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Marija D Ivanovic, Jovana Petrovic, Andrej Savic, Goran Gligoric, Marjan Miletic, Miodrag Vukcevic, Bosko Bojovic, Ljupco Hadzievski, Tom D P Allsop, David J Webb
The ventilators involved in non-invasive mechanical ventilation commonly provide ventilator support via a facemask. The interface of the mask with a patient promotes air leaks that cause errors in the feedback information provided by a pneumatic sensor and hence patient-ventilator asynchrony with multiple negative consequences. Our objective is to test the possibility of using chest-wall motion measured by an optical fibre-grating sensor as a more accurate non-invasive ventilator triggering mechanism.
 Approach: The basic premise of our approach is that the measurement accuracy can be improved by using a triggering signal that precedes pneumatic triggering in the neuro-ventilatory coupling sequence...
March 19, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Fabian Wenzel, Carsten Meyer, Thomas Stehle, Jochen Peters, Susanne Siemonsen, Christian Thaler, Lyubomir Zagorchev
This work presents a novel approach for the rapid segmentation of clinically relevant subcortical brain structures in T1-weighted MRI by utilizing a shape-constrained deformable surface model. In contrast to other approaches for segmenting brain structures, its design allows for parallel segmentation of individual brain structures within a flexible and robust hierarchical framework such that accurate adaptation and volume computation can be achieved within a minute of processing time. Furthermore, adaptation is driven by local and not global contrast, potentially relaxing requirements with respect to preprocessing steps such as bias-field correction...
March 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Ying Lu, De-Li Cao, Lin-Xia Zhao, Yu Han, You-Li Zhang
Visceral pain, observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, is a challenging medical problem and remains poorly understood because the mechanisms underlying it are unclear. Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic pain. In this study, we aimed to explore the potential role of miR-146a-5p (the mature form of miR-146a) in a mouse model of colitis induced by intracolonic injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). We found that induction of colitis resulted in visceral hyperalgesia manifested by a decreased pain threshold to colorectal distension and upregulation of miR-146a-5p expression in the lumbosacral spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Maria Beran, Britta Okyere, Joshua Vova
Amantadine is commonly prescribed as a neurostimulant in patients with brain injuries. This is a case of a 14 year-old male with a history of brain tumor that developed corneal edema after initiation of amantadine, a rare but documented side effect of this medication. After discontinuation of amantadine, the corneal edema resolved within two months, but endothelial cells density remained low.
March 14, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Chong Liao, Song Wu, Yue-Jia Luo, Qing Guan, Fang Cui
Social decision-making engages traditional decision-making processes (e.g. valuation), as well as social cognition processes (e.g. inferring the affective and mental states of another person). Neuroimaging and neuro-stimulation studies have suggested the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a variety of social decision-making tasks. Yet no study has investigated the effect of the cortical excitability of mPFC in the decision-making of costly helping behavior. Here, we used tDCS to demonstrate the causal relationship between the cortical excitability of mPFC and costly helping decision-making...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
L Power, W Shute, B McOwan, K Murray, D Szmulewicz
This retrospective review aims to survey the clinical characteristics and management of vestibular migraine (VM) patients seen in a tertiary hospital multi-disciplinary balance disorders clinic, and how this aligns with the evidence base in the literature. A single investigator reviewed the medical records of the patients who presented to a tertiary hospital balance disorders clinic over a four month period and identified 90 cases of VM. The mean age of patients with a diagnosis of VM was 50 years (range of 17-84) and 72 (80%) were female...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Min Li, Jia Liu, Huan Yi, Li Xu, Xiufeng Zhong, Fuhua Peng
BACKGROUND: Wolfram syndrome (WS), caused by mutations of the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene on chromosome 4p16.1, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes insipidus (DI), neuro-psychiatric disorders, hearing deficit, and urinary tract anomalies. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a 11-year-old Chinese boy who presented with visual loss, was suspected with optic neuritis (ON) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and referred to our department for further diagnosis...
March 17, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Emily L Zale, Tessa J Heinhuis, Tara Tehan, Danielle Salgueiro, Jonathan Rosand, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
OBJECTIVE: Every year, millions of Americans become informal caregivers to loved ones admitted to Neuroscience Intensive Care Units (Neuro-ICU), and face challenges to Quality of Life (QoL). This study sought to identify associations between resiliency, distress, and caregiver QoL at time of Neuro-ICU admission. METHODS: Informal caregivers (N = 79, Mage  = 53, 64% female) of Neuro-ICU patients were recruited and completed self-report questionnaires during the hospitalization...
