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Psychiatric Assessments

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228518/childhood-trauma-is-associated-with-poorer-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#1
Andrew J Petkus, Eric J Lenze, Meryl A Butters, Elizabeth W Twamley, Julie Loebach Wetherell
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma is common and associated with both worse cognitive performance and disruption to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in younger adults. The extent to which these associations persist into older adulthood remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported childhood trauma in relation to cognitive performance, and the extent to which cortisol explained this association, in 2 independent samples of older adults. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants in the discovery sample (N = 76) consisted of older adults with a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (N = 57) and age-equated psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects (N = 19) who were referred largely through primary care clinics between 2004-2006...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227462/psychiatric-disorders-antiretroviral-medication-adherence-and-viremia-in-a-cohort-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-young-adults
#2
Amelia Bucek, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Stephanie Benson, Patricia Warne, Elaine J Abrams, Katherine S Elkington, Curtis Dolezal, Andrew Wiznia, Claude Ann Mellins
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents and young adults (AYA) are at risk for sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and mental health and substance use problems that, in HIV-infected adults, predict non-adherence. Studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUD) and adherence among PHIV+ AYA are limited, but may be important to informing evidence-based interventions to promote adherence. METHODS: Data were analyzed from three annual follow-up interviews (FU2-4, N=179) in a longitudinal study of PHIV+ AYA...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227123/the-importance-of-assessing-for-validity-of-symptom-report-and-performance-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-introduction-to-the-special-section-on-noncredible-presentation-in-adhd
#3
Julie A Suhr, David T R Berry
Invalid self-report and invalid performance occur with high base rates in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Harrison, 2006; Musso & Gouvier, 2014). Although much research has focused on the development and validation of symptom validity tests (SVTs) and performance validity tests (PVTs) for psychiatric and neurological presentations, less attention has been given to the use of SVTs and PVTs in ADHD evaluation. This introduction to the special section describes a series of studies examining the use of SVTs and PVTs in adult ADHD evaluation...
December 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226809/vitamin-d-supplementation-in-chronic-schizophrenia-patients-treated-with-clozapine-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Amir Krivoy, Roy Onn, Yael Vilner, Eldar Hochman, Shira Weizman, Amir Paz, Shmuel Hess, Roi Sagy, Shiri Kimhi-Nesher, Ehud Kalter, Tal Friedman, Zvi Friedman, Gil Bormant, Sharon Trommer, Avi Valevski, Abraham Weizman
BACKGROUND: While accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be involved in the risk to develop schizophrenia and its outcome, there are no studies on vitamin D supplementation in this context. We sought to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on psychiatric, cognitive and metabolic parameters in chronic clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients. METHODS: This eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, recruited schizophrenia patients who had been maintained on clozapine treatment for at least 18weeks and had low levels of vitamin D (<75nmol/l) and total PANSS scores >70 (to ascertain the presence of residual symptoms)...
December 2, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226790/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-comorbid-depression-among-refugees-assessment-of-a-sample-from-a-german-refugee-reception-center
#5
Maria Belz, Michael Belz, Ibrahim Özkan, Iris T Graef-Calliess
In 2015, a large number of refugees arrived in Germany, mostly driven to emigrate by devastating circumstances in their countries of origin. Arriving refugees are distributed to reception centers within the German federal states, frequently facing marginal conditions in terms of overcrowding or waiting time of several months until their application for asylum is processed. Most of these refugees underwent numerous traumatizing experiences-both in their country of origin and while fleeing from their country of origin...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226789/the-emotional-distress-of-asylum-seekers-in-israel-and-the-characteristics-of-those-seeking-psychiatric-versus-medical-help
#6
Naama Kiat, Rafael Youngmann, Ido Lurie
Israel has become a destination for asylum seekers. Asylum seekers often experience emotional distress, but have limited access to health services and rarely use psychiatric services. This study sought to understand and characterize the use of psychiatric versus medical services by asylum seekers in Israel. We compared the emotional distress, stressful life events and previous treatment consultations of 21 psychiatric service users (PSU) and 55 medical service users (MSU) at the Open Clinic of Physicians for Human Rights in Tel-Aviv...
