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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684931/-multiresistant-bacteria-antibiotic-prescription-and-antibiotics-of-last-resort
#1
Winfried V Kern
Ascertaining critical indications for antibiotics and rational prescribing can delay and minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance. Room for improvement lies in particular in a stricter indication, in shortening antibiotic treatment and in initiating more targeted therapies with narrow-spectrum drugs. Not all infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms require treatment with reserve drugs. Detailed susceptibility testing together with enhanced knowledge of pharmacokinetics and -dynamics are needed for adequate treatment decisions...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684930/-prevention-and-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#2
Simone Scheithauer, Martin Kaase
Patients colonized or infected by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) are entitled to the same medical treatment as other patients and infection control measures based on the current evidence are not in conflict with this aim. Recent studies indicate that the correct sampling technique is of utmost importance when screening for MRSA and usage of certain swabs might reduce the sensitivity considerably. Despite improvements in diagnostic strategies for direct MRSA detection by PCR, false positive results cannot be totally excluded...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684889/combination-of-a-recombinant-bacterium-with-organonitrile-degrading-and-biofilm-forming-capability-and-a-positively-charged-carrier-for-organonitriles-removal
#3
Chunyan Li, Yueling Sun, Zhenlei Yue, Mingyan Huang, Jinming Wang, Xi Chen, Xuejiao An, Hailian Zang, Dapeng Li, Ning Hou
The immobilization of organonitrile-degrading bacteria via the addition of biofilm-forming bacteria represents a promising technology for the treatment of organonitrile-containing wastewater, but biofilm-forming bacteria simply mixed with degrading bacteria may reduce the biodegradation efficiency. Nitrile hydratase and amidase genes, which play critical roles in organonitriles degradation, were cloned and transformed into the biofilm-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis N4 to construct a recombinant bacterium B...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684828/identification-of-candidate-genes-mediating-apple-fruit-cracking-resistance-following-the-application-of-gibberellic-acids-4-7-and-the-cytokinin-6-benzyladenine
#4
Mukul Joshi, Ravi Singh Baghel, Edna Fogelman, Raphael A Stern, Idit Ginzberg
Calyx-end cracking in 'Pink Lady' apple is treated by a solution of gibberellic acids 4 and 7 (GA4+7 ) and the cytokinin 6-benzyladenine (BA). Although the GA4+7 and BA mixture is applied early in apple fruit development, it mitigates cracking that becomes evident in the mature fruit, implying a long-term treatment effect. The reduced incidence of peel cracking is associated with increased epidermal cell density, which is maintained until fruit maturation. Presently, the expression of genes that have been previously reported to be associated with epidermal cell patterning and cuticle formation, or cracking resistance, was monitored in the peel during fruit development and following GA4+7 and BA treatment...
April 14, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684817/avermectin-toxicity-in-bovines-less-than-thirty-days-old
#5
Daniel de Castro Rodrigues, Carolina Buzullini, Tiago Arantes Pereira, Breno Cayeiro Curz, Lucas Vinicius Costa Gomes, Vando Edésio Soares, Thiago Souza Azeredo Bastos, Luiz Fellipe Monteiro Couto, Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes, Gilson Pereira de Oliveira, Alvimar José da Costa
The present study was designed to evaluate possible adverse effects of different dosages of avermectins (abamectin and a combination of ivermectin + abamectin) administered subcutaneously in calves less than one month of age. Clinical as well as biochemical parameters of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were evaluated for animals subjected to various treatments. Thirty-five calves were divided into seven groups of five animals each: T01 (control), T02 (abamectin 200 μg/kg), T03 (abamectin 400 μg/kg), T04 (abamectin 600 μg/kg), T05 (ivermectin 450 μg/kg + abamectin 250 μg/kg), T06 (ivermectin 900 μg/kg + abamectin 500 μg/kg) and T07 (ivermectin 1350 μg/kg + abamectin 750 μg/kg)...
