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Psychiatric Assessments

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694852/back-to-basics-a-methodological-perspective-on-marble-burying-behavior-as-a-screening-test-for-psychiatric-illness
#1
Geoffrey de Brouwer, De Wet Wolmarans
Animal models of human psychiatric illness are valuable frameworks to investigate the etiology and neurobiology underlying the human conditions. Accurate behavioral measures that can be used to characterize animal behavior, thereby contributing to a model's validity, are crucial. One such measure, i.e. the rodent marble-burying test (MBT), is often applied as a measure of anxiety- and compulsive-like behaviors. However, the test is characterized by noteworthy between-laboratory methodological differences and demonstrates positive treatment responses to an array of pharmacotherapies that are often of little translational value...
April 22, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694417/executive-function-impairments-in-fibromyalgia-syndrome-relevance-of-clinical-variables-and-body-mass-index
#2
Cristina Muñoz Ladrón de Guevara, María José Fernández-Serrano, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Stefan Duschek
BACKGROUND: Several investigations suggest the presence of deterioration of executive function in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The study quantified executive functions in patients with FMS. A wide array of functions was assessed, including updating, shifting and inhibition, as well as decision making and mental planning. Moreover, clinical variables were investigated as possible mediators of executive dysfunction, including pain severity, psychiatric comorbidity, medication and body mass index (BMI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694316/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-in-adolescents-with-mental-disorders-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#3
Mª C Díaz-González, Carolina Pérez Dueñas, Araceli Sánchez-Raya, Juan A Moriana Elvira, Vicente Sánchez Vázquez
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is a strong movement to implement mindfulness interventions with young people. The objective of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the potential effects of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programme for adolescent outpatients in mental health facilities in Cordoba, Spain. METHOD: A total of 101 adolescents aged 13-16 years old, receiving psychological or psychiatric treatment for various disorders, were eligible for the study...
May 2018: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693031/attitudes-of-undergraduate-medical-students-toward-mental-illnesses-and-psychiatry
#4
Nimisha D Desai, Paragkumar D Chavda
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, studies show negative attitude among medical students toward psychiatry and mental illness. The knowledge of the attitude and awareness of the undergraduate medical students toward psychiatry, mental health, and psychiatric disorders are most important as they are going to be involved in the care of these patients either directly or indirectly during the later years of their careers. AIM: This study aims to assess attitude toward psychiatry and mental illness among undergraduate medical students...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692751/explicit-and-implicit-components-of-the-emotional-processing-in-non-organic-vision-loss-behavioral-evidence-about-the-role-of-fear-in-functional-blindness
#5
Federica Scarpina, Lisa Melzi, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Alessandro Mauro, Stefania B Marzoli, Enrico Molinari
Non-organic vision loss (NOVL), a functional partial or global vision loss, might be considered a manifestation of conversion disorder. The few previous studies focused on investigating the relationship between cerebral activity and subjective symptoms in NOVL; however, the emotional processing is still neglected. In the present case-controls study, we investigated the capability of two individuals diagnosed with NOVL to recognize implicitly the emotions of fear and anger; this was assessed through a facial emotion recognition task based on the redundant target effect...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692292/impact-of-mental-illness-on-care-for-somatic-comorbidities-in-france-a-nation-wide-hospital-based-observational-study
#6
J Gervaix, G Haour, M Michel, K Chevreul
AIMS: People with a mental illness have a shorter lifespan and higher rates of somatic illnesses than the general population. They also face multiple barriers which interfere with access to healthcare. Our objective was to assess the effect of mental illness on the timeliness and optimality of access to healthcare for somatic reasons by comparing indicators reflecting the quality of prior somatic care in hospitalised patients. METHODS: An observational nation-wide study was carried out using exhaustive national hospital discharge databases for the years 2009-2013...
