero-discordant couples in 23 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), by utilizing newly-available national population-based data and accounting for factors known to potentially affect this estimation. METHODS: We used a recently-developed pair-based mathematical model that accommodates for HIV-dynamics temporal variation, sexual risk-behavior heterogeneity, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128619/preparation-of-porous-carbon-spheres-from-2-keto-l-gulonic-acid-mother-liquor-by-oxidation-and-activation-for-electric-double-layer-capacitor-application
#14
Zhi-Qiang Hao, Jing-Pei Cao, Xiao-Yan Zhao, Yan Wu, Jun-Sheng Zhu, Ya-Li Dang, Qi-Qi Zhuang, Xian-Yong Wei
A novel strategy is proposed for the increase of specific surface area (SSA) of porous carbon sphere (PCS) by oxidation and activation. 2-keto-l-gulonic acid mother liquor (GAML) as a high-pollution waste has a relatively high value of reutilization. For its high value-added utilization, GAML is used as the precursor for preparation of PCS as carbon-based electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitor. PCS is prepared by hydrothermal carbonization, carbonization and KOH activation, and Fe(NO3)3 9H2O is used as an oxidizing agent during carbonization...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127143/satb1-conditional-knockout-results-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-in-mice
#15
Yuriko Tanaka, Takehiko Sotome, Akiko Inoue, Takanori Mukozu, Taku Kuwabara, Tetuo Mikami, Terumi Kowhi-Shigematsu, Motonari Kondo
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease in which exocrine tissues are affected by cellular and humoral immunity. As a result, the salivary and lacrimal glands of patients with SS are damaged, leading to xerostomia (dry mouth) and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes). Because experimental approaches to investigate SS pathogenesis in human patients are limited, development of a mouse model is indispensable for understanding the disease. In this study, we show that special AT-rich sequence binding protein-1 conditional knockout (SATB1cKO) mice, in which the SATB1 gene is specifically deleted from hematopoietic cells, develop SS by 4 wk of age, soon after weaning...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118002/prevalence-and-risk-factor-for-injury-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multicountry-study
#16
Megan B Diamond, Shona Dalal, Clement Adebamowo, David Guwatudde, Carien Laurence, Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi, Francis Bajunirwe, Marina A Njelekela, Faraja Chiwanga, Hans-Olov Adami, Joan Nankya-Mutyoba, Robert Kalyesubula, Todd G Reid, David Hemenway, Michelle D Holmes
INTRODUCTION: Injury-related morbidity is a neglected health concern in many low-income and middle-income countries. Most injury data in Africa have been collected from hospital-based studies, and few studies have occurred across multiple countries. Using data from a novel cohort, we examined the prevalence and incidence of serious injuries and associated risk factors across five sites in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: A common baseline and follow-up survey was administered to participants...
November 8, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116737/osteoinduction-by-foamed-and-3d-printed-calcium-phosphate-scaffolds-effect-of-nanostructure-and-pore-architecture
#17
Albert Barba, Anna Diez-Escudero, Yassine Maazouz, Katrin Rappe, Montserrat Espanol, Edgar Benjamín Montufar, Mar Bonany, Joanna Maria Sadowska, Jordi Guillem-Marti, Caroline Öhman-Mägi, Cecilia Persson, Maria-Cristina Manzanares, Jordi Franch, Maria-Pau Ginebra
Some biomaterials are osteoinductive, i.e., they are able to trigger the osteogenic process by inducing the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to the osteogenic lineage. Although the underlying mechanism is still unclear, microporosity and specific surface area (SSA) have been identified as critical factors in the material-associated osteoinduction. However, only sintered ceramics, with a limited range of porosities and SSA, have been analysed so far. In this work we were able to extend this range to the nanoscale, through the foaming and 3D-printing of biomimetic calcium phosphates, obtaining scaffolds with controlled micro and nanoporosity together with a tailored macropore architecture...
November 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112926/fabrication-of-mn3o4-carbon-nanotube-composites-with-high-areal-capacitance-using-cationic-and-anionic-dispersants
#18
M S Ata, J Milne, I Zhitomirsky
Mn3O4-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes for supercapacitors with high active mass loadings have been fabricated with the goal of achieving a high area normalized capacitance (CS) and enhanced capacitance retention at high charge-discharge rates. Poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt P(SSA-MA) was used as a charging and dispersing agent for the fabrication of Mn3O4. The unique bonding properties of the MA monomers allowed efficient P(SSA-MA) adsorption on Mn3O4, whereas SSA monomers imparted a negative charge...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112711/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-benzylpenicillin-in-an-adult-severely-ill-sub-saharan-african-patient-population
#19
Jeannet C Bos, Reinier M van Hest, Mabor C Mistício, Ginto Nunguiane, Cláudia N Lang, José C Beirão, Ron A A Mathôt, Jan M Prins
Background: In intensive care (ICU) patients, systemic exposure of β-lactam antibiotics can be altered, and positive clinical outcome is associated with increasing fT>MIC ratios. In sub-Saharan African (SSA) hospitals, benzylpenicillin (PEN) is frequently used for the empirical treatment of severe pneumococcal infections. Pharmacokinetic data for non-ICU hospitalized populations are lacking. Methods: We performed a population pharmacokinetic (PPK) study in an adult Mozambican hospital population treated intravenously with PEN from October 2014-November 2015...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104809/mycobacterium-intracellulare-infection-mimicking-progression-of-scleroderma
#20
Simon Krabbe, Merete Engelhart, Sören Thybo, Søren Jacobsen
This case report describes a patient with scleroderma who developed Mycobacterium intracellulare infection, which for more than a year mimicked worsening of her connective tissue disorder. The patient was diagnosed with scleroderma based on puffy fingers that developed into sclerodactyly, abnormal nail fold capillaries, interstitial lung disease, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, and positivity for rheumatoid factor and anti-SSA antibodies. She developed massive inflammatory changes of the cutis, the subcutis, and the muscle fasciae of the right leg, that after several failed attempts of immunosuppressive treatments were found to be caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare...
2017: Case Reports in Rheumatology
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