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Alia Saberi, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Samaneh Kazemi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes demyelination of white matter of central nervous system and neuro-degeneration due to inflammation. Different types of MS, as well as disease progression, come with different pathology and pathophysiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible association between different micro-organisms and the relapse or progression of MS. Studies indexed in Medline/PMC, Scopus and Web of Science published without time and language limitation until March 2017 were identified through the search terms "infection" or "infectious" and "multiple sclerosis"...
July 13, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
B P Ernst, K Helling, S Strieth
This article presents the case of a 39-year-old woman receiving injection therapy for cervicalgia. Due to accidental injection into the cervical spinal cord, the patient suffered from syncope, sensomotoric deficit, and bilateral neural hearing loss. Injection therapies for spinal disorders are routinely carried out in clinical practice, despite a low level of evidence and potentially severe complications. In the event of neuro-otologic complications, prompt evaluation by an otologist should be sought and rehabilitation initiated if necessary...
July 13, 2018: HNO
Jeong Ho Park, Jae Hun Oh, Seung Pill Choi, Jung Hee Wee
BACKGROUND: Outcome prediction is crucial for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors. Several attempts have been made to use the bispectral index (BIS) for this purpose. We aimed to investigate the prognostic power of the BIS during the early stage of targeted temperature management (TTM) after OHCA. METHODS: From Jan 2014 to Feb 2017, the BIS was determined in OHCA patients as soon as possible after the start of TTM. We injected a neuro-muscular blocking agent and recoded the BIS value and the time when the electromyographic (EMG) factor reached zero...
July 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Pia De Stefano, Carlo Chizzolini, Patrice H Lalive, Agustina M Lascano
We report the case of a patient affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc) who developed autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which improved under immunosuppressant agents and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins. In our patient the autoimmune encephalitis occurred during apparently quiescent SSc, though concomitantly with novel arthritis. Moreover, our patient showed auto-antibodies directed against SSA antigen but the panel of auto-antibodies associated with autoimmune encephalitis was negative. We discuss the potential for immunopathogenic inflammatory events affecting the central nervous system in SSc then favoring the occurrence of autoimmune encephalitic disorders...
July 10, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Tomoyuki Fumuro, Masao Matsuhashi, Riki Matsumoto, Kiyohide Usami, Akihiro Shimotake, Takeharu Kunieda, Takayuki Kikuchi, Kazumichi Yoshida, Ryosuke Takahashi, Susumu Miyamoto, Akio Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: Neuro-feedback (NFB) training by the self-regulation of slow potentials (SPs) <0.5 Hz recorded from the vertex scalp has been applied for seizure suppression in patients with epilepsy. However, SP is highly susceptible to artifact contamination, such as the galvanic skin response (GSR). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between SPs recorded from the scalp and intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) by event-related coherence analysis. METHODS: The scalp and subdural SPs were simultaneously recorded during NFB training by the DC-EEG machine while undergoing invasive recordings before epilepsy surgery in 10 patients with refractory partial epilepsy...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Dhuleep S Wijayatilake, Dominic P D Nielsen, Elinor Baker, Vinod Patil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains an unfortunately common disease with potentially devastating consequences for patients and their families. However, it is important to remember that it is a spectrum of disease and thus, a one 'treatment fits all' approach is not appropriate to achieve optimal outcomes. This review aims to inform readers about recent updates in prehospital and neurocritical care management of patients with TBI. RECENT FINDINGS: Prehospital care teams which include a physician may reduce mortality...