April 16, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684767/individual-and-combined-efficacies-of-mild-heat-and-ultraviolet-c-radiation-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-salmonella-enterica-and-listeria-monocytogenes-in-coconut-liquid-endosperm
#6
Alonzo A Gabriel, Jeffrey M Ostonal, Jannelle O Cristobal, Gladess A Pagal, John Vincent E Armada
This study determined the inactivation kinetic parameters of selected pathogens in heat, ultraviolet-C and combined heat-UV-C treated coconut liquid endosperm. Separate cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovars, and Listeria monocytogenes strains were inoculated into coconut liquid endosperm (pH 5.15, TSS 4.4o Bx, TA 0.062% malic acid, extinction coefficient (ε) at 254 nm of 0.0154 cm-1 ) for inactivation studies. Result showed that all organisms generally exhibited a log-linear heat inactivation behavior (R2 0...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684612/effects-of-dietary-trehalose-on-the-growth-performance-and-nonspecific-immunity-of-white-shrimps-litopenaeus-vannamei
#7
Ming Zhu, Xiaohua Long, Shengjun Wu
This study aimed to investigate the effects of trehalose on the growth performance and nonspecific immunity of white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei). The shrimps were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. control group fed with normal commercial diet and three treatment groups fed with trehalose-containing diets (0.5, 1 and 1.5 g kg-1 ) and experimental diets during a 12-week breeding experiment. Oral trehalose administration significantly improved the body weight; food efficiency; survival rate; phenoloxidase activity; superoxide dismutase activity; glutathione peroxidase level; total haemocyte count; hyaline, semigranular and granular cell numbers; and disease resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus relative to those of the control group (p < 0...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684610/fishmeal-replacement-by-rice-protein-concentrate-with-xylooligosaccharides-supplement-benefits-the-growth-performance-antioxidant-capability-and-immune-responses-against-aeromonas-hydrophila-in-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#8
Kenneth Prudence Abasubong, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang, Xiang-Yang Yuan, Si-Lei Xia, Chao Xu, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to investigate the effects of fishmeal (FM) replacement by rice protein concentrate (RPC) with a xylooligosaccharides supplement on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response against Aeromonas hydrophila in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (46.85 ± 0.34 g) were randomly assigned to one of 6 diets, namely the control diet (containing FM), the RPC diet (FM replaced by RPC) and RPC diet supplemented with 0.5, 1.5, 2.3 and 3% XOS respectively, for 8 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684566/eltrombopag-for-the-treatment-of-of-refractory-pure-red-cell-aplasia-after-major-abo-incompatible-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Alessandro Busca, Chiara Dellacasa, Luisa Giaccone, Sara Manetta, Lucia Biale, Laura Godio, Semra Aydin, Moreno Festuccia, Lucia Brunello, Benedetto Bruno
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCS) is a well-recognized complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Many therapeutic options are available to treat this condition, including erythropoietin, rituximab, bortezomib, plasma exchange, immunoadsorption, donor lymphocyte infusion, mesenchymal stem cells, anti-thymocyte globulin and high-dose steroids; however treatment outcomes are often variable and can sometimes lead to disappointing results. In this brief article we report our experience with two patients with PRCA after major AB0-incompatible HSCT who were resistant to multiple therapeutic interventions and who eventually benefited from treatment with eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin mimetic approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura or severe aplastic anemia (SAA), refractory to immunosuppressive agents or not eligible to HSCT...