April 25, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689698/aggression-impulsivity-and-their-predictive-value-on-medical-lethality-of-suicide-attempts-a-follow-up-study-on-hospitalized-patients
#7
Yari Gvion
BACKGROUND: This study examined the role of aggressive-impulsive variants, and suicide history in predicting the medical severity of follow-up suicide attempts. METHODS: 97 consecutive psychiatric in-patients who participated in earlier study 2-5 years previously. Thirty-three had a history of a medically serious suicide attempt (MSSA), 29 had a history of a medically non-serious suicide attempt (MNSSA), and 35 had no history of suicide. Participants completed a battery of instruments measuring aggressive-impulsive variables, hopelessness and communication difficulties...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689505/childhood-adversities-as-predictors-of-improvement-in-psychiatric-symptoms-and-global-functioning-in-solution-focused-and-short-and-long-term-psychodynamic-psychotherapy-during-a-5-year-follow-up
#8
Erkki Heinonen, Paul Knekt, Tommi Härkänen, Esa Virtala, Olavi Lindfors
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversities are frequent among adults who seek treatment for depression or anxiety. These disorders are commonly treated by psychotherapy. Yet it is not known if specific types or durations of psychotherapy are particularly suited for patients who have suffered various early adversities. METHODS: 221 depressed and anxious adult outpatients from community, student, occupational, and private healthcare services filled the Childhood Family Atmosphere Questionnaire...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687944/association-of-copy-number-variation-across-the-genome-with-neuropsychiatric-traits-in-the-general-population
#9
Anna L Guyatt, Evie Stergiakouli, Joanna Martin, James Walters, Michael O'Donovan, Michael Owen, Anita Thapar, George Kirov, Santiago Rodriguez, Dheeraj Rai, Stan Zammit, Tom R Gaunt
Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with psychiatric conditions in clinical populations. The relationship between rare CNV burden and neuropsychiatric traits in young, general populations is underexplored. A total of 6,807 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied. CNVs were inferred from single nucleotide polymorphism-array data using PennCNV. After excluding children with known candidate CNVs for schizophrenia (SCZ), rare (<1%) CNV burden (total number of genes affected by CNVs, total length of CNVs, and largest CNV carried) was analyzed in relation to: psychotic experiences (PEs) and anxiety/depression in adolescence; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ASD and ADHD traits, and cognitive measures during childhood...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686948/you-can-t-fix-what-isn-t-broken-eight-weeks-of-exercise-do-not-substantially-change-cognitive-function-and-biochemical-markers-in-young-and-healthy-adults
#10
Joanne Gourgouvelis, Paul Yielder, Sandra T Clarke, Hushyar Behbahani, Bernadette Murphy
Objective: The benefits of exercise on brain health is well known in aging and psychiatric populations. However, the relationship between habitual exercise in young and healthy adults remains unclear. This study explored the effects an eight-week exercise prescription on cognitive function, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cathepsin B (CTHB) in young and healthy adults. Methods: A total of 22 low-active, young and healthy adults were recruited from a local university...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685697/mental-health-of-jail-inmates-within-the-prison-of-ducos-martinique-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#11
R Arnal, M Spodenkiewicz, J Lacoste, L Jehel, B Falissard
BACKGROUND: Prisoners' sociocultural backgrounds and prison environments have an influence on detainees' psychopathology; complex judicial and public policies are also to be taken into account in the dynamics of that environment. Scientific literature shows a wide range prison inmates' profiles across the world. However, very little data about the mental health of Caribbean jail inmates has been published. Martinique is a French overseas administrative district in the Caribbean, with a population of about 400,000 inhabitants...
April 20, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685560/high-rates-of-psychiatric-disorders-and-below-normal-mental-capacity-associated-with-spastic-peroneal-flatfoot-a-new-relationship
#12
Önder İsmet Kılıçoğlu, Ahmet Salduz, Fevzi Birişik, Fuat Bilgili, Gökhan Polat, İlyas Kaya, Funda Süleyman, Murat Coşkun
Spastic peroneal flatfoot (SPFF) is a rare hindfoot pathology usually seen in the adolescent age group that is characterized by painful spasms in the peroneal muscles. We have clinically observed that patients with SPFF also have some behavioral and emotional difficulties and problems in their academic achievements. Because of these observations, we investigated the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders and intellectual disability among young subjects with SPFF. Our cohort consisted of 16 patients with SPFF...
