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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441717/dexmedetomidine-relieves-formaldehyde-induced-pain-in-rats-through-both-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-and-imidazoline-receptor
#1
Hong Zhang, Xiang Yan, De-Gui Wang, Yu-Fang Leng, Zhan-Hai Wan, Yong-Qiang Liu, Yan Zhang
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective α2 adrenergic receptor agonist. In this study, we investigated the analgesic effect and the underlying mechanisms of DEX on inflammatory visceral pain in rats. Twenty-five male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including control, sham, low dose DEX, medium dose DEX and high dose DEX group. Pain was induced with 10% formalin and scored every 15min till 2 h-post the induction. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to evaluate the toxicity of DEX on spinal cord neurons...
April 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441593/a-comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-environmental-quality-of-a-coastal-lagoon-ravenna-italy-integrating-chemical-and-physiological-analyses-in-mussels-as-a-biomonitoring-strategy
#2
Marco Capolupo, Silvia Franzellitti, Alisar Kiwan, Paola Valbonesi, Enrico Dinelli, Emanuela Pignotti, Manfred Birke, Elena Fabbri
This study aimed at evaluating the environmental quality of a coastal lagoon (Pialassa Piomboni, NW-Adriatic, Italy) by combining analyses of biomarkers of environmental stress and bioaccumulation of contaminants in marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) transplanted for 28days to six selected sites. Assessed biomarkers encompassed lysosomal endpoints, oxidative stress and detoxification parameters, specific responses to metals, neuro- and genotoxic substances; chemical analyses focused on PAHs, metals, pesticide and pharmaceuticals...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441464/crucial-roles-of-pox-neuro-in-the-developing-ellipsoid-body-and-antennal-lobes-of-the-drosophila-brain
#3
Shilpi Minocha, Werner Boll, Markus Noll
The paired box gene Pox neuro (Poxn) is expressed in two bilaterally symmetric neuronal clusters of the developing adult Drosophila brain, a protocerebral dorsal cluster (DC) and a deutocerebral ventral cluster (VC). We show that all cells that express Poxn in the developing brain are postmitotic neurons. During embryogenesis, the DC and VC consist of only 20 and 12 neurons that express Poxn, designated embryonic Poxn-neurons. The number of Poxn-neurons increases only during the third larval instar, when the DC and VC increase dramatically to about 242 and 109 Poxn-neurons, respectively, virtually all of which survive to the adult stage, while no new Poxn-neurons are added during metamorphosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441372/assessing-response-of-high-grade-gliomas-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#4
Solmaz Sahebjam, Dexter G Stallworth, Sepideh Mokhtari, Nam D Tran, John A Arrington
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapeutic agents, especially checkpoint inhibitors, have emerged as the mainstay of therapy for several solid and hematological malignancies. These therapies are under investigation for the treatment of high-grade gliomas and brain metastases. METHODS: This article reviews the unique challenges encountered when evaluating changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of glioblastomas seen in response to immunotherapy and checkpoint inhibitors and how to effectively incorporate MRI findings into the response assessment of high-grade gliomas to these emerging therapies...
April 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440093/turmeric-curcuma-longa-l-extract-may-prevent-the-deterioration-of-spatial-memory-and-the-deficit-of-estimated-total-number-of-hippocampal-pyramidal-cells-of-trimethyltin-exposed-rats
#5
Sapto Yuliani, Mustofa, Ginus Partadiredja
CONTEXT: Protection of neurons from degeneration is an important preventive strategy for dementia. Much of the dementia pathology implicates oxidative stress pathways. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcuminoids which has anti-oxidative and neuro-protective effects. These effects are considered to be similar to those of citicoline which has been regularly used as one of standard medications for dementia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating the effects of turmeric rhizome extract on the hippocampus of trimethyltin (TMT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440058/atypical-inter-hemispheric-communication-correlates-with-altered-motor-inhibition-during-learning-of-a-new-bimanual-coordination-pattern-in-developmental-coordination-disorder
#6
Mélody Blais, David Amarantini, Jean-Michel Albaret, Yves Chaix, Jessica Tallet
Impairment of motor learning skills in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) has been reported in several studies. Some hypotheses on neural mechanisms of motor learning deficits in DCD have emerged but, to date, brain-imaging investigations are scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess possible changes in communication between brain areas during practice of a new bimanual coordination task in teenagers with DCD (n = 10) compared to matched controls (n = 10). Accuracy, stability and number of mirror movements were computed as behavioural variables...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439771/neurobiological-programming-of-early-life-stress-functional-development-of-amygdala-prefrontal-circuitry-and-vulnerability-for-stress-related-psychopathology
#7
Michelle R VanTieghem, Nim Tottenham
Early adverse experiences are associated with heighted vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology across the lifespan. While extensive work has investigated the effects of early adversity on neurobiology in adulthood, developmental approaches can provide further insight on the neurobiological mechanisms that link early experiences and long-term mental health outcomes. In the current review, we discuss the role of emotion regulation circuitry implicated in stress-related psychopathology from a developmental and transdiagnostic perspective...