April 20, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684541/antimicrobial-activity-of-nanoemulsion-on-drug-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#10
Rajapandiyan Krishnamoorthy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periyasamy, Abdulraheem R Adisa, Mohammed A Al-Shuniaber, Mustafa A Gassem, Ali A Alshatwi
The appearance of drug-resistant (DR) bacteria in the community is a crucial development, and is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and antibiotic use. Natural oil nanoemulsions (NEs) have potential for antimicrobial applications. In the present study, we determined the antimicrobial activity of an NE against DR bacterial pathogens in vitro. The NE comprised Cleome viscosa essential oil, Tween 80 nonionic surfactant, and water. We found that an NE with a droplet size of 7 nm and an oil:surfactant (v/v) ratio of 1:3 was effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), DR Streptococcus pyogenes, and DR extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684384/knockdown-of-poldip2-suppresses-tumor-growth-and-invasion-capacity-and-is-linked-to-unfavorable-transformation-ability-and-metastatic-feature-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Ying-Chieh Chen, Chih-Chi Kuo, Chih-Feng Chian, Ching Tzao, Shan-Yueh Chang, Yu-Lueng Shih, Ya-Wen Lin, Mu-Hsien Yu, Her-Young Su
The main problem in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known as the critical signaling in tumor progression, metastasis, and also the drug resistance. In this study, we reported a novel gene Polymerase delta-interacting protein 2 (POLDIP2) was downregulated in NSCLC tissues and first demonstrated that overexpression of POLDIP2 increased the anchorage-independent growth (AIG) and invasiveness of H1299 cells. In addition, we examined that knockdown of POLDIP2 in H1299 and A549 cells reduced tumorigenicity and metastatic capacity in vitro and also in vivo...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684344/er-stress-attenuation-by-aloe-derived-polysaccharides-in-the-protection-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-free-fatty-acid-induced-lipotoxicity
#12
K S Kim, M H Chung, S Y Park, J M Cha, J H Baek, S Y Lee, S-Y Choi
Insulin resistance, a pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, is associated with obesity. Lipotoxicity in obesity leads to the dysfunction and death of pancreatic β-cells and inadequate insulin production, thereby aggravating type 2 diabetes. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of Aloe vera polysaccharides (APs) as an anti-hyperglycemic agent and their mechanisms of action. Gel polysaccharides from Aloe extracts were separated using ultrafiltration devices with molecular weight-cutoff membranes, and the protective effect of APs on pancreatic β-cells in response to free fatty acids (FFAs) was determined...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684315/sleep-disorders-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Ali A El-Solh, Usman Riaz, Jasmine Roberts
A growing body of evidence supports a bidirectional relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances. Fragmented sleep induced by sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, and nightmares impacts recovery and treatment outcomes and worsens PTSD symptoms. Despite recent attention, management of these disorders has been unrewarding in the setting of PTSD. This review summarizes the evidence for empirically supported treatments of these sleep ailments as it relates to PTSD including psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic interventions...
April 20, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684274/preclinical-development-of-novel-psma-targeting-radioligands-modulation-of-albumin-binding-properties-to-improve-prostate-cancer-therapy
#14
Christoph A Umbricht, Martina Benesova, Roger Schibli, Cristina Müller
The treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains challenging with current treatment options. The development of more effective therapies is, therefore, urgently needed. Targeted radionuclide therapy with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting ligands has revealed promising clinical results. In an effort to optimize this concept, it was the aim of this study to design and investigate PSMA ligands comprising different types of albumin binders. PSMA-ALB-53 and PSMA-ALB-56 were designed by combining the glutamate-urea PSMA-binding entity, a DOTA chelator and an albumin binder based on the 4-(p-iodophenyl)-moiety or p-(tolyl)-moiety...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684161/impact-of-heat-stress-during-the-follicular-phase-on-porcine-ovarian-steroidogenic-and-phosphatidylinositol-3-signaling
#15
M J Dickson, C L Hager, A Al-Shaibi, P Q Thomas, L H Baumgard, J W Ross, A F Keating
Environmental conditions that impede heat dissipation and increase body temperature cause heat stress (HS). The study objective was to evaluate impacts of HS on the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. Post-pubertal gilts (126.0 ± 21.6 kg) were orally administered altrenogest to synchronize estrus, and subjected to either 5 d of thermal neutral (TN; 20.3 ± 0.5°C; n = 6) or cyclical HS (25.4 - 31.9°C; n = 6) conditions during the follicular phase preceding behavioral estrus. On d 5, blood samples were obtained, gilts were euthanized, and ovaries collected...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684150/prevalence-and-characterization-of-azole-resistant-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-prospective-multicentre-study-in-germany