October 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226762/assessing-cognitive-functioning-in-individuals-with-cocaine-use-disorder
#7
Kirsten M Frazer, Jennifer J Manly, Geraldine Downey, Carl L Hart
INTRODUCTION: There have been mixed findings assessing the impact of regular cocaine use on cognitive functioning. This study employed a comprehensive cognitive battery to compare the performance of individuals diagnosed with a cocaine use disorder (N = 3 abusers, N = 17 dependent) against the performance of two control groups: (a) non-drug-users, and (b) marijuana users who report no cocaine use (N = 7 marijuana abusers, N = 0 dependent, N = 13 marijuana users with no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV, diagnosis)...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226310/long-term-behavioural-outcomes-after-paediatric-convulsive-status-epilepticus-a-population-based-cohort-study
#8
Marina M Martinos, Suresh Pujar, Christopher Gillberg, Mario Cortina-Borja, Brian G R Neville, Michelle De Haan, Rod C Scott, Richard F M Chin
AIM: To describe behavioural and psychiatric outcomes of children within 10 years of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHOD: Children originally identified by the population-based North London Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Childhood Surveillance Study were followed-up between July 2009 and February 2013. They were grouped into epilepsy- and non-epilepsy-related CSE, and compared with population norms and healthy controls using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire; and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham questionnaire...
December 10, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225582/significant-need-for-a-french-network-of-expert-centers-enabling-a-better-characterization-and-management-of-treatment-resistant-depression-fondation-fondamental
#9
Antoine Yrondi, Djamila Bennabi, Emmanuel Haffen, Marion Garnier, Frank Bellivier, Thierry Bourgerol, Vincent Camus, Thierry D'Amato, Olivier Doumy, Frédéric Haesebaert, Jérôme Holtzmann, Christophe Lançon, Philippe Vignaud, Fanny Moliere, Isabel Nieto, Raphaëlle Marie Richieri, Philippe Domenech, Corentin Rabu, Luc Mallet, Liova Yon, Laurent Schmitt, Florian Stephan, Guillaume Vaiva, Michel Walter, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Philippe Courtet, Marion Leboyer, Wissam El-Hage, Bruno Aouizerate
Background: Major depression is characterized by (i) a high lifetime prevalence of 16-17% in the general population; (ii) a high frequency of treatment resistance in around 20-30% of cases; (iii) a recurrent or chronic course; (iv) a negative impact on the general functioning and quality of life; and (v) a high level of comorbidity with various psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders, high occurrence of completed suicide, significant burden along with the personal, societal, and economic costs...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225572/adaptive-changes-in-the-sensitivity-of-the-dorsal-raphe-and-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nuclei-to-acute-exercise-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-may-contribute-to-the-antidepressant-effect-of-regular-treadmill-running-in-rats
#10
Ayu Nishii, Seiichiro Amemiya, Natsuko Kubota, Takeshi Nishijima, Ichiro Kita
Increasing clinical evidence suggests that regular physical exercise can prevent or reduce the incidence of stress-related psychiatric disorders including depressive symptoms. Antidepressant effect of regular exercise may be implicated in monoaminergic transmission including serotonergic transmission, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and hippocampal neurogenesis, but few general concepts regarding the optimal exercise regimen for stimulating neural mechanisms involved in antidepressant properties have been developed...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225215/cognitive-impairment-with-interferon-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#11
Hiroto Tanaka, Hideyuki Sasaki
Interferon (IFN) has various side effects, including psychiatric symptoms. Event-related potentials are used as an electrophysiologic index of cognitive disorders. Auditory event-related potentials (P300) are often used in conditions in which cognitive ability is affected. In this study, we evaluated the association between P300, used to assess cognitive impairment, and neuropsychological side effects of IFN treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Subjects were 20 patients with chronic hepatitis C; 13 patients were treated with peg IFN-α2b and ribavirin (riba group), and 7 patients were treated with peg IFN-α2a (alone group)...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224729/different-cognitive-complaint-profiles-in-memory-clinic-and-depressive-patients
#12
Lisa Miebach, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Ingo Frommann, Rachel Buckley, Michael Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are considered early indicators of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD) but are very common in geriatric patients, especially in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical assessment of cognitive complaints is still poorly operationalized. Recent qualitative research suggests that certain phenomenologic complaint themes may have some specificity for prodromal AD. The aim of the study was to replicate and explore their occurrence in a clinical setting...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224571/-worried-to-death-the-assessment-and-management-of-anxiety-in-patients-with-advanced-life-limiting-disease-a-national-survey-of-palliative-medicine-physicians
#13
N Atkin, V Vickerstaff, B Candy
BACKGROUND: Anxiety adversely affects quality of life and is common in adults with advanced life-limiting disease. There are no UK-wide guidelines on the assessment and management of anxiety in this specific population and there is little evidence regarding drug treatments. This study aimed to explore how palliative care physicians assess and manage anxiety in their patients, and to identify barriers encountered. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of all physicians working in specialist palliative care in the UK who were members of the Association for Palliative Medicine...
