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Treatment resistance

Youbing Zhu, Shuili Yu, Bing Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Dongsheng Zhao, Zhengyang Gu, Chao Gong, Guicai Liu
Alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding wastewater is highly caustic, and membrane fouling is the main obstacle during ASP ultrafiltration (UF) treatment. To maintain favorable filtration performance, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes were implemented here, and their antifouling properties and mechanisms were investigated based on the threshold flux theory. Compared with the PVDF membranes, the PTFE membranes exhibited superior antifouling properties with lower reductions in flux and smaller hydraulic resistance, and they presented a nearly identical pseudo-stable fouling rate at a later time point...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Meng-Na Zhang, Li-Ping Zou, Yang-Yang Wang, Ling-Yu Pang, Shu-Fang Ma, Lu-Lu Huang, Yang Gao, Qian Lu, David Neal Franz
PURPOSE: Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene and results in the over-activation of the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, is clinically used to treat hamartomatous lesionsas in TSC and its effect on controlling epilepsy is also reported in many studies. This study aims to evaluate the risk factors of pharmacoresistant epilepsy in patients with TSC receiving long-term rapamycin treatment...
June 15, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Karolien Van De Maele, Roland Devlieger, Inge Gies
The offspring of women with obesity during their pregnancy are exposed to an altered intra-uterine environment. A subsequent influence on the cardiovascular development during fetal life is assumed. In the present thematic review, we report on the current knowledge about this early development of cardiovascular disease from fetal life until adolescence. Based on animal studies, different contributing mechanisms have been hypothesized that still need confirmation in human subjects. Insulin resistance, increased levels of leptin, chronic inflammatory state, perturbation of sympathetic tone and epigenetic modifications contribute to a suboptimal nutrient environment and changed hemodynamics...
June 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Mahdi Parsaei, Ahmad Reisi, Adel Spotin, Abbas Shahbazi, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Teimour Hazratian, Alireza Salimi Khorashad, Jalal Zaman, Ahad Bazmani, Sedighe Sarafraz
The rising use of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) in the treatment of chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has resulted in increased exposure to P. vivax isolates in Iran, where both species are being circulated. In this investigation, the frequency of pvdhfr and pvmdr-1 mutants was assessed in P. vivax strains during 2001-2016 after the introduction of SP/CQ in malarious areas of Iran. The P. vivax isolates (n, 52) were obtained from autochthonous samples in Southeast Iran during 2015-2016. The genomic DNA was extracted and examined using nested polymerase chain reaction-(PCR) and sequencing...
June 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Mohammad Rasheduzzaman, Ji-Hong Moon, Ju-Hee Lee, Uddin Md Nazim, Sang-Youel Park
Telmisartan broadly used for the treatment of hypertension that is also known for its anticancer properties. TRAIL has the potential to kill tumor cells with minimal toxicity in normal cells by binding to death receptors, DR4 and DR5. Unfortunately, these TRAIL-death receptors have failed as most human cancers are resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated telmisartan as a novel TRAIL-DR5-targeting agent with the aim of rendering TRAIL-based cancer therapies more active. Herein, we demonstrated that telmisartan could sensitize TRAIL and enhance NSCLC tumor cell death...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
S N Sunil Gowda, S Rajasowmiya, V Vadivel, S Banu Devi, A Celestin Jerald, S Marimuthu, N Devipriya
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the most widely used treatment method for treating cancer with or without surgery and chemotherapy. In lung cancer, it is one of the important treatment steps in excising the tumor from the lung tissue; unfortunately, radiation can induce epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT), a typical physiological process in which cuboidal shaped epithelial cell loses its phenotype and acquires mesenchymal-like phenotype thus, increases the metastasis progression in the body...
June 18, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Eun Hye Kim, Daiha Shin, Jaewang Lee, Ah Ra Jung, Jong-Lyel Roh
Sulfasalazine has been repurposed to induce ferroptotic cancer cell death via inhibition of xc - -cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT). However, cancer cells are capable of developing mechanisms to evade cell death. Therefore, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to sulfasalazine-induced ferroptosis in head and neck cancer (HNC). The effects of sulfasalazine and pioglitazone were tested in various HNC cell lines. The effects of these drugs and inhibition and overexpression of CISD2 gene were determined by evaluating viability, cell death, lipid ROS production, mitochondrial iron, and mouse tumor xenograft models...