July 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Cai Zhang, Yong-Ping Zhang, Yu-Yu Li, Bai-Ping Liu, Hao-Yin Wang, Kang-Wei Li, Cai Song
Activated microglia-induced neuroinflammation can stimulate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to release glucocorticoids and suppress astrocyte function, such as reducing neurotrophin production, which occur in depression. However, the balance between M1 (pro-inflammation) and M2 (anti-inflammation) of microglial phenotypes and the interaction between two glial cells in the depression are unclear. Hence, the chronic unpredictable mile stress (CUMS)-induced depression model was chose to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, the concentration of corticosterone and relevant hippocampal cytokines, mRNA and protein expression of microglial and astrocyte markers...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Bingyu Ren, Yujuan Wang, Heng Wang, Yingying Wu, Jiayi Li, Jing Tian
Severity or duration of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to two different cellular events: cell survival and apoptosis. Drug-induced ER stress or neurotoxicity has been observed as one of the main side effects. However, how ER stress affects cellular signaling cascades leading to neuronal damage is still not well understood. In this study, the toxicological mechanisms of two typical ER stress inducers, tunicamycin (Tm) and dithiothreitol (DTT), were investigated by cell viability, unfolded protein response, apoptosis and proteomic responses in mouse neuro-2a cells...
July 9, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Minjee Kim, Sani H Kizilbash, Janice K Laramy, Gautham Gampa, Karen E Parrish, Jann N Sarkaria, William F Elmquist
The treatment of metastatic lesions in the brain represents a serious unmet medical need in the field of neuro-oncology. Even though many effective compounds have demonstrated success in treating peripheral (non-CNS) tumors with targeted agents, one aspect of this lack of success in the brain may be related to poor delivery of otherwise effective compounds. Many factors can influence the brain delivery of these agents, but one key barrier is a heterogeneously "leaky" BBB that expresses efflux transporters that limit the BBB permeability for many targeted agents...
July 12, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Bernardo Cacho-Díaz, Nydia A Lorenzana-Mendoza, J Danaé Chávez-Hernandez, Alberto González-Aguilar, Gervith Reyes-Soto, Ángel Herrera-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) are a frequent complication of cancer and are regularly seen in clinical practice. New treatment modalities are improving survival after diagnosis of BM. However, symptoms are rarely reported and their significance is not well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate neurologic indicators as prognostic markers in patients with brain metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospectively acquired database from 2 referral centers was analyzed...
June 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
Elisa Meroni, Nathalie Stakenborg, Maria Francesca Viola, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Over the past decades, there has been an increasing understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate modulation of the immune system by the autonomic nervous system. The discovery that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) attenuates endotoxin-induced experimental sepsis paved the way for further studies investigating neuro-immune interaction. In particular, great attention is now given to intestinal macrophages: several studies report the existence of both intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms by which intestinal immune homeostasis can be regulated in different layers of the intestine, mainly by affecting macrophage activation through neurotransmitter release...
July 11, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Aaron Sylvan Lord, Joseph Nicholson, Ariane Lewis
Hospital-acquired infections are common in neurointensive care units. We sought to review interventions which may reduce infection rates in neurocritically ill populations. We conducted a systematic review of studies targeting adult patients in neuro-intensive care units (neuro-ICUs) with an intervention designed to prevent ICU-acquired infections. Our outcome of interest was change in the prevalence or rates of infection between active and control arms of these studies. We excluded studies based on the following criteria: no English full-text version available; pediatric population; non-neurosciences ICU population; pre- or intraoperative methods to prevent infection; lack of discrete data for infection rates/prevalence; studies that were purely observational in nature and did not test an intervention; and studies performed in resource limited settings...
July 11, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Ross W Walton, Michael C Brown, Matthew T Sacco, Matthias Gromeier
We are pursuing cancer immunotherapy with neuro-attenuated recombinant poliovirus, PVSRIPO. PVSRIPO is the live attenuated type 1 (Sabin) poliovirus vaccine carrying a heterologous internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2). Intratumoral infusion of PVSRIPO is showing promise in the therapy of recurrent WHO grade IV malignant glioma (glioblastoma), a notoriously treatment-refractory cancer with dismal prognosis. PVSRIPO exhibits profound cytotoxicity in infected neoplastic cells expressing the poliovirus receptor CD155...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
Stephen Shovlin, Daniela Tropea
The mechanisms of neuro-genetic disorders have been mostly investigated in the brain, however, for some pathologies, transcriptomic analysis in multiple tissues represent an opportunity and a challenge to understand the consequences of the genetic mutation. This is the case for Rett Syndrome (RTT): a neurodevelopmental disorder predominantly affecting females that is characterised by a loss of purposeful movements and language accompanied by gait abnormalities and hand stereotypies. Although the genetic aetiology is largely associated to Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) mutations, linking the pathophysiology of RTT and its clinical symptoms to direct molecular mechanisms has been difficult...
