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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922972/idiopathic-synkinesis-of-the-facial-musculature-oculo-nasal-oculo-zygomatic-and-fronto-nasal-synkinesis
#1
Sujin Bahk, SeungHwan Hwang, SuRak Eo
Facial synkinesis is the simultaneous contraction of the certain facial musculature accompanying a motion of designated muscle in the face. With the exception of rare afflictions that are congenital in origin, most patients develop as a sequel to facial nerve paralysis due to trauma, tumor, and surgical injury. As an idiopathic congenital form, oculo-nasal synkinesis which reveals co-contraction of orbicularis oculi and the compressor narium minor muscles which are innervated by separate branches of the facial nerve have been already reported...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922742/the-diaphragm-acts-as-a-brake-during-expiration-to-prevent-lung-collapse
#2
Mariangela Pellegrini, Göran Hedenstierna, Agneta Roneus, Monica Segelsjö, Anders Larsson, Gaetano Perchiazzi
RATIONALE: The diaphragm is the major inspiratory muscle and is assumed to relax during expiration. However, electrical post-inspiratory activity has been observed. Whether or not there is an expiratory diaphragmatic contraction that preserves lung patency has yet to be explored. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized the occurrence of an expiratory diaphragmatic contraction directed at stabilizing peripheral airways and preventing or reducing cyclic expiratory lung collapse...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922115/perilipin-5-fine-tunes-lipid-oxidation-to-metabolic-demand-and-protects-against-lipotoxicity-in-skeletal-muscle
#3
Claire Laurens, Virginie Bourlier, Aline Mairal, Katie Louche, Pierre-Marie Badin, Etienne Mouisel, Alexandra Montagner, André Marette, Angelo Tremblay, John S Weisnagel, Hervé Guillou, Dominique Langin, Denis R Joanisse, Cedric Moro
Lipid droplets (LD) play a central role in lipid homeostasis by controlling transient fatty acid (FA) storage and release from triacylglycerols stores, while preventing high levels of cellular toxic lipids. This crucial function in oxidative tissues is altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is a LD protein whose mechanistic and causal link with lipotoxicity and insulin resistance has raised controversies. We investigated here the physiological role of PLIN5 in skeletal muscle upon various metabolic challenges...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921261/attempting-to-compensate-for-reduced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-with-nitrate-supplementation-cannot-overcome-metabolic-dysfunction-but-rather-has-detrimental-effects-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-muscle
#4
Cara A Timpani, Adam J Trewin, Vanesa Stojanovska, Ainsley Robinson, Craig A Goodman, Kulmira Nurgali, Andrew C Betik, Nigel Stepto, Alan Hayes, Glenn K McConell, Emma Rybalka
Duchenne muscular dystrophy arises from the loss of dystrophin and is characterized by calcium dysregulation, muscular atrophy, and metabolic dysfunction. The secondary reduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma reduces NO production and bioavailability. As NO modulates glucose uptake, metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics, we investigated whether an 8-week nitrate supplementation regimen could overcome metabolic dysfunction in the mdx mouse. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were supplemented with sodium nitrate (85 mg/l) in drinking water...
December 5, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919609/randomised-controlled-trial-potential-benefit-of-a-footplate-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-device-in-patients-with-chronic-venous-disease
#5
R Ravikumar, K J Williams, A Babber, T R A Lane, H M Moore, A H Davies
OBJECTIVES: Chronic venous disease (CVD) is common, affecting a quarter of the population. Current conservative methods of treatment aim to prevent progression of disease by reducing ambulatory venous pressure. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) refers to the use of electrical impulses to elicit muscle contraction. This pilot randomised controlled trial investigates the effect of a footplate NMES device (REVITIVE) on venous flow parameters, limb oedema, and quality of life outcome measures in patients with CVD...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919502/motor-fatigability-after-low-intensity-hand-grip-exercises-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Deborah Severijns, Mieke Lemmens, Ronald Thoelen, Peter Feys
INTRODUCTION: During maximal, sustained contractions, persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) show higher motor fatigability in comparison with healthy persons. It is not known if motor fatigability is also different between PwMS and healthy persons during low-intensity exercises. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the difference in hand grip fatigability between healthy persons and PwMS for both hands during low-intensity hand grip exercises. METHODS: 19 PwMS and 19 healthy controls performed 18min of hand grip exercises at a maximum of 25% of the maximal voluntary strength, with an electronic hand dynamometer...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919481/effect-of-slow-release-fampridine-on-muscle-strength-rate-of-force-development-functional-capacity-and-cognitive-function-in-an-enriched-population-of-ms-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#7
H B Jensen, J L Nielsen, M Ravnborg, U Dalgas, P Aagaard, E Stenager