June 18, 2018: Cancer Letters
István Szabadkai, Robert Torka, Rita Garamvölgyi, Ferenc Baska, Pál Gyulavári, Sándor Boros, Eszter Illyés, Axel Choidas, Axel Ullrich, László Őrfi
The overexpression of AXL kinase has been described in many types of cancer. Due to its role in proliferation, survival, migration and resistance AXL represents a promising target in the treatment of the disease. In this study we present a novel compound family which successfully targets the AXL kinase. Through optimization and detailed SAR studies we developed low nanomolar inhibitors and after further biological characterization we identified a selective and applicable AXL kinase inhibitor with favorable pharmacokinetic profile...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Letícia S Czepielewski, Marina D B Londero, Mathias H de Sousa, Carolina P Perin, Helena C Maldonado, Felipe C A Claudino, Clarissa S Gama
Clozapine is more efficacious than first-generation antipsychotics for positive and negative symptoms, although it is related with serious adverse effects. Because of this profile, it could also have an impact on cognition. Therefore, we evaluated learning ability of 31 treatment-resistant individuals with SZ using clozapine uninterruptedly for 18.23 ± 4.71 years and 26 non-treatment-resistant using other antipsychotics that never used clozapine. Long-term treatment with clozapine did not improve verbal learning ability better than other antipsychotics...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Suryakant Niture, Malathi Ramalinga, Habib Kedir, Dorrelyn Patacsil, Samiksha S Niture, James Li, Haresh Mani, Simeng Suy, Sean Collins, Deepak Kumar
Tumor necrosis factor-α-inducible protein 8 (TNFAIP8) is a TNF-α inducible anti-apoptotic protein with multiple roles in tumor growth and survival. Mechanisms of cell survival by TNFAIP8 remain elusive. We investigated the role of TNFAIP8 in the regulation of the cell cycle, autophagy, cell survival and neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells. We showed that TNFAIP8 dysregulates cell-cycle-related proteins, in PC3 cells. Oncogenic cell survival, drug resistance and dysregulation of cell cycle-related proteins are often associated with autophagy...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Xu-Qin Feng, Li-Wen Rong, Rui-Xue Wang, Xue-Lian Zheng, Lei Zhang, Lin Zhang, Yong Lin, Xia Wang, Zhi-Ping Li
Sorafenib is a small-molecule multi-kinase inhibitor approved by FDA as an oral agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal cell carcinoma. However, unresponsiveness and acquired resistance are commonly observed, which hinder the clinical use of sorafenib. As combination therapy is a promising approach to improve its efficacy, we investigated if sorafenib and luteolin combination is effective in killing human HCC cells. Cell death was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) releasing assay...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Xiu-Tao Fu, Kang Song, Jian Zhou, Ying-Hong Shi, Wei-Ren Liu, Meng-Xin Tian, Lei Jin, Guo-Ming Shi, Qiang Gao, Zhen-Bin Ding, Jia Fan
Glutathione transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1) induces cancer drug resistance by hydrolyzing cancer chemotherapeutics or activating the anti-apoptosis pathway. However, the chemoresistance-inducing mechanism of GSTM1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In the present study, the expression of GSTM1 was examined in three HCC cell lines. Oxaliplatin and sorafenib were selected as chemotherapeutic agents. Small interfering RNA was used to decrease GSTM1 expression. Cell death was measured using MTT and annexin V/propidium iodide assays...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Joanna Huszno, Ewa Grzybowska
Tumor protein 53 ( TP53 ) is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes tumor protein p53. Tumor protein p53 regulates the expression of target genes in response to cellular stress. Additionally, p53 participates in the regulation of cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and apoptosis. Mutations in the TP53 gene are associated with numerous types of human cancer, including breast cancer, sarcomas, brain tumors and adrenal cortical carcinomas. In breast cancer, TP53 mutations are a negative prognostic factor. Tumors with TP53 mutations are more likely to be aggressive (triple-negative or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer), and resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Parisa Zargar, Esmaeel Ghani, Farideh Jalali Mashayekhi, Amin Ramezani, Ebrahim Eftekhar
