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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334446/pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
Stephanie Posten, Jennifer Reed
Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently encountered by medical providers and is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission. CAP is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, causing greater than 2 million deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years old. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) released guidelines in 2011 with recommendations regarding appropriate diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia for children greater than 3 months age, with the goal of assisting providers in clinical decision making...
December 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334013/understanding-teacher-change-a-national-survey-of-u-s-physical-educators
#2
Ben D Kern, Kim C Graber
Physical education is critical to addressing childhood obesity, yet many school-based programs do not meet established quality standards and teachers are called upon to change. Little is known about how change is initiated and its associated internal and external factors. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate physical education teacher change that was self-initiated and externally initiated and to examine dispositions toward the change process relative to initiation. METHOD: A random national sample of physical educators representing each SHAPE America - Society of Health and Physical Educators regional district participated in a survey measuring past programming changes, primary initiators of change, and teachers' dispositions toward change...
January 15, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333791/the-impact-of-surgeons-pathologists-dialog-on-lymph-node-evaluation-of-colorectal-cancer-patients
#3
Rana Afifi, Benjamin Person, Riad Haddad
BACKGROUND: Lymph node (LN) retrieval and assessment is essential for accurate staging and treatment planning in colorectal cancer (CRC). According to U.S. National Cancer Institute recommendations, the minimal number of LNs needed for accurately staging of node-negative CRC is 12. Awareness and implementation of the guidelines has been shown to improve after assigning an opinion leader who has a special interest in CRC. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of dialogue between surgeons and pathologists in LN evaluation...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332735/within-day-and-between-day-reliability-of-thickness-measurements-of-abdominal-muscles-using-ultrasound-during-abdominal-hollowing-and-bracing-maneuvers
#4
Mahnaz Aboufazeli, Nima Afshar-Mohajer
Ultrasonography imaging has been used as a non-invasive method to estimate the thickness and relative activities of the abdominal muscles in patients with lower back pain (LBP). However, the statistical reliability of US thickness measurements of abdominal muscles, including transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles during abdominal hollowing (AH) and abdominal bracing (AB) maneuvers has not been well-investigated. This study was performed on a total of 20 female subjects (10 with LBP and 10 without LBP) in the age range of 25-55 years to assess within-day and between-day reliability of the measurements...
January 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332472/statistical-primer-for-athletic-trainers-the-essentials-of-understanding-measures-of-reliability-and-minimal-important-change
#5
Bryan L Riemann, Monica Lininger
OBJECTIVE:   To describe the concepts of measurement reliability and minimal important change. BACKGROUND:   All measurements have some magnitude of error. Because clinical practice involves measurement, clinicians need to understand measurement reliability. The reliability of an instrument is integral in determining if a change in patient status is meaningful. DESCRIPTION:   Measurement reliability is the extent to which a test result is consistent and free of error...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332303/mitochondrial-dna-nuclear-context-and-the-risk-for-carcinogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Brett A Kaufman, Martin Picard, Neal Sondheimer
The inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from mother to child is complicated by differences in the stability of the mitochondrial genome. Although the germ line mtDNA is protected through the minimization of replication between generations, sequence variation can occur either through mutation or due to changes in the ratio between distinct genomes that are present in the mother (known as heteroplasmy). Thus, the unpredictability in transgenerational inheritance of mtDNA may cause the emergence of pathogenic mitochondrial and cellular phenotypes in offspring...
January 14, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332233/pilot-study-of-serial-flt-and-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-to-monitor-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-of-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-correlation-with-histopathologic-response
#7
Victor H Gerbaudo, Joseph H Killoran, Chun K Kim, Jason L Hornick, Jonathan A Nowak, Peter C Enzinger, Harvey J Mamon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective pilot study was to investigate the potential of serial FLT-PET/CT compared to FDG-PET/CT to provide an early indication of esophageal cancer response to concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. METHODS: Five patients with biopsy-proven esophageal adenocarcinomas underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation (Tx) prior to minimally invasive esophagectomy. The presence of residual tumor was classified histologically using the Mandard et al...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332078/magnetic-resonance-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-treating-movement-disorders
#8
Young Goo Kim, Eun Jung Kweon, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, Jin Woo Chang
Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery has recently gained favor as a novel, noninvasive alternative to conventional neurosurgery. In contrast to traditional ablative interventions, transcranial MRgFUS surgery is entirely imaging-guided and uses continuous temperature measurements at the target and surrounding tissue taken in real-time. Unlike Gamma Knife radiosurgery, MRgFUS surgery can make a lesion immediately and does not use ionizing radiation. Moreover, since no metallic device is implanted, MR imaging-based diagnosis is not restricted throughout life...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331809/environmental-behavior-of-coated-nms-physicochemical-aspects-and-plant-interactions
#9
REVIEW
Martha L López-Moreno, Yarilyn Cedeño-Mattei, Sonia Janet Bailón-Ruiz, Edgar Vazquez-Nuñez, José A Hernandez-Viezcas, Oscar Juan Perales-Pérez, Guadalupe De la Rosa, José R Peralta-Videa, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
The application of nanomaterials (NMs) depends on several characteristics, including polydispersity, shape, surface charge, and composition, among others. However, the specific surface properties of bare NMs induce aggregation, reducing their utilization. Thus, different surface coverages have been developed to avoid or minimize NMs aggregation, making them more stable for the envisioned applications. Carbon-based NMs are usually coated with metals, while metal-based NMs are coated with natural organic compounds including chitosan, dextran, alginate, or citric acid...
