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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228453/effects-of-erythropoietin-on-spontaneous-and-oxytocin-induced-myometrial-contractions-in-the-nonpregnant-rat
#1
N Tug, H Ayvaci Tasan, M A Sargin, B Dogan Taymur, A Ayar, E Kilic, B Yilmaz
OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates erythropoiesis. EPO activity has also been detected in a variety of tissue including the nervous system, and female and male reproductive organs. It has been shown that EPO causes relaxation in vascular smooth muscle. In the present study, we have investigated effects of EPO on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions of non-pregnant rat myometrium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Myometrial stripes were obtained from adult Wistar rats at the oestrous stage...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227162/electromyography-biofeedback-exergames-to-enhance-grip-strength-and-motivation
#2
Nadia Garcia-Hernandez, Karen Garza-Martinez, Vicente Parra-Vega
BACKGROUND: Hand strength weakness affects the performance of most activities of daily living. This study aims to design, develop, and test an electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training system based on serious games to promote motivation and synchronization and proper work intensity in grip exercises for improving hand strength. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An EMG surface sensor, soft balls with different stiffness and three exergames, conforms the system to drive videogame clues in response to EMG-inferred grip strength, while overseeing motivation...
December 11, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227103/a-robust-molecular-network-motif-for-period-doubling-devices
#3
Christian Cuba Samaniego, Elisa Franco
Life is sustained by a variety of cyclic processes such as cell division, muscle contraction, and neuron firing. The periodic signals powering these processes often direct a variety of other downstream systems, which operate at different time scales and must have the capacity to divide or multiply the period of the master clock. Period modulation is also an important challenge in synthetic molecular systems, where slow and fast components may have to be coordinated simultaneously by a single oscillator whose frequency is often difficult to tune...
December 11, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226999/comparison-of-outcomes-between-postpartum-and-non-postpartum-women-with-stress-urinary-incontinence-treated-with-conservative-therapy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Zhi-Jing Sun, Lan Zhu, Mao-Lian Liang, Tao Xu, Jing-He Lang
AIM: This study aimed to compare the outcomes of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) between postpartum and non-postpartum women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to detect potential factors that may influence these outcomes. METHODS: A total of 54 and 79 participants were recruited into postpartum (PP group) and non-postpartum (non-PP group) groups, respectively. A physiotherapist treated the participants twice a week for 6-8 weeks. At baseline and 6 and 12 months after treatment, the 1-h pad weight test (PWT), vaginal contraction pressure (VCP), and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form (IIQ-7) were assessed by an evaluator or physiotherapist...
December 11, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226623/distortion-of-kb-estimates-of-endothelin-1-eta-and-etb-receptor-antagonists-in-pulmonary-arteries-possible-role-of-an-endothelin-1-clearance-mechanism
#5
James A Angus, Richard J A Hughes, Christine E Wright
Dual endothelin ETA and ETB receptor antagonists are approved therapy for pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). We hypothesized that ETB receptor-mediated clearance of endothelin-1 at specific vascular sites may compromise this targeted therapy. Concentration-response curves (CRC) to endothelin-1 or the ETB agonist sarafotoxin S6c were constructed, with endothelin receptor antagonists, in various rat and mouse isolated arteries using wire myography or in rat isolated trachea. In rat small mesenteric arteries, bosentan displaced endothelin-1 CRC competitively indicative of ETA receptor antagonism...
December 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225574/motor-unit-activity-during-fatiguing-isometric-muscle-contraction-in-hemispheric-stroke-survivors
#6
Lara McManus, Xiaogang Hu, William Z Rymer, Nina L Suresh, Madeleine M Lowery
Enhanced muscle weakness is commonly experienced following stroke and may be accompanied by increased susceptibility to fatigue. To examine the contributions of central and peripheral factors to isometric muscle fatigue in stroke survivors, this study investigates changes in motor unit (MU) mean firing rate, and action potential duration during, and directly following, a sustained submaximal fatiguing contraction at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). A series of short contractions of the first dorsal interosseous muscle were performed pre- and post-fatigue at 20% MVC, and again following a 10-min recovery period, by 12 chronic stroke survivors...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222635/cardiovascular-response-of-rat-aorta-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-exposure
#7
Melissa Mariana, Joana Feiteiro, Elisa Cairrao
Phthalates are one of the main constituents of plastic, reaching up to 40% of the total plastic weight, and their main function is to impart flexibility/elasticity to polymers that would otherwise be rigid. Phthalates are known as endocrine disruptors, since they can interfere with hormone homeostasis. Regarding the cardiovascular system, it was already shown the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure with significant changes in several calcium-handling proteins and an increase in the blood pressure of mice offspring, suggesting that DEHP leads to vasocontraction...