#16
R Seufert, L Sedlacek, B Kahl, M Hogardt, A Hamprecht, G Haase, F Gunzer, A Haas, S Grauling-Halama, C R MacKenzie, A Essig, F Stehling, S Sutharsan, S Dittmer, D Killengray, D Schmidt, N Eskandarian, E Steinmann, J Buer, F Hagen, J F Meis, P-M Rath, J Steinmann
Objectives: Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent filamentous fungus in the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this prospective multicentre study was to investigate the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus (ARAF) in respiratory secretions from CF patients across Germany and to characterize ARAF isolates by phenotypic and molecular methods. Methods: Twelve tertiary care centres from Germany participated in the study. In total, 2888 A...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684127/the-presence-of-colisitn-resistance-gene-mcr-1-and-3-in-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-food-in-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#17
Takahiro Yamaguchi, Ryuji Kawahara, Kazuo Harada, Shihono Teruya, Tatsuya Nakayama, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Phuc Do Nguyen, Yuko Kumeda, Chinh Van Dang, Kazumasa Hirata, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Colistin is indicated for the treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial infections. However, the spread of colistin-resistant bacteria harboring a mcr gene has become a serious concern. This study investigated local foods in Vietnam for contamination with colistin-resistant bacteria. A total of 261 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolates from 330 meat and seafood products were analyzed for colistin susceptibility and the presence of mcr genes. Approximately 24% (62/261) of ESBL- or AmpC-producing E...
April 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684045/autophagic-flux-blockage-by-accumulation-of-weakly-basic-tenovins-leads-to-elimination-of-b-raf-mutant-tumour-cells-that-survive-vemurafenib
#18
Marcus J G W Ladds, Andrés Pastor-Fernández, Gergana Popova, Ingeborg M M van Leeuwen, Kai Er Eng, Catherine J Drummond, Lars Johansson, Richard Svensson, Nicholas J Westwood, Anna R McCarthy, Fredrik Tholander, Mihaela Popa, David P Lane, Emmet McCormack, Gerald M McInerney, Ravi Bhatia, Sonia Laín
Tenovin-6 is the most studied member of a family of small molecules with antitumour activity in vivo. Previously, it has been determined that part of the effects of tenovin-6 associate with its ability to inhibit SirT1 and activate p53. However, tenovin-6 has also been shown to modulate autophagic flux. Here we show that blockage of autophagic flux occurs in a variety of cell lines in response to certain tenovins, that autophagy blockage occurs regardless of the effect of tenovins on SirT1 or p53, and that this blockage is dependent on the aliphatic tertiary amine side chain of these molecules...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683992/the-risk-of-nephrotoxicity-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-treated-with-kanamycin-capreomycin-with-or-without-concomitant-use-of-tenofovir-containing-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
R Perumal, N Abdelghani, N Naidu, N Yende-Zuma, H Dawood, K Naidoo, N Singh, N Padayatchi
BACKGROUND: The intersection of HIV and drug-resistant TB presents the challenge of managing convergent drug toxicities. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of adult drug-resistant TB patients treated with a kanamycin/capreomycin-based(KM) regimen, with or without concomitant ART. We estimated the incidence of nephrotoxicity (defined as an increase in serum creatinine greater than 26.5µmol, or an increase in serum creatinine to 1.5 times the baseline value, or a decline in eGFR to less than 60ml/min/1...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683891/il-21-increases-the-reactivity-of-allogeneic-human-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-against-primary-glioblastoma-tumors
#20
Noémie Joalland, Cynthia Chauvin, Lisa Oliver, François M Vallette, Claire Pecqueur, Ulrich Jarry, Emmanuel Scotet
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains the most frequent and deadliest primary brain tumor in adults despite aggressive treatments, because of the persistence of infiltrative and resistant tumor cells. Nonalloreactive human Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes, the major peripheral γδ T-cell subset in adults, represent attractive effectors for designing immunotherapeutic strategies to track and eliminate brain tumor cells, with limited side effects. We analyzed the effects of ex vivo sensitizations of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells by IL-21, a modulating cytokine, on their cytolytic reactivity...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
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