July 11, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Taylor Furst, Alyssa Massaro, Courtney Miller, Brian T Williams, Zach M LaMacchia, Peter J Horvath
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, a reduction in muscle mass and function seen in aging populations, may be countered by improving systemic carnosine stores via beta-Alanine (β-alanine) supplementation. Increasing systemic carnosine levels may result in enhanced anti-oxidant, neuro-protective and pH buffering capabilities. This enhancement should result in improved exercise capacity and executive function. METHODS: Twelve healthy adults (average age = 60.5 ± 8.6 yrs, weight = 81...
July 11, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Victor Vlădăreanu, Lucian Căpitanu, Luige Vlădăreanu
This paper presents the modelling of wear data resulting from linear dry contact using artificial neural networks (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) with the aim of constructing predictor models for the depth and volume of the wear scar, with great impact in the characterization of new industrial processes utilizing existing materials. The dataset is the result of laboratory testing, presenting both numerical and categorical variables whose inclusion into the model allows for a number of possibilities...
July 10, 2018: Materials
Sara Bonzano, Isabella Crisci, Anna Podlesny-Drabiniok, Chiara Rolando, Wojciech Krezel, Michèle Studer, Silvia De Marchis
In the dentate gyrus (DG) of the mouse hippocampus, neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis persist throughout life. Adult-born neurons and astrocytes originate from multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) whose activity is tightly regulated within the neurogenic niche. However, the cell-intrinsic mechanisms controlling neuron-glia NSC fate choice are largely unknown. Here, we show COUP-TFI/NR2F1 expression in DG NSCs and its downregulation upon neuroinflammation. By using in vivo inducible knockout lines, a retroviral-based loss-of-function approach and genetic fate mapping, we demonstrate that COUP-TFI inactivation in adult NSCs and/or mitotic progenitors reduces neurogenesis and increases astrocyte production without depleting the NSC pool...
July 10, 2018: Cell Reports
Olatunji Mumini Omisore, Shi Peng Han, Ling Xue Ren, Guo Shuai Wang, Fang Liang Ou, Hui Li, Lei Wang
Despite the success and prospects of the robotic catheter system for the cardiovascular access, loss of vision, and haptics have limited its global adoption. A direct implication is the great difficulty posed when trying to eliminate the backlash in catheters during vascular cannulations. As a result, physicians and patients end up been exposed to high radiation for a long period of time. Existing control systems proposed for such interventional robots have not fully consider the hysteretic (backlash) behavior...
May 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Hamideh Ramezani, Ozgur B Akan
Understanding the communication theoretical capabilities of information transmission among neurons, known as neuro-spike communication, is a significant step in developing bio-inspired solutions for nanonetworking. In this study, we focus on a part of this communication known as synaptic transmission for pyramidal neurons in Cornu Ammonis (CA) area of hippocampus location in the brain and propose a communication-based model for it that includes effects of spike shape variation on neural calcium signaling and the vesicle release process downstream of it...
May 17, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Weiping Ding, Chin-Teng Lin, Zehong Cao
Attribute reduction with many patterns and indicators has been regarded as an important approach for large-scale data mining and machine learning tasks. However, it is extremely difficult for researchers to inadequately extract knowledge and insights from multiple overlapping and interdependent fuzzy datasets from the current changing and interconnected big data sources. This paper proposes a deep neuro-cognitive co-evolution for fuzzy attribute reduction (DNCFAR) that contains a combination of quantum leaping particle swarm optimization with nearest-neighbor memeplexes...
May 22, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
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