December 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331636/cell-wall-damage-and-oxidative-stress-in-candida-albicans-atcc10231-and-aspergillus-niger-caused-by-palladium-nanoparticles
#10
Martha Samira Athie-García, Hilda Amelia Piñón-Castillo, Laila Nayzzel Muñoz-Castellanos, Ana Laura Ulloa-Ogaz, Perla Ivonne Martínez-Varela, Armando Quintero-Ramos, Robert Duran, José Guadalupe Murillo-Ramirez, Erasmo Orrantia-Borunda
In this work the toxic effect of Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) was investigated in two eukaryotic cell models, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. PdNPs were synthesized by chemical reduction method, obtaining spherical NPs with a primary size ranging from 3 to 15 nm. PdNPs showed a hydrodynamic size of 1548 nm in Lee's minimum media. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined at 200 and 250 ppm for Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively, revealing a significant cell growth inhibition (ANOVA and tukey analysis, α = 0...
January 10, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331573/deformable-image-registration-based-contour-propagation-yields-clinically-acceptable-plans-for-mri-based-cervical-cancer-brachytherapy-planning
#11
Christina Hunter Chapman, Daniel Polan, Karen Vineberg, Shruti Jolly, Katherine E Maturen, Kristy K Brock, Joann I Prisciandaro
PURPOSE: To study the dosimetric impact of deformable image registration-based contour propagation on MRI-based cervical cancer brachytherapy planning. METHODS AND MATERIALS: High-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) contours were delineated on MR images of 10 patients who underwent ring and tandem brachytherapy. A second set of contours were propagated using a commercially available deformable registration algorithm. "Manual-contour" and "propagated-contour" plans were optimized to achieve a maximum dose to the most minimally exposed 90% of the volume (D90) (%) of 6 Gy/fraction, respecting minimum dose to the most exposed 2cc of the volume (D2cc) OAR constraints of 5...
January 10, 2018: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330576/xipho-pubic-angle-xpa-correlates-with-patient-s-reported-outcomes-in-a-population-of-adult-spinal-deformity-results-from-a-multi-center-cohort-study
#12
Francesco Langella, Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Virginie Lafage, Justin S Smith, Christopher Shaffrey, Han Jo Kim, Douglas Burton, Richard Hostin, Shay Bess, Christopher Ames, Gregory Mundis, Eric Klineberg, Frank Schwab, Renault Lafage, Pedro Berjano
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multi-center cohort study. PURPOSE: Sagittal misalignment causes changes in the abdominal shape. Xipho-pubic angle (XPA) has been previously described to radiographically evaluate the shape of the abdominal cavity in patients with spine deformity. The aims of this study are to evaluate the correlation of XPA-to-spinopelvic sagittal parameters and to patients' health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) scores. METHODS: 278 patients from a multi-center database with diagnosis adult spinal deformity (ASD) (one or more of: coronal Cobb angle > 20°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 50 mm, pelvic tilt (PT) > 25°, and thoracic kyphosis > 60°) were included...
January 12, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329996/to-prep-or-not-to-prep-that-is-the-question-a-randomized-trial-on-the-use-of-antiflatulent-medication-as-part-of-bowel-preparation-for-patients-having-image-guided-external-beam-radiation-therapy-to-the-prostate
#13
Merrylee McGuffin, Naila Devji, Lyann Kehoe, Anne Carty, Steve Russell, Lisa Di Prospero, Carlo DeAngelis, Alex Kiss, Danny Vesprini, Andrew Loblaw, Laura D'Alimonte
INTRODUCTION: Radiation therapy is a standard treatment option for prostate cancer. With growing use of escalated doses and tighter margins, procedures to limit rectal size variation are needed to reduce prostate motion, increase treatment accuracy, and minimize rectal toxicity. This prospective study was done to determine whether the introduction of an antiflatulent medication would decrease rectal distention at computed tomography (CT) simulation and throughout a course of radiation therapy...