December 11, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224023/negative-symptoms-and-avoidance-of-social-interaction-a-study-of-non-verbal-behaviour
#14
Elizabeth Worswick, Sara Dimic, Christiane Wildgrube, Stefan Priebe
BACKGROUND: Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. SAMPLING AND METHODS: Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped...
December 9, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223951/heart-rate-variability-in-bipolar-disorder-and-borderline-personality-disorder-a-clinical-review
#15
REVIEW
Oliver Carr, Maarten de Vos, Kate E A Saunders
Heart rate variability (HRV) in psychiatric disorders has become an increasing area of interest in recent years following technological advances that enable non-invasive monitoring of autonomic nervous system regulation. However, the clinical interpretation of HRV features remain widely debated or unknown. Standardisation within studies of HRV in psychiatric disorders is poor, making it difficult to reproduce or build on previous work. Recently, a Guidelines for Reporting Articles on Psychiatry and Heart rate variability checklist has been proposed to address this issue...
December 9, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222999/the-symbolic-affordances-of-a-video-mediated-gaze-in-emergency-psychiatry
#16
Marianne V Trondsen, Aksel Tjora, Alex Broom, Graham Scambler
While mental illness is a significant health challenge worldwide, the availability of specialists is limited, especially in rural areas and for psychiatric emergencies. Although tele-psychiatry, via real-time videoconferencing (VC), is used to provide consultative services in areas that lack psychiatrists, there are a paucity of studies on the use of VC for psychiatric emergencies. We examine how VC matters for patient involvement and professional practice in the first Norwegian emergency tele-psychiatric service...
December 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222988/medically-unexplained-physical-symptoms-in-patients-attending-a-medical-outpatient-clinic-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-north-india
#17
Mohit Sharma, Shubh Mohan Singh, Ajit Avasthi, Subhash C Varma, Aman Sharma, Vikas Suri
OBJECTIVE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are commonly seen across health care settings. Earlier studies have focussed on prevalence, cost-utilization and burden. Data from India is scarce. Patients with persistent MUPS have more impairment and psychological distress. This study was designed to assess psychological morbidity, health anxiety (HA), somatic symptom load, disability, quality of life (QOL) in patients with persistent MUPS presenting to a general medical outpatient service and compare it with patients with medically explained physical symptoms (MEPS)...
December 2, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222834/effects-of-a-music-creation-programme-on%C3%A2-the-anxiety-self-esteem-and-quality-of-life-of%C3%A2-people-with-severe-mental-illness-a-quasi-experimental-design
#18
Beh-Huan Chang, Bo-Wei Chen, Jason W Beckstead, Chiu-Yueh Yang
Many studies have shown that music therapy improves patients' symptoms. However, interventions using music creation as their core await further development for patients with severe mental illness (SMI). The current study investigated the effect of a music-creation programme on the anxiety, self-esteem, and quality of life of patients with SMI. A quasi-experimental design using convenience sampling was adopted to recruit patients with SMI from a psychiatric day care centre. Participants were grouped based on their willingness to undergo an intervention (26 patients in the experimental group and 23 patients in the control group)...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222633/characterising-youth-with-callous-unemotional-traits-and-concurrent-anxiety-evidence-for-a-high-risk-clinical-group
#19
Charlotte A M Cecil, Eamon J McCrory, Edward D Barker, Jo Guiney, Essi Viding
Growing evidence supports the existence of two variants of youth with high callous-unemotional (CU) traits who present with markedly different risk profiles and outcomes, with potential implications for risk assessment and treatment formulation. So far, studies have identified variants of CU youth mainly using data-driven cluster approaches based on levels of CU traits and co-occurring anxiety. Yet, the extent to which this knowledge may be translated into clinical practice is unclear. To this end, the present study employed a severity-based, cut-off approach to systematically characterise CU groups across a range of clinically informative domains, including trauma history, psychiatric symptomatology, affective functioning, attachment style and behavioural risk...
December 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221470/potential-diagnostic-markers-of-olanzapine-efficiency-for-acute-psychosis-a-focus-on-peripheral-biogenic-amines
#20
A E Taraskina, R F Nasyrova, A M Zabotina, D N Sosin, К А Sosina, E E Ershov, M N Grunina, E M Krupitsky
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are now widely used in many fields of medicine, and the identification of biomarkers that predict antipsychotic efficacy and adverse reactions is a growing area of psychiatric research. Monoamine molecules of the peripheral bloodstream are possible prospective biomarkers based on a growing body of evidence indicating that they may reflect specific changes in neurotransmitters in the brain. The aim of this study was to detect peripheral biogenic amine indicators of patients with acute psychosis and to test the correlations between the biological measures studied and the psychopathological status of the patients...
December 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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