May 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685070/closer-to-the-truth-admission-to-multiple-psychiatric-facilities-and-an-inaccurate-history-of-hospitalization-are-strongly-associated-with-inpatient-suicide
#13
Robert A Bruer, Marissa Rodway-Norman, Matthew Large
OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical associations within Canadian psychiatric inpatient suicides. METHOD: We conducted a case-control study comparing 98 patients who died by suicide while in hospital and 196 similarly admitted living inpatient controls. All were admitted to an Ontario psychiatric bed between 2008 and 2015 inclusive and had data collected at admission using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Mental Health (RAI-MH). The data were analyzed with bivariate tests and logistic regression modeling...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684937/the-swedish-school-attack-in-trollh%C3%A3-ttan
#14
Åsa Erlandsson, J Reid Meloy
This is a case report of the offender and offense characteristics of a targeted attack on a Swedish school using a sword, with a particular focus upon the offender's history, the relationship between mental disorder and ideology, and whether or not it was an act of terrorism. Findings indicate that the offender had no drug or psychiatric treatment history, but postoffense analysis suggests autism spectrum disorder, depression, and both suicidal ideation and intent. The offender planned and prepared for his attack, and the triggering event appeared to be the loss of a temporary job...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684892/effects-of-anxiety-and-mood-disorders-on-craving-and-substance-use-among-patients-with-substance-use-disorder-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#15
Melina Fatseas, Fuschia Serre, Joel Swendsen, Marc Auriacombe
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the negative impact of psychiatric comorbidity on addictive disorders, the mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. The present investigation applied mobile technologies to examine the effect of comorbid mood or anxiety disorders on craving intensity and substance use within the natural conditions of daily life. METHODS: A total of 159 participants were recruited from a French outpatient addiction clinic and completed two weeks of computerized ambulatory monitoring of daily life experiences using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA)...
April 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684711/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-in-the-comorbidity-between-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-major-depression
#16
Javier Labad, Virginia Soria, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Cinto Segalàs, Eva Real, Mikel Urretavizcaya, Aida de Arriba-Arnau, Alex Ferrer, José M Crespo, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Carles Soriano-Mas, Pino Alonso, José M Menchón
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities have been described in both disorders and might play a role in the association between them. We aimed to study the role of HPA axis activity in the comorbidity between OCD and MDD, while controlling for psychopathological dimensions such as anxiety and depressive symptoms. We studied 324 participants belonging to four diagnostic groups: 1) MDD (n = 101), 2) OCD with comorbid MDD (n = 33), 3) OCD without MDD (n = 52), and 4) healthy subjects (n = 138)...
April 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684221/does-losing-a-parent-early-influence-the-education-you-obtain-a-nationwide-cohort-study-in-denmark
#17
B L Høeg, C Johansen, J Christensen, K Frederiksen, S Oksbjerg Dalton, P Bøge, A Dencker, A Dyregrov, P E Bidstrup
Background: Health inequalities are rooted in education and we investigate the association between early parental death and attainment across the educational spectrum. Methods: Using total population data on Danes born between 1982 and 2000 (n = 1 043 813), we assess incidence rate ratios (RRs) by gender for attainment of each educational level (basic school, high school or vocational training, bachelor degree or professional programme, and university graduate degree) according to loss of a parent before the age of 18 years...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683474/antidepressants-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-people-with-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Giovanni Ostuzzi, Faith Matcham, Sarah Dauchy, Corrado Barbui, Matthew Hotopf
BACKGROUND: Major depression and other depressive conditions are common in people with cancer. These conditions are not easily detectable in clinical practice, due to the overlap between medical and psychiatric symptoms, as described by diagnostic manuals such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Moreover, it is particularly challenging to distinguish between pathological and normal reactions to such a severe illness...
April 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683351/co-occurring-psychiatric-conditions-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Tamara E Rosen, Carla A Mazefsky, Roma A Vasa, Matthew D Lerner
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at increased risk for experiencing one or more co-occurring psychiatric conditions. When present, these conditions are associated with additional impairment and distress. It is therefore crucial that clinicians and researchers adequately understand and address these challenges. However, due to symptom overlap, diagnostic overshadowing, and ambiguous symptom presentation in ASD, the assessment of co-occurring conditions in ASD is complex and challenging. Likewise, individual difference factors, such as age, intellectual functioning, and gender, may influence the presentation of co-occurring symptoms...
April 23, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682383/polysubstance-and-behavioral-addictions-in-a-patient-with-bipolar-disorder-role-of-lifetime-subthreshold-autism-spectrum
#20
Liliana Dell'Osso, Ciro Conversano, Martina Corsi, Carlo A Bertelloni, Ivan M Cremone, Barbara Carpita, Manuel G Carbone, Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi
This case report draws attention to the potential relevance of undetected autism spectrum symptoms in a bipolar patient with high work functioning showing a peculiar addictive profile with impulsive and antisocial behaviors. A 23-year-old man with a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Substance Use Disorder (SUD) was hospitalized at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Pisa for diuretics and β -2 adrenergic agonist abuse in a remission phase of benzodiazepines and substance abuse. He reported a history of behavioral addictions in the framework of a global high work functioning with particular skills in computer science...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
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