December 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222596/the-effects-of-local-forearm-muscle-cooling-on-motor-unit-properties
#8
Matthew M Mallette, Lara A Green, David A Gabriel, Stephen S Cheung
PURPOSE: Muscle cooling impairs maximal force. Using needle electromyography (EMG) to assess motor unit properties during muscle cooling, is limited and equivocal. Therefore, we aimed to determine the impact of local muscle cooling on motor unit firing properties using surface EMG decomposition. METHODS: Twenty participants (12 M, 8 F) completed maximal, evoked, and trapezoidal contractions during thermoneutral and cold muscle conditions. Forearm muscle temperature was manipulated using 10-min neutral (~ 32 °C) or 20-min cold (~ 3 °C) water baths...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222416/functional-analysis-of-human-intrafusal-fiber-innervation-by-human-%C3%AE-motoneurons
#9
A Colón, X Guo, N Akanda, Y Cai, J J Hickman
Investigation of neuromuscular deficits and diseases such as SMA, as well as for next generation prosthetics, utilizing in vitro phenotypic models would benefit from the development of a functional neuromuscular reflex arc. The neuromuscular reflex arc is the system that integrates the proprioceptive information for muscle length and activity (sensory afferent), to modify motoneuron output to achieve graded muscle contraction (actuation efferent). The sensory portion of the arc is composed of proprioceptive sensory neurons and the muscle spindle, which is embedded in the muscle tissue and composed of intrafusal fibers...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221665/effect-of-wrist-posture-rate-of-force-development-relaxation-and-isotonic-contractions-on-finger-force-independence
#10
Stephen E May, Peter J Keir
The multi-articular anatomy and inter-connections of the extrinsic finger muscles suggests that wrist posture may affect enslaved finger forces. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) wrist posture on enslaved finger forces during ramp and isotonic exertions, and (ii) the rate of force development on enslaved forces and error. Twelve men performed 3 repetitions of isometric finger flexion and extension force with index and ring fingers with the wrist in 30° flexion, neutral, and 30° extension...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220323/grasp-performance-of-a-soft-synergy-based-prosthetic-hand-a-pilot-study
#11
Alycia S Gailey, Sasha Blue Godfrey, Ryan E Breighner, Karen L Andrews, Kristin D Zhao, Antonio Bicchi, Marco Santello
Current prosthetic hands are frequently rejected in part due to limited functionality and versatility. We assessed the feasibility of a novel prosthetic hand, the SoftHand Pro (SHP), whose design combines soft robotics and hand postural synergies. Able-bodied subjects ( ) tracked cursor motion by opening and closing the SHP and performed a grasp-lift-hold-release (GLHR) task with a sensorized cylindrical object of variable weight. The SHP control was driven by electromyographic (EMG) signals from two antagonistic muscles...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220207/mr-imaging-of-muscle-trauma-anatomy-biomechanics-pathophysiology-and-imaging-appearance
#12
Dyan V Flores, Catalina Mejía Gómez, Mauricio Estrada-Castrillón, Edward Smitaman, Mini N Pathria
Muscle is an important component of the muscle-tendon-bone unit, driving skeletal motion through contractions that alter the length of the muscle. The muscle and myotendinous junction (MTJ) are most commonly injured in the young adult, as a result of indirect mechanisms such as overuse or stretching, direct impact (penetrating or nonpenetrating), or dysfunction of the supporting connective tissues. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is widely used for assessment of muscle injuries. This review illustrates the MR imaging appearance of a broad spectrum of acute, subacute, and chronic traumatic lesions of muscle, highlighting the pathophysiology, biomechanics, and anatomic considerations underlying these lesions...
December 8, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219190/phenomenology-genetics-and-cns-network-abnormalities-in-laryngeal-dystonia-a-30-year-experience
#13
Andrew Blitzer, Mitchell F Brin, Kristina Simonyan, Laurie J Ozelius, Steven J Frucht
OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal dystonia (LD) is a functionally specific disorder of the afferent-efferent motor coordination system producing action-induced muscle contraction with a varied phenomenology. This report of long-term studies aims to review and better define the phenomenology and central nervous system abnormalities of this disorder and improve diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Our studies categorized over 1,400 patients diagnosed with LD over the past 33 years, including demographic and medical history records and their phenomenological presentations...