April 25, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438666/how-to-choose-the-right-mr-sequence-for-your-research-question-at-7-t-and-above
#8
José P Marques, David G Norris
The choice of a pulse sequence at ultra-high field can be influenced by a number of considerations and constraints that are not always the same as those at lower fields. Foremost amongst these is of course the information required and the time available, but considerations of static main field- and transmit field- inhomogeneities as well as power deposition can also play an important role. In this review we first briefly examine the characteristics of high field MRI, and then describe the performance and constraints relevant to the major imaging readouts, and their implementation with parallel imaging techniques...
April 21, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438472/shared-metabolic-and-immune-inflammatory-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-pathways-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-mood-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Luiz Gustavo Piccoli de Melo, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes, George Anderson, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Décio Sabbattini Barbosa, Piotr Galecki, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
This review examines the shared immune-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) and metabolic pathways underpinning metabolic syndrome (MetS), bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Shared pathways in both MetS and mood disorders are low grade inflammation, including increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, increased lipid peroxidation with formation of malondialdehyde and oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), hypernitrosylation, lowered levels of antioxidants, most importantly zinc and paraoxonase (PON1), increased bacterial translocation (leaky gut), increased atherogenic index of plasma and Castelli risk indices; and reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) cholesterol...
April 21, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437179/mechanically-oriented-3d-collagen-hydrogel-for-directing-neurite-growth
#10
Merav Antman-Passig, Shahar Levy, Chaim Gartenberg, Hadas Schori, Orit Shefi
Recent studies in the field of neuro-tissue engineering have demonstrated the promising effects of aligned contact guidance cue scaffolds of enhancement and direction of neuronal growth. In-vivo, neurons grow and develop neurites in a complex 3-Dimensional (3D) extra cellular matrix (ECM) surrounding. Studies have utilized hydrogel scaffolds derived from ECM molecules to better simulate natural growth. While many efforts have been made to control neuronal growth on 2D surfaces, the development of 3D scaffolds with an elaborate oriented topography to direct neuronal growth still remains a challenge...
February 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436837/passive-bci-in-operational-environments-insights-recent-advances-and-future-trends
#11
Pietro Arico, Gianluca Borghini, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Alfredo Colosimo, Fabio Babiloni
OBJECTIVE: this mini-review aims to highlight recent important aspects to consider and evaluate when passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems would be developed and used in operational environments, and remarks future directions of their applications. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG)-based pBCI has become an important tool for real-time analysis of brain activity, since it could potentially provide, covertly - without distracting the user from the main task - and objectively - not affected by the subjective judgement of an observer or the user itself - information about the operator cognitive state...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435855/first-clinical-experiences-with-a-novel-endoscopic-over-the-scope-clip-system
#12
Marco Dinelli, Barbara Omazzi, Paolo Andreozzi, Nicola Zucchini, Alessandro Redaelli, Gianpiero Manes
We describe our experience with a new over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system (Padlock Clip?) in the treatment of 14 patients. Eight of the 14 patients were treated for closure of gastrointestinal fistulas (n?=?4), iatrogenic gastrointestinal perforations (n?=?2), or hemostasis of post-polypectomy bleeding (n?=?2). The site of clipping was the lower gastrointestinal tract in five patients and the upper gastrointestinal tract in three patients. The clip was successfully delivered in seven out of the eight patients and clinical success was achieved in all patients...
March 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435768/cortical-blindness-as-severe-neuro-ophthalmological-manifestation-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#13
Alvaro I Ortiz Z, Pedro Luis Cárdenas, Luis C Escaf, Marcela Peralta
Patients with retinal lesions related to tuberous sclerous complex (TSC) commonly have no impairment of visual acuity. We present a case of a 1-year-old Hispanic girl with TSC in which bilateral cortical blindness is documented.