March 6, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
Mårten Unnerbäck, Eric L Bloomfield, Sven Söderström, Peter Reinstrup
Current methods to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the neuro critical care setting cannot monitor the CBF continuously. In contrast, continuous measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is readily accomplished, and there is a component of ICP that correlates with arterial inflow of blood into the cranial cavity. This property may have utility in using continuous ICP curve analysis to continuously estimate CBF. We examined the data from 13 patients, monitored with an intraventricular ICP device determining the pulsatile amplitude ICPamp as well as the area under the ICP curve (AUCICP )...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Safa Ben Mimouna, Sana Boughammoura, Marouane Chemek, Zohra Haouas, Mohamed Banni, Imed Messaoudi
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of maternal Cd and/or Zn exposure on some parameters of Zn metabolism in fetal brain of Wistar rats. Thus, female controls and other exposed by the oral route during the gestation period to Cd (50 mg CdCl2 /L) and/or Zn (ZnCl2 60 mg/L) were used. The male fetuses at age 20 days of gestation (GD20) were sacrificed and their brains were taken for histological, chemical and molecular analysis. Zn depletion was observed in the brains of fetuses issued from mothers exposed to Cd...
March 13, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Daniëlle Bp Eekers, Lieke In 't Ven, Erik Roelofs, Alida Postma, Claire Alapetite, Neil G Burnet, Valentin Calugaru, Inge Compter, Ida E M Coremans, Morton Høyer, Maarten Lambrecht, Petra Witt Nyström, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Frank Paulsen, Ana Perpar, Dirk de Ruysscher, Laurette Renard, Beate Timmermann, Pavel Vitek, Damien C Weber, Hiske L van der Weide, Gillian A Whitfield, Ruud Wiggenraad, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: To create a digital, online atlas for organs at risk (OAR) delineation in neuro-oncology based on high-quality computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHODS: CT and 3 Tesla (3T) MR images (slice thickness 1 mm with intravenous contrast agent) were obtained from the same patient and subsequently fused. In addition, a 7T MR without intravenous contrast agent was obtained from a healthy volunteer. Based on discussion between experienced radiation oncologists, the clinically relevant organs at risk (OARs) to be included in the atlas for neuro-oncology were determined, excluding typical head and neck OARs previously published...
March 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Supinder S Bedi, Benjamin M Aertker, George P Liao, Henry W Caplan, Deepa Bhattarai, Fanni Mandy, Franciska Mandy, Luis G Fernandez, Pamela Zelnick, Matthew B Mitchell, Walter Schiffer, Margaret Johnson, Emma Denson, Karthik Prabhakara, Hasen Xue, Philippa Smith, Karen Uray, Scott D Olson, Robert W Mays, Charles S Cox
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. TBI results in a prolonged secondary central neuro-inflammatory response. Previously, we have demonstrated that multiple doses (2 and 24 h after TBI) of multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) delivered intravenously preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB), improve spatial learning, and decrease activated microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In order to determine if there is an optimum treatment window to preserve the BBB, improve cognitive behavior, and attenuate the activated microglia/macrophages, we administered MAPC at various clinically relevant intervals...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Scott R Plotkin, Antje Wick
Neurofibromatosis 1, neurofibromatosis 2, and schwannomatosis are a group of related classically inherited but often times sporadic tumor suppressor syndromes. Neuro-oncologists should recognize these syndromes, initiate necessary tests in patients with a clinical suspicion, and support genetic counseling of patients and families. In this review, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria, day-to-day management including supportive care as well as updates on genetics, and experimental treatment strategies are discussed...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Martha Nowosielski, Patrick Y Wen
The identification of more effective therapies for brain tumors has been limited in part by the lack of reliable criteria for determining response and progression. Since its introduction in 1990, the MacDonald criteria have been used in neuro-oncology clinical trials to determine response, but they fail to address issues such as pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression that have arisen with more recent therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group, a multidisciplinary international group consisting of neuro-oncologists, medical oncologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and neuropsychologists, was formed to improve response assessment and clinical trial endpoints in neuro-oncology...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Tracy Batchelor, Wolfgang Wick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, David Della-Morte, Ivan Augimeri, Marco Alessandrini
OBJECTIVE: Considering the altered multisensory signal compensation during senescence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the integration rearrangements in unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) during age-related cognitive decline. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Longitudinal cohort study unit and of University tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Older UVH individuals ≥ 55 years with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer Disease (AD) and matched UVH control group with age-appropriate cognitive function...
March 15, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Raphaël Le Bouc, Mathias Pessiglione
Motivation can be defined as the function that orients and activates the behavior. Motivation deficits such as apathy are pervasive in both neurological and psychiatric diseases, and are currently assessed with clinical scales that do not give any mechanistic insight. Here, we present another approach that consists in phenotyping the behaviour of patients in motivation tests, using computational models. These formal models impose a precise and operational definition of motivation that is embedded in decision theory...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Eva C Thoma
Direct conversion of one somatic cell type into another represents a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. Here, we describe a method allowing the transdifferentiation of human postnatal fibroblasts into functional Schwann cells via a transient progenitor stage. The conversion process is solely based on chemical treatment and does not require the overexpression of ectopic genes. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs) can be characterized by expression of Schwann cell-specific proteins and neuro-supportive and myelination capacity in vitro...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
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