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy improves the overall survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, only a small proportion of patients respond to 5-FU when used as a single agent. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the anticancer property of 5-FU is potentiated by combination treatment with acriflavine (ACF) in CRC cells. Additionally, the potential underlying molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxic effect of ACF were determined. The cytotoxic effects of ACF, 5-FU and irinotecan on different CRC cell lines with different p53 status were investigated using an MTT assay...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Ying-Jie Yi, Xiu-Hong Jia, Cong Zhu, Jian-Yong Wang, Jie-Ru Chen, Hong Wang, You-Jie Li
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in leukemia cells is a major obstacle to chemotherapeutic treatment. High expression and constitutive activation of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) has been associated with the development of resistance to anticancer drugs in a number of tumor types. The activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) is associated with the occurrence of MDR and MRP1 expression. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of solanine to resensitize the Adriamycin® (ADR)-resistant human myelogenous leukemia cell line K562/ADM to ADR...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Wenzheng Xia, Meng Hou
Doxorubicin (DOXO) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of various types of cancer. However, cardiotoxicity is a major side effect of DOXO therapy due to the ability of this compound to induce cardiac cellular senescence. It is well known that microRNA (miR)-34a serves a role in cardiac dysfunction and ageing, and that it is involved in several cellular processes associated with DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have been reported to modulate cellular senescence...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Masaru Kawanishi, Takeshi Fukuda, Masahiro Shimomura, Yuta Inoue, Takuma Wada, Reiko Tasaka, Tomoyo Yasui, Toshiyuki Sumi
The standard treatment for ovarian serous carcinoma is maximum debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Despite the high response rate for chemotherapy, the majority of patients will be resistant to first-line agents and the prognosis for these patients is particularly poor. Currently there are no reliable methods to determine or predict platinum resistance. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is widely expressed in cancer cells and regulates the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). A reduction in ROS is associated with carcinogenesis and chemoresistance...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Shuhui Hong, Xiaoyan Li, Ying Zhao, Qifeng Yang, Beihua Kong
The major problems faced during the treatment of ovarian cancer are metastasis and the development of intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. The present study assessed whether tumor protein p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) regulated migration and modulated chemotherapy resistance in SKOV3 cells and identified proteins associated with the molecular mechanisms underlying this coordinate regulation. SKOV3 cells were transfected using a 53BP1-expressing vector, which induced 53BP1 overexpression. The migration of the transfected cells was observed using a Transwell assay...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Lukas Jennewein, Georg Bartsch, Kilian Gust, Hans-Michael Kvasnicka, Axel Haferkamp, Roman Blaheta, Michel Mittelbronn, Patrick N Harter, Jens Mani
Testicular germ cell cancer in a metastatic state is curable with a cisplatin-based first line chemotherapy. However, 10-15% of these patients are resistant to first line chemotherapy and are thus left with only palliative options. Immunotherapies and inhibition of angiogenesis used in multiple types of cancer; however, the molecular context of angiogenesis and immune checkpoints in the development and progression of testicular cancers is still unknown. Therefore, the present study performed tissue micro array based analysis of 84 patients with immunohistochemistry of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) of testicular cancer and corresponding normal appearing testis tissue, matching the results with clinical data...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Changwen Jing, Haixia Cao, Xiaobing Qin, Shaorong Yu, Jianzhong Wu, Zhuo Wang, Rong Ma, Jifeng Feng
Acquired resistance to gefitinib remains a major challenge in cancer treatment. In the present study, the effect of exosomes on the transmission of gefitinib resistance from gefitinib-resistant HCC827 lung cancer cells (H827R) to their gefitinib-sensitive counterparts and the potential underlying mechanisms by which this occurs was investigated. Exosomes were obtained from the cell supernatant using ultracentrifugation and the ExoQuick-TC exosome precipitation solution. Drug resistance was assessed by flow cytometry, apoptosis assays and cell counting kit-8 assays...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
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