2017: GMS Ophthalmology Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435297/the-role-of-kpn%C3%AE-1-in-neuro-oncology
#14
EDITORIAL
Megan Lilley, Faris Farassati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434268/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-uch-l1-as-a-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-target-in-neurodegeneration-neurotrauma-and-neuro-injuries
#15
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, George Sarkis, Isabel Torres, Vijaya Raghavan
Since its discovery as a major CNS-abundant protein 25 years ago, Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has emerged as an important enzyme in regulating brain protein metabolism, by coupling to the proteasome pathway of protein degradation. Areas covered: UCH-L1 is implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson disease and other chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Also, UCH-L1 has been recently emerging as a biofluid-based biomarker for various forms of acute neurotrauma and CNS injury. Expert opinion: The loss of UCH-L1 activity coupled with the gain of proteinopathy function are linked to neurodegeneration such as Parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease...
April 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432473/vasopressin-and-vasopressin-antagonists-in-heart-failure
#16
Julie K Vishram-Nielsen, Finn Gustafsson
Despite the introduction of multiple new pharmacological agents over the past three decades in the field of heart failure (HF), overall prognosis remains poor. Hyponatremia is prevalent in HF patients and has been suggested as a contributor to poor response to standard therapy. Elevated levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), a peptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus, play a role in development of hyponatremia, and AVP and its surrogate, copeptin, are related to changes in osmolality, hemodynamics, neuro-hormones as well as in overall outcome in HF patients...
April 22, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432404/pediatric-neuro-mri-tricks-to-minimize-sedation
#17
REVIEW
Matthew J Barkovich, Duan Xu, Rahul S Desikan, Cassandra Williams, A James Barkovich
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the workhorse modality in pediatric neuroimaging because it provides excellent soft-tissue contrast without ionizing radiation. Until recently, studies were uninterpretable without sedation; however, given development of shorter sequences, sequences that correct for motion, and studies showing the potentially deleterious effects of sedation on immature laboratory animals, it is prudent to minimize sedation when possible. This manuscript provides basic guidelines for performing pediatric neuro MRI without sedation by both modifying technical factors to reduce scan time and noise, and using a multi-disciplinary team to coordinate imaging with the patient's biorhythms...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431949/classification-of-eeg-signals-to-identify-variations-in-attention-during-motor-task-execution
#18
Susan Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Dario Farina, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
BACKGROUND: Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems in neuro-rehabilitation use brain signals to control external devices. User status such as attention affects BCI performance; thus detecting the user's attention drift due to internal or external factors is essential for high detection accuracy. NEW METHOD: An auditory oddball task was applied to divert the users' attention during a simple ankle dorsiflexion movement. Electroencephalogram signals were recorded from eighteen channels...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431905/dynamic-interhemispheric-competition-and-vestibulo-cortical-control-in-humans-a-theoretical-proposition
#19
REVIEW
Qadeer Arshad
Neuroscientific research has made a concerted effort to determine cortical localisation using various functional imaging techniques. This approach has undoubtedly yielded important novel anatomical knowledge, albeit at times contradictory, regarding the structural organisation of the vestibular cortex. Unfortunately however, this knowledge has not translated to our understanding regarding how neural mechanisms control vestibular function. Based upon recent functional imaging, lesion and neuro-physiological data that has demonstrated (i) the close behavioural and neuro-anatomical relationship between cortical processing of vestibular and spatial attention signals, and (ii) that inducing interhemispheric competition can in-turn strongly modulate vestibular function akin to that observed in cortical lesion patients, I herewith propose the hypothesis that vestibular cortical processing is controlled, as per for spatial attention, via dynamic interhemispheric competition...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431604/a-reappraisal-of-diagnostic-tests-for-myasthenia-gravis-in-a-large-asian-cohort
#20
Yew Long Lo, Raymond P Najjar, Kelvin Y Teo, Sharon L Tow, Jing Liang Loo, Dan Milea
BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by weakness of bodily skeletal muscles. Office-based diagnostic tests such as repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS), single fiber electromyography (SFEMG), and the ice test, are used to refine the differential clinical diagnosis of this disease. Evaluating the clinical sensitivity and specificity of these tests, however, may be confounded by lack of a gold standard, non-blinding, incorporation bias, use of non-representative populations and retrospective data...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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