November 4, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329734/the-morphological-changes-of-bronchovascular-bundles-within-subsolid-nodules-on-hrct-correlate-with-the-new-iaslc-classification-of-adenocarcinoma
#14
L Liu, N Wu, W Tang, F Xu, L-N Zhou, P-Q Ma, L Li, X Liang
AIM: To observe the morphological changes of bronchovascular bundles within subsolid nodules on high-resolution (HR) computed tomography (CT) and analyse the correlation with the new adenocarcinoma classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and sixteen lesions (absent consolidation on mediastinal window) were reviewed retrospectively. CT features including dimensions, contour, morphological changes of the blood vessels, and bronchi/bronchioles, vacuole signs, and their correlation with histopathology were evaluated...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329732/changes-in-quantitative-ct-image-features-of-ground-glass-nodules-in-differentiating-invasive-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-from-benign-and-in-situ-lesions-histopathological-comparisons
#15
Y P Zhang, M A Heuvelmans, H Zhang, M Oudkerk, G X Zhang, X Q Xie
AIM: To evaluate progressive changes in quantitative CT features of the non-solid component of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) from baseline to follow-up to differentiate invasive (minimally invasive adenocarcinoma [MIA] and invasive adenocarcinoma [IA]) GGNs from benign or pre-invasive (adenocarcinoma in situ [AIS]) lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with a GGN detected at baseline and follow-up computed tomography (CT), examined by tissue sampling were included in the study...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329419/a-single-mutation-unlocks-cascading-exaptations-in-the-origin-of-a-potent-pitviper-neurotoxin
#16
A Carl Whittington, Andrew J Mason, Darin R Rokyta
Evolutionary innovations and complex phenotypes seemingly require an improbable amount of genetic change to evolve. Rattlesnakes display two dramatically different venom phenotypes. Type I venoms are hemorrhagic with low systemic toxicity and high expression of tissue-destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP). Type II venoms are highly neurotoxic and lack SVMP expression and associated hemorrhagic activity. This dichotomy hinges on Mojave toxin (MTx), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) based ᵝ-neurotoxin expressed in Type II venoms...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329344/maintenance-of-muscle-strength-retains-a-normal-metabolic-cost-in-simulated-walking-after-transtibial-limb-loss
#17
Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Ross H Miller
Recent studies on relatively young and fit individuals with limb loss suggest that maintaining muscle strength after limb loss may mitigate the high metabolic cost of walking typically seen in the larger general limb loss population. However, these data are cross-sectional and the muscle strength prior to limb loss is unknown, and it is therefore difficult to draw causal inferences on changes in strength and gait energetics. Here we used musculoskeletal modeling and optimal control simulations to perform a longitudinal study (25 virtual "subjects") of the metabolic cost of walking pre- and post-limb loss (unilateral transtibial)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329323/stroke-risk-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-or-end-stage-renal-disease-two-nationwide-studies
#18
Yih-Giun Cherng, Chao-Shun Lin, Chun-Chuan Shih, Yung-Ho Hsu, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Chaur-Jong Hu, Ta-Liang Chen, Chien-Chang Liao
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Because the risk and outcomes of stroke in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were unclear, we evaluated these risks using a retrospective cohort study and a nested cohort study. METHODS: We used Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 1378 patients aged ≥20 years who had ESRD in 2000-2004. An age- and sex-matched CKD cohort (n = 5512) and a control cohort (n = 11,024) were selected for comparison...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329053/long-term-safety-area-tracking-lt-sat-with-online-failure-detection-and-recovery-for-robotic-minimally-invasive-surgery
#19
Veronica Penza, Xiaofei Du, Danail Stoyanov, Antonello Forgione, Leonardo S Mattos, Elena De Momi
Despite the benefits introduced by robotic systems in abdominal Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), major complications can still affect the outcome of the procedure, such as intra-operative bleeding. One of the causes is attributed to accidental damages to arteries or veins by the surgical tools, and some of the possible risk factors are related to the lack of sub-surface visibilty. Assistive tools guiding the surgical gestures to prevent these kind of injuries would represent a relevant step towards safer clinical procedures...
December 22, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328670/the-surface-oxidation-of-graphene-oxide-determines-membrane-damage-lipid-peroxidation-and-cytotoxicity-in-macrophages-in-a-pulmonary-toxicity-model
#20
Ruibin Li, Linda M Guiney, Chong Hyun Chang, Nikhita D Mansukhani, Zhaoxia Ji, Xiang Wang, Yu-Pei Liao, Wen Jiang, Bingbing Sun, Mark C Hersam, Andre E Nel, Tian Xia
While 2-dimensional graphene oxide (GO) is used increasingly in biomedical applications, there is uncertainty on how specific physicochemical properties relate to biocompatibility in mammalian systems. Although properties such as lateral size and the colloidal properties of the nanosheets are important, the specific material properties that we address here is the oxidation state and reactive surface groups on the planar surface. In this study, we used a GO library, comprised of pristine, reduced (rGO), and hydrated GO (hGO), in which quantitative assessment of the hydroxyl, carboxyl, epoxy and carbon radical contents were used to study the impact on epithelial cells and macrophages, as well as in the murine lung...
January 12, 2018: ACS Nano
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