DESIGN: This study was conducted as a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial preceded by open label enrichment phase. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the effect of SR-Fampridine treatment on muscle strength in terms of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) of the lower extremities and 2) to replicate previously published data on the effect of slow release-Fampridine (SR-Fampridine) on the functional capacity of the lower limbs, the upper limb and cognitive function, in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS)...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919056/autoimmune-choreas
#8
REVIEW
Francisco Cardoso
Chorea, a movement disorder characterised by a continuous flow of unpredictable muscle contractions, has a myriad of genetic and non-genetic causes. Although autoimmune processes are rare aetiology of chorea, they are relevant both for researchers and clinicians. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, pathogenesis and management of the most common autoimmune causes of chorea. Emphasis is given particularly to Sydenham's chorea, systemic lupus erythematosus, primary antiphospolipid antibody syndrome, paraneoplastic chorea and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918960/effects-of-knee-action-phase-and-fatigue-on-rectus-femoris-and-biceps-femoris-co-activation-during-the-eggbeater-kick
#9
Nuno Oliveira, Ross H Sanders
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of knee extension/flexion and fatigue on muscle co-activation of the Rectus Femoris (RF) and Biceps Femoris (BF) during the eggbeater kick. Ten national level male water polo players executed eggbeater kicks at maximum effort for the duration of the test. The eggbeater kick cycle was divided into four phases (FLX1, FLX2, EXT1, EXT2). Surface electromyographs were recorded from RF and BF. EMG activity normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction, muscle co-activation (CCI) and angular velocity (AV) of the right and left knee were calculated...
December 2, 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918690/the-advantages-of-normalizing-emg-to-ballistic-rather-than-isometric-or-isokinetic-tasks
#10
Stephen M Suydam, Kurt Manal, Thomas S Buchanan
Isometric tasks have been a standard for electromyography (EMG) normalization stemming from anatomic and physiologic stability observed during contraction. Ballistic dynamic tasks have the benefit of eliciting maximum EMG signals for normalization, despite having the potential for greater signal variability. It is the purpose of this study to compare maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to non-isometric tasks with increasing degrees of extrinsic variability, i.e., joint range of motion, velocity, rate of contraction, etc...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918306/targeting-integrin-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-ameliorates-severe-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-experimental-asthma
#11
Aparna Sundaram, Chun Chen, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Amha Atakilit, Xin Ren, Wenli Qiu, Hyunil Jo, William DeGrado, Xiaozhu Huang, Dean Sheppard
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918289/a-bioreactor-with-an-electro-responsive-elastomeric-membrane-for-mimicking-intestinal-peristalsis
#12
Daniele Cei, Joana Costa, Giulia Gori, Gabriele Frediani, Claudio Domenici, Federico Carpi, Arti Ahluwalia
This study describes an actuated bioreactor which mimics the pulsatile contractile motion of the intestinal barrier using electro-responsive elastomers as smart materials that undergo deformation upon electrical stimulation. The device consists of an annular dielectric elastomer actuator working as a radial artificial muscle able to rhythmically contract and relax a central cell culture well. The bioreactor maintained up to 4 h of actuation at a frequency of 0.15 Hz and a strain of 8%-10%, to those of the cyclic contraction and relaxation of the small intestine...
December 5, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914945/effects-of-zacopride-a-moderate-ik1-channel-agonist-on-triggered-arrhythmia-and-contractility-in-human-ventricular-myocardium
#13
Mohammad T Elnakish, Benjamin D Canan, Ahmet Kilic, Peter J Mohler, Paul M L Janssen
Ventricular tachycardia is the leading cause of sudden arrhythmic death in the U.S. Recently, the moderate IK1 channel activator, zacopride, was shown to suppress triggered ventricular tachycardia in rats. Nonetheless, concerns were raised about the possibility of pro-arrhythmic activity after IK1 channel stimulation based on the promising anti-arrhythmic strategy of IK1 blockade in other animal models. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to investigate the ex-vivo effects of zacopride on triggered arrhythmia and contractility in ventricular human myocardium in order to validate data that was solely obtained from animal models...
November 30, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914563/differential-effects-of-testosterone-and-estradiol-on-clitoral-function-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#14
Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Sandra Filippi, Chiara Corno, Francesca Corcetto, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Maneschi, Elisa Maseroli, Edoardo Mannucci, Massimiliano Fambrini, Mario Maggi, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Female sexual response is a complex phenomenon in which psychological, neurologic, and vascular mechanisms and hormonal factors interact. During the arousal phase, they cooperate to increase genital blood flow, thus inducing engorgement of the clitoris and lubrication of the vagina. Regulation of vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle tone is the crucial event in the erectile process. Preclinical studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) is the main vasodilator neurotransmitter modulating, through the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), clitoral flow vessels...