December 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218526/glut4-translocation-in-single-muscle-cells-in-culture-epitope-detection-by-immunofluorescence
#14
Javier R Jaldin-Fincati, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
GLUT4 is the major glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. GLUT4 cycles to and from the plasma membrane and its exocytic rate is accelerated by insulin and muscle contraction to achieve a new steady state with more GLUT4 proteins at the muscle cell surface. To gain a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern GLUT4 protein recycling, we developed an in vitro model in which myc-epitope-tagged GLUT4 or GLUT4-GFP is expressed in L6 skeletal muscle cells. The myc-epitope is inserted into an exofacial domain that is accessible to anti-myc antibodies from the outside of non-permeabilized cells, allowing one to count the number of transporters at the cell surface...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217667/critical-contribution-of-na-ca2-exchanger-to-the-ca2-mediated-vasodilation-activated-in-endothelial-cells-of-resistance-arteries
#15
Mauricio A Lillo, Pablo S Gaete, Mariela Puebla, Nicolás M Ardiles, Inés Poblete, Alvaro Becerra, Felipe Simon, Xavier F Figueroa
Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) contributes to control the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), but the functional activation of NCX reverse mode (NCXrm) in endothelial cells is controversial. We evaluated the participation of NCXrm-mediated Ca2+ uptake in the endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat isolated mesenteric arterial beds. In phenylephrine-contracted mesenteries, the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasodilation was abolished by treatment with the NCXrm blockers SEA0400, KB-R7943, or SN-6. Consistent with that, the ACh-induced hyperpolarization observed in primary cultures of mesenteric endothelial cells and in smooth muscle of isolated mesenteric resistance arteries was attenuated by KB-R7943 and SEA0400, respectively...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217510/loss-of-vascular-myogenic-tone-in-mir-143-145-knockout-mice-is-associated-with-hypertension-induced-vascular-lesions-in-small-mesenteric-arteries
#16
Johan Holmberg, Anirban Bhattachariya, Azra Alajbegovic, Catarina Rippe, Mari Ekman, Diana Dahan, Tran Thi Hien, Thomas Boettger, Thomas Braun, Karl Swärd, Per Hellstrand, Sebastian Albinsson
OBJECTIVE: Pressure-induced myogenic tone is involved in autoregulation of local blood flow and confers protection against excessive pressure levels in small arteries and capillaries. Myogenic tone is dependent on smooth muscle microRNAs (miRNAs), but the identity of these miRNAs is unclear. Furthermore, the consequences of altered myogenic tone for hypertension-induced damage to small arteries are not well understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The importance of smooth muscle-enriched microRNAs, miR-143/145, for myogenic tone was evaluated in miR-143/145 knockout mice...
December 7, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216636/reduction-of-uterine-perfusion-pressure-induced-redistribution-of-endothelin-receptor-type-b-between-the-intima-and-media-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-pregnancy-induced-hypertension
#17
Yuan Sun, Xicheng Zhang, Zhaolei Chen, Miao Xu, Minghui Ou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Studies have shown that a change in endothelin receptor expression in the artery is related to pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). However, the mechanism underlying this change remains unclear. METHODS: To test whether the distribution of endothelin receptor type-A (ETAR) and type-B (ETBR) plays an important role in PIH, a reduction of uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model was used to mimic some of the features of PIH; the resulting variable endothelin receptor expression was investigated in the media and intima of the aorta...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216305/inhibition-effect-of-bifidobacterium-longum-lactobacillus-acidophilus-streptococcus-thermophilus-and-enterococcus-faecalis-and-their-related-products-on-human-colonic-smooth-muscle-in-vitro
#18
Jing Gong, Tao Bai, Lei Zhang, Wei Qian, Jun Song, Xiaohua Hou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of four strains, generally used in clinic, including Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis, and their related products on human colonic smooth muscle in vitro. METHODS: Human colonic circular muscle strips obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments from 25 patients with colorectal cancer were isometrically examined in a constant-temperature organ bath and exposed to different concentrations of living bacteria, sonicated cell fractions and cell-free supernatant (CFS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216301/chronic-dietary-supplementation-with-soy-protein-improves-muscle-function-in-rats
#19
Ramzi J Khairallah, Karen M O'Shea, Christopher W Ward, Dustie N Butteiger, Ratna Mukherjea, Elaine S Krul
Athletes as well as elderly or hospitalized patients use dietary protein supplementation to maintain or grow skeletal muscle. It is recognized that high quality protein is needed for muscle accretion, and can be obtained from both animal and plant-based sources. There is interest to understand whether these sources differ in their ability to maintain or stimulate muscle growth and function. In this study, baseline muscle performance was assessed in 50 adult Sprague-Dawley rats after which they were assigned to one of five semi-purified "Western" diets (n = 10/group) differing only in protein source, namely 19 kcal% protein from either milk protein isolate (MPI), whey protein isolate (WPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), soy protein concentrate (SPC) or enzyme-treated soy protein (SPE)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216288/adaptations-in-antagonist-co-activation-role-in-the-repeated-bout-effect
#20
Robert E Hight, Travis W Beck, Debra A Bemben, Christopher D Black
Eccentric exercise results in an adaptation which attenuates muscle damage from subsequent exercise-termed the "repeated-bout effect (RBE)." PURPOSE: Study examined antagonist co-activation and motor-unit recruitment strategy, assessed via dEMG, concomitant to the RBE. METHODS: Nine participants performed 5 sub-maximal isometric trapezoid (ramp-up, hold, ramp-down) contractions at force levels corresponding to 50% and 80% of maximal isometric strength (MVC). Surface EMG signals of the biceps brachii were decomposed into individual motor-unit action potential trains...
2017: PloS One
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