December 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914205/mitochondrial-genotype-and-phenotypic-plasticity-of-gene-expression-in-response-to-cold-acclimation-in-killifish
#15
Timothy M Healy, Heather J Bryant, Patricia M Schulte
Adjustments of aerobic metabolic processes are critical components of organismal responses to environmental change that require tight co-ordination between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Intraspecific differences in mitochondrial genotype can affect gene transcription in both genomes. Thus, variation in mitochondrial genotype may be associated with differences in the plasticity of gene expression when organisms are faced with changes in environmental conditions. Cold acclimation is known to result in metabolic responses involving increases in mitochondrial amount and capacity, suggesting that low temperatures may pose a particular challenge when co-ordinating the functions of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes...
December 3, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913961/prediction-of-postoperative-clinical-recovery-of-drop-foot-attributable-to-lumbar-degenerative-diseases-via-a-bayesian-network
#16
Shota Takenaka, Hiroyuki Aono
BACKGROUND: Drop foot resulting from degenerative lumbar diseases can impair activities of daily living. Therefore, predictors of recovery of this symptom have been investigated using univariate or/and multivariate analyses. However, the conclusions have been somewhat controversial. Bayesian network models, which are graphic and intuitive to the clinician, may facilitate understanding of the prognosis of drop foot resulting from degenerative lumbar diseases. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) To show a layered correlation among predictors of recovery from drop foot resulting from degenerative lumbar diseases; and (2) to develop support tools for clinical decisions to treat drop foot resulting from lumbar degenerative diseases...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913923/actn3-x-allele-carriers-had-greater-levels-of-muscle-damage-during-a-half-ironman
#17
Juan Del Coso, Juan José Salinero, Beatriz Lara, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces, Carlos Puente, David Herrero
PURPOSE: Alpha-actinin-3, encoded by the ACTN3 gene, is an actin-binding protein with an important role in myofibril contraction and muscle force output. In humans, there is a relatively common deficiency of the α-actinin-3 due to homozygosity in a polymorphism of the ACTN3 gene (R577X, rs1815739), that has been related to decreased resistance to strain during voluntary muscle contractions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the ACTN3 genotype on the level of exercise-induced muscle damage attained by 23 experienced triathletes during an official half-ironman competition...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911944/specific-stimuli-induce-specific-adaptations-sensorimotor-training-vs-reactive-balance-training
#18
Kathrin Freyler, Anne Krause, Albert Gollhofer, Ramona Ritzmann
Typically, balance training has been used as an intervention paradigm either as static or as reactive balance training. Possible differences in functional outcomes between the two modalities have not been profoundly studied. The objective of the study was to investigate the specificity of neuromuscular adaptations in response to two balance intervention modalities within test and intervention paradigms containing characteristics of both profiles: classical sensorimotor training (SMT) referring to a static ledger pivoting around the ankle joint vs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911767/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-inhibition-restores-ca2-release-defects-and-prolongs-survival-in-myotubularin-deficient-mice
#19
Candice Kutchukian, Mirella Lo Scrudato, Yves Tourneur, Karine Poulard, Alban Vignaud, Christine Berthier, Bruno Allard, Michael W Lawlor, Ana Buj-Bello, Vincent Jacquemond
Mutations in the gene encoding the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase myotubularin (MTM1) are responsible for a pediatric disease of skeletal muscle named myotubular myopathy (XLMTM). Muscle fibers from MTM1-deficient mice present defects in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling likely responsible for the disease-associated fatal muscle weakness. However, the mechanism leading to EC coupling failure remains unclear. During normal skeletal muscle EC coupling, transverse (t) tubule depolarization triggers sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptor channels gated by conformational coupling with the t-tubule voltage-sensing dihydropyridine receptors...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911331/excitation-contraction-coupling-alterations-in-myopathies
#20
Isabelle Marty, Julien Fauré
During the complex series of events leading to muscle contraction, the initial electric signal coming from motor neurons is transformed into an increase in calcium concentration that triggers sliding of myofibrils. This process, referred to as excitation-contraction coupling, is reliant upon the calcium-release complex, which is restricted spatially to a sub-compartment of muscle cells ("the triad") and regulated precisely. Any dysfunction in the calcium-release complex leads to muscle impairment